This document provides guidelines for suppliers to show in which part of the Sustainable Development Goals fine bubble technologies can contribute to users. This document also provides guidelines for document writers to assess the contribution of their documents related to fine bubble technology to the Sustainable Development Goals. It also enables users to understand the benefits of using fine bubble technologies.

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This document defines terms related to the characterization of nano-objects in the field of nanotechnologies.
It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them.

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This document specifies the terminology related to dissolved air flotation (DAF) bubble bed and its characteristics in the dissolved air flotation process.

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IEC TS 62607-8-2:2021 There are two types of thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement methods, classified by the origin of the current. One is generated by the detrapping of charges. The other one is generated by depolarization. The latter is frequently called thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC). This part of IEC 62607 focuses on the latter method, and specifies the measurement procedures to be developed for determining polarization properties of metal-oxide interfacial devices.
IEC TS 62607-8-2:2021 includes:
- outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure TSDC,
- methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
- case studies.

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This document specifies a test method to assess the performance of ozone fine bubble water generating systems used for decolorizing water-soluble dye in e.g. wastewater and industrial water. This document does not address the impact of ozone on health and environment.

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This document defines terms related to nanomanufacturing processes in the field of nanotechnologies.
All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing, however, many of the listed processes are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Terms that are not exclusive are noted within the definitions. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes can result in material features at the nanoscale or, alternatively, at larger scales.
There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document.
Terms and definitions from other parts of the ISO/TS 80004 series are reproduced in Clause 3 for context and better understanding.

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This document defines terms related to carbon nano-objects in the field of nanotechnologies.
It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations' and individuals' research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them. Additional terms and definitions for graphene and two-dimensional materials (2D) materials are provided in ISO/TS 80004-13.
Related carbon nanoscale materials are given in Annex A.

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This document specifies the evaluation procedure of fine bubble elimination for fine bubble dispersion in water. This document is applicable only to fine bubbles without shell.

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This document gives names, symbols, definitions and units for quantities of space and time. Where
appropriate, conversion factors are also given.

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IEC TS 62607:2020 establishes a standardized method to determine the structural key control characteristic
– domain size
for films consisting of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on copper by
– substrate oxidation.
It provides a fast, facile and reliable method to evaluate graphene domains formed on copper foil or copper film for understanding the effect of the graphene domain size on properties of graphene and enhancing the performance of high speed, flexible, and transparent devices using CVD graphene.
– The domain size determined in accordance with this document will be listed as a key control characteristic in the blank detail specification for graphene IEC 62565-3-1. Domain density is an equivalent measure.
– The domain size as derived by this method is defined as the mean value of size of the domains in the observed area specified by supplier in terms of cm2 or µm2.
– The method is applicable for graphene grown on copper by CVD. The characterization is done on the copper foil before transfer to the final substrate.
– As the method is destructive, the samples cannot be re-launched into the fabrication process.

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IEC 62607:2020, a Technical Specification, provides a method for determining the fluorescence lifetime of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) using the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique. TCSPC is suitable for testing fluorescence lifetime in the range from picoseconds to nanoseconds. This document is only applicable to liquid samples that are stable dispersions of QDs. It is not applicable to solid samples.
This document includes:
– outlines of the experimental procedures,
– data processing, and
– case study.

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This document focuses on listing most commonly used preparation and characterization techniques for fine bubbles and their interpretation. The merits and limitations of each of the techniques are outlined.

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IEC TS 62607-5-3:2020 specifies sample structures for evaluating a wide range of charge carrier concentration in organic/nano materials. This specification is provided for both capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements in metal/insulator/semiconductor stacking structures and Hall-effect measurements with the van der Pauw configuration. Criteria for choosing measurement methods of charge carrier concentration in organic semiconductor layers are also given in this document.

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IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 specifies the test method for determining the resistivity and the contact resistance of an individual CNT and the dependability of the measurement.
This document includes:
– outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure resistance of carbon nanotubes,
– methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
– case studies.

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IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 There are two types of thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement methods, classified by the origin of the current. One is generated by the detrapping of charges. The other one is generated by depolarization. IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 focuses on the former method, and specifies the measurement method to be developed for determining defect states of nano-enabled metal-oxide interfacial devices.
IEC TS 62607-8-1:2020 includes:
– outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure TSC,
– methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
– case studies.

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This document gives guidelines for the characterization of carbon nanotube (CNT)-containing samples by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), performed in either an inert or oxidizing environment. Guidance is provided on the purity assessment of the CNT samples through a quantitative measure of the types of carbon species present as well as the non-carbon impurities (e.g. metal catalyst particles) within the material. In addition, this technique provides a qualitative assessment of the thermal stability and homogeneity of the CNT-containing sample. Additional characterization techniques are required to confirm the presence of specific types of CNT and to verify the composition of the metallic impurities present.

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This document describes the test method to evaluate the cleaning performance of ultrafine bubble water when used in high-pressure water jet to wash out salt-stained steel surfaces. The evaluation is carried out by measuring comparative removal of salt stain from the surface of a test plate with the ultrafine bubble water to that with control water.

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IEC TS 62607-4-8:2020 specifies a test method for the determination of water content in electrode nanomaterials for nano-enabled electrical energy storage devices, using the Karl Fischer coulometric titration method.
This document includes:
- recommendations for sample preparation,
- outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure electrode nanomaterial properties, and
- methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis.
IEC TS 62607-4-8:2020 is not applicable for samples that can react with the main components of Karl Fischer reagent and produce water, or samples that can react with iodine or iodide ion.

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This document specifies the evaluation method for the size index of microbubbles in microbubble dispersion. It is only applicable to microbubbles with or without shell in water within the range from 1 μm to 100 μm. It describes the sampling methods from the point generating or dispersing microbubbles in the retention container to the detecting point of the measuring instruments.

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This document specifies a test method for removal of machine oil stain from a noncorrosive metal surface using fine bubble water. A test is provided to show the comparative cleaning advantage of adding fine bubbles to the water.

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This document gives names, symbols, definitions and units for quantities of condensed matter physics.
Where appropriate, conversion factors are also given.

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This document gives names, symbols, definitions and units for quantities of physical chemistry and
molecular physics. Where appropriate, conversion factors are also given.

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This document gives names, symbols, definitions and units for quantities used in atomic and nuclear
physics. Where appropriate, conversion factors are also given.

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This document specifies a method to test the promotion of the germination of barley seeds, using ultrafine bubble (UFB) water produced from an ultrafine bubble water generating system. The performance of the method is assessed by measuring the ratio of barley seed germination.

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This document specifies a test method for evaluating the effect of fine bubble water on the growth promotion of hydroponically grown lettuce by estimating the incremental gain in mass of the stems and leaves over a specified growth period.

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This document describes health and safety practices in occupational settings relevant to nanotechnologies. This document focuses on the occupational manufacture and use of manufactured nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates greater than 100 nm (NOAAs). It does not address health and safety issues or practices associated with NOAAs generated by natural processes, hot processes and other standard operations which unintentionally generate NOAAs, or potential consumer exposures or uses, though some of the information in this document can be relevant to those areas.

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This document establishes the general principles and descriptors to allow users to describe the quality of the liquid media and the size and concentration of fine bubbles. It is also intended to allow users to classify fine bubbles by rise velocity.

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This document specifies procedures and requirements for sampling and sample preparation of ultrafine bubble dispersions in water. This document is applicable to relatively stable dispersions where the size and number of bubbles are relatively constant for the duration of the sampling, sample preparation and measurement. This document is not applicable to less stable fine bubble dispersions or microbubble dispersions.

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This document describes the procedures and equipment for storage and transportation of ultrafine bubble dispersions in water and specifies the related requirements in order to maintain such bubble characteristics as size and number concentration.

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IEC TS 62607-4-7:2018 provides a method for the determination of magnetic impurities in anode nanomaterials for energy storage devices using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), including test overview, reagents, apparatus, test procedures, test results and test report.
IEC TS 62607-4-7:2018 applies to the determination of the total content of magnetic impurities (iron, cobalt, chromium, and nickel) ≥ 0,02 mg/kg which can be attracted by magnet.

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IEC TS 62565-4-2:2018 specifies the essential general and optical requirements of monodisperse luminescent nanomaterials used in general lighting and display products to enable their reliable mass production and quality control during the manufacturing process. This document does not address mixtures or agglomerations of luminescent nanomaterials.
In addition, this document enables the customer to specify requirements in a standardized manner and to verify through standardized methods that the luminescent nanomaterial meets the required properties.

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ISO 19007:2018 specifies a method for evaluating the effects of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA) on cellular viability using the MTS assay. The assay design includes performance requirements and control experiments to identify and manage variability in the assay results. ISO 19007:2018 is applicable to the use of a 96-well plate.

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IEC TS 62607-4-6:2018(E) provides a method for determination of carbon content of nano electrode materials by infrared absorption spectroscopy method. The method is applicable to carbon contents of mass fraction between 0,001 % and 100 %.
This method will enable customers to:
a) decide whether or not a nano electrode material is usable, and
b) select a nano electrode material with suitable carbon content for its application.
This document includes:
- recommendations for sample preparation,
- outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure electrode nanomaterial properties,
- methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
- case studies.

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ISO/TS 13278:2017 provides methods for the determination of residual elements other than carbon in samples of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The purpose of this document is to provide optimized digestion and preparation procedures for SWCNT and MWCNT samples in order to enable accurate and quantitative determinations of elemental impurities using ICP-MS.

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ISO/TR 19057:2017 reviews the use and application of acellular in vitro tests and methodologies implemented in the assessment of the biodurability of nanomaterials and their ligands in simulated biological and environmental media. ISO/TR 19057:2017 is intended to focus more on acellular in vitro methodologies implemented to assess biodurability and, therefore, excludes the general review of relevant literature on in vitro cellular or animal biodurability tests.

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ISO/TS 80004-13:2017 lists terms and definitions for graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials, and includes related terms naming production methods, properties and their characterization. It is intended to facilitate communication between organizations and individuals in research, industry and other interested parties and those who interact with them.

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ISO/TS 20477:2017 defines terms and definitions for different types of cellulose nanomaterials including secondary components found in cellulose nanomaterials due to their manufacturing processes. The document also gives information on cellulose micromaterials in Annex A. Where necessary, terms from the ISO/IEC 80004 vocabulary series are included in this document. Terms in this document are applicable to all types of cellulose nanomaterials regardless of production methods and their origin (plants, animals, algae or bacteria).

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ISO/TS 11888:2017 describes methods for the characterization of mesoscopic shape factors of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Techniques employed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), viscometry, and light scattering analysis. ISO/TS 11888:2017 also includes additional terms needed to define the characterization of static bending persistence length (SBPL). Measurement methods are given for the evaluation of SBPL, which generally varies from several tens of nanometres to several hundred micrometres. Well-established concepts and mathematical expressions, analogous to polymer physics, are utilized for the definition of mesoscopic shape factors of MWCNTs.

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ISO 20480-1:2017 specifies terminology and definitions used in the area of fine bubble technology. Terminology in this document covers general principles, measurements, and individual applications of fine bubble technology.

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ISO/TR 19601:2017 describes methods for producing aerosols of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA) for in vivo and in vitro air exposure studies. The purpose of ISO/TR 19601:2017 is to aid in selecting an appropriate aerosol generator to fulfil a proposed toxicology study design. ISO/TR 19601:2017 describes characteristics of aerosol generation methods, including their advantages and limitations. ISO/TR 19601:2017 does not provide guidance for aerosolization of specific nano-objects.

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ISO/TS 80004-11:2017 lists terms and definitions, and specifies an extensible taxonomic terminology framework for nanolayers, nanocoatings, nanofilms, and related terms in the field of nanotechnologies.

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ISO/TR 18401:2017 is intended to assist stakeholders who are making decisions about the direction, management and application of nanotechnologies to better understand selected key terms and definitions in the ISO/IEC 80004 vocabulary series for nanotechnologies.

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ISO/TS 18827:2017 provides a procedure for the detection of ROS (OH, O2-, 1O2) generated by metal oxide nanomaterials in aqueous solution with a reactive oxygen species-specific spin trapping agent using ESR, but excludes ESR procedures that do not use a spin trapping agent.

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ISO/TS 10868:2017 provides guidelines for the characterization of compounds containing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by using optical absorption spectroscopy. The aim of this document is to describe a measurement method to characterize the diameter, the purity, and the ratio of metallic SWCNTs to the total SWCNT content in the sample. The analysis of the nanotube diameter is applicable for the diameter range from 1 nm to 2 nm.

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ISO/TS 19590:2017 specifies a method for the detection of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and characterization of the particle number and particle mass concentration and the number-based size distribution using ICP-MS in a time-resolved mode to determine the mass of individual nanoparticles and ionic concentrations. The method is applicable for the determination of the size of inorganic nanoparticles (e.g. metal and metal oxides like Au, Ag, TiO2, BVO4, etc.), with size ranges of 10 nm to 100 nm (and larger particles up to 1 000 nm to 2 000 nm) in aqueous suspensions. Metal compounds other than oxides (e.g. sulfides, etc.), metal composites or coated particles with a metal core can be determined if the chemical composition and density are known. Particle number concentrations that can be determined in aqueous suspensions range from 106 particles/L to 109 particles/L which corresponds to mass concentrations in the range of approximately 1 ng/L to 1 000 ng/L (for 60 nm Au particles). Actual numbers depend on the type of mass spectrometer used and the type of nanoparticle analysed. In addition to the particle concentrations, ionic concentrations in the suspension can also be determined. Limits of detection are comparable with standard ICP-MS measurements. Note that nanoparticles with sizes smaller than the particle size detection limit of the spICP-MS method may be quantified as ionic. The method proposed in this document is not applicable for the detection and characterization of organic or carbon-based nanoparticles like encapsulates, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNT). In addition, it is not applicable for elements other than carbon and that are difficult to determine with ICP-MS. Reference [5] gives an overview of elements that can be detected and the minimum particle sizes that can be determined with spICP-MS.

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IEC TS 80004-9: 2017(E) specifies terms and definitions for electrotechnical products and systems reliant on nanomaterials for their essential functionalities. It is intended to facilitate communications between organizations and individuals in industry and those who interact with them.

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IEC TS 62607-4-5:2017(E) provides a standardized method for the determination of electrochemical properties of cathode nanomaterials such as lithium iron phosphate (LFP) for electrical energy storage devices. This method will enable the industry to:  
decide whether or not a cathode nanomaterial is usable, and
select a cathode nanomaterial suitable for their application.  This document includes:
recommendations for sample preparation,
outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure cathode nanomaterial properties,
methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
case studies.  NOTE The very purpose of this method is to arrive at a detailed characterization of the electrodes so that individual contribution of the anode and cathode for performance and degradation could be predicted. The method can be applied for characterization of the electrode working as cathode or/and as anode.

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ISO/TR 16837:2016 provides an overview of available methods and procedures for the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) and occupational exposure bands (OEBs) for manufactured nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAAs) for use in occupational health risk management decision-making.

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ISO/TR 18196:2016 provides a matrix that guides users to commercially available techniques relevant to the measurements of common physiochemical parameters for nano-objects. Some techniques are also applicable to nanostructured materials.

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ISO/TR 16196:2016 provides guidance regarding the preparation of nanomaterials for eco- and bio- toxicological testing. It provides guidance regarding factors pertaining to sample preparation and dose determination that might be useful in toxicological, including ecotoxicological, testing of engineered and manufactured nanoscale materials. The descriptions of sample preparation method factors for both in vitro and in vivo toxicological testing of engineered and manufactured nanoscale materials include considerations about physico-chemical properties, media, methods for transformation and accumulation studies, health effects and dosimetry. The document is not intended to be a literature review nor a thorough assessment of the quality of the methods or data generated. The document is intended to complement other international efforts. The focus of this document is on factors that might lead to results that are not relevant to safety evaluations. When featured, referenced methods are considered for their general interest and potential applicability. It is likely that most of the described methods are not generally applicable to all nanomaterials but they do demonstrate important factors and limitations that are common for a variety of nanomaterials.

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