This document specifies the principles and framework for comprehensive evaluation of industrial wastewater treatment reuse processes, including: a) establishing goals and scope; b) illustrating the evaluation procedure; and c) determination of evaluation indicators (technology indicator/sub-indicators, environment indicator/sub-indicators, resource indicator/sub-indicators, economy indicator/sub-indicators). This document describes how to comprehensively evaluate industrial wastewater treatment reuse processes using the proposed calculation approaches and recommended indicators. It does not specify methodologies for single evaluation indicators. The document is intended to provide assistance to a broad range of industrial wastewater treatment and reuse project stakeholders including professionals (planning, management, designers, and operators), administrative agencies (monitoring, assessment, regulation and administration) and local authorities. This document is applicable to a) evaluating comparing and selecting industrial wastewater treatment reuse processes, b) implementing continuous improvements, c) upgrading processes and improving performance for existing treatment and reuse facilities. The intended application of the comprehensive evaluation result is considered within the goal and scope definition.

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This European Standard specifies two methods for digestion of soil, treated biowaste, sludge and waste by the use of aqua regia as digestion solution.
This European Standard is applicable for the following elements:
aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), cerium (Ce), cesium (Cs), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), gold (Au), hafnium (Hf), holmium (Ho), indium (In), iridium (Ir), iron (Fe), lanthanum (La), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), lutetium (Lu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), neodymium (Nd), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), phosphorus (P), platinum (Pt), potassium (K), praseodymium (Pr), rubidium (Rb), rhenium (Re), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), silver (Ag), sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), sulfur (S), tellurium (Te), terbium (Tb), thallium (Tl), thorium (Th), thulium (Tm), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), ytterbium (Yb), yttrium (Y), zinc (Zn), and zirconium (Zr).
This European Standard may also be applicable for the digestion of other elements.
Digestion with aqua regia will not necessarily accomplish total decomposition of the sample. The extracted analyte concentrations may not necessarily reflect the total content in the sample.

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This document provides guidance on the conditions of beneficial use of biosolids produced from industrial and municipal sludge and municipal biosolids derived products (e.g. composts, growing media) in the production of food and feed crops, energy crops, forestry crops and for the remediation of disturbed sites. This document applies to biosolids for land application and includes biosolids from wastewater treatment (municipal, industrial and private onsite systems). This document does not apply to hazardous sludge that originates from wastewater which, due to its nature, physical, chemical or infectious properties, is potentially hazardous to human health and/or the environment during use, handling, storage or transportation and which requires special disposal techniques to eliminate or reduce the hazard. This document includes: — general guidelines for the land application of biosolids and biosolids derived products; — specific guidelines for the land application of biosolids and biosolids derived products for food and feed crop production and for non?food and non?feed crop production (e.g. horticulture, fibre for bio?mass, silviculture, etc.); and — specific guidelines for the land application of biosolids and biosolids derived products for other beneficial uses (e.g. land reclamation or rehabilitation).

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This document specifies two methods for digestion of soil, treated biowaste, sludge and waste by the use of an aqua regia digestion. Digestion with aqua regia will not necessarily accomplish total decomposition of the sample. The extracted analyte concentrations may not necessarily reflect the total content in the sample but represent the aqua regia soluble metals under the condition of this test procedure. It is generally agreed that for environmental analysis purposes, the results are fit for the intended purpose to protect the environment. This document is applicable for the following elements: Aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), sulfur (S), tellurium (Te), thallium (Tl), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). This document can also be applied for the digestion of other elements, provided the user has verified the applicability.

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This document specifies requirements and test methods to ensure performance, safety, operability and maintainability of community-scale resource recovery faecal sludge treatment units (herein addressed as treatment units) that serve approximately, but not limited to, 1 000 to 100 000 people. This document applies to treatment units that: a) primarily treat faecal sludge, b) are able to operate in non-sewered and off-grid environments, c) are prefabricated, d) exhibit resource recovery capability (e.g. recovering energy, reusable water, soil amendment products), and are capable of being energy neutral or energy net positive. This document does not apply to treatment units requiring major sewer infrastructure. Inputs are primarily faecal sludge derived from human excreta and can include additional substances at the discretion of the manufacturer. This document does not specify the characteristics of the faecal sludge (e.g. COD, BOD, moisture content, etc.) and which forms of the additional inputs (e.g. food waste) are treated within the unit. These inputs are defined by the manufacturer as well as the input characteristics which meet the requirements specified in this document. This document addresses: — the performance, safety, operability, and maintainability of the treatment unit, — the protection of human health and the environment, — safety aspects of the treatment unit's solid, liquid, and gaseous outputs, — noise and odour outputs of the treatment unit. This document specifies minimum requirements of all types of outputs from the treatment unit. It does not specify or mandate the quality of resources recovered as these are highly dependent on the local (e.g. economic, social) context. Any resources produced and consumed internally to the process itself are outside the scope of this document. Similarly, with the exception of pathogen requirements, the quality and value of any resource recovery and reuse products derived from the treatment unit are outside the scope of this document. Apart from the requirement for energy independence under manufacturer specified input conditions during steady-state operation, this document does not set performance targets with respect to the amount or type of energy or resources to recover and/or use locally. This document does not address transportation and any intermediary processes required to supply the treatment unit with the defined inputs. Provisions of this document apply to the treatment unit according to its unit boundaries, i.e. within the process chain beginning with its specified inputs and ending with its outputs. Some of the considerations on sustainability of the treatment unit are highlighted in Annex B.

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This document provides guidance on, the evaluation and comparison of wastewater softening and desalination processes for industrial wastewater reclamation and reuse with specific consideration for the following six: 1) chemical precipitation; 2) ion exchange; 3) nanofiltration (NF); 4) reverse osmosis (RO); 5) electrodialysis (ED) and 6) electrodeionization (EDI). This document provides guidance on the characterisation of both influent and effluent quality (e.g. hardness, alkalinity, etc.) and the effects of these processes on those constituents. The purpose of softening and desalination is only for the reuse usages that have requirements for hardness and salinity, such as cooling circulating water, boiler water, production process water, and cleaning water. This document includes the following sub-processes of wastewater softening and desalination processes: a) wastewater softening processes based on chemical precipitation, ion exchange and NF, which aim to remove hardness ions, such as Mg2+ and Ca2+; b) desalination processes based on ion exchange, RO, ED, EDI and NF, which aim to remove the most of total dissolved solids (TDS). This document is applicable to: a) industrial saline wastewater, which has been pre-treated to remove most of the organic matters if necessary; b) the selection or design of wastewater softening and desalination processes for reuse of wastewater from industries.

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This European Standard specifies methods for the determination of the parameters pH, ammonium, AOX, As, Ba, Cd, Cl-, easily liberatable CN-, Co, Cr, Cr(VI), Cu, DOC/TOC, electrical conductivity, F-, Hg, Mo, Ni, NO2-, Pb, phenol index, total S, Sb, Se, SO42-, TDS, V and Zn in aqueous eluates for the characterization of waste.

  • Technical report
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This document specifies the principles, categories, and codes for the classification of industrial wastewater and is applicable to all types and sources of industrial wastewater. It provides a broad framework classifying industrial wastewater into different categories based on industry type and the associated water quality constituents, namely physical, chemical and biological characteristics with a specific code assigned based on both industry type and waste-stream classification.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of drainability of flocculated sludges. It is
applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions from:
a) storm water handling;
b) urban wastewater collecting systems;
c) urban wastewater treatment plants;
d) treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
e) water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge suspensions from other origin.

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for determining the zone settling velocity (ZSV) and the Compression point.
This draft European standard is applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions from:
-   storm water handling;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   plants treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
-   water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions of other origins.

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This document specifies a method for determining the zone settling velocity (ZSV) and the Compression point.
This document is applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions from:
-   storm water handling;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   plants treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
-   water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions of other origins.

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for quantitative determination of 17 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge, treated biowaste and soil using liquid column chromatographic clean-up methods and GC/HRMS.
The analytes to be determined with this European Standard are listed in Table 1.
(...)
The limit of detection depends on the kind of sample, the congener, the equipment used and the quality of chemicals used for extraction and clean-up. Under the conditions specified in this European Standard, limits of detection better than 1 ng/kg (expressed as dry matter) can be achieved.
This method is "performance based". It is allowed to modify the method if all performance criteria given in this method are met.
NOTE   In principle this method can also be applied for sediments, mineral wastes and for vegetation. It is the responsibility of the user of this European Standard to validate the application for these matrices. For measurement in complex matrices like fly ashes adsorbed on vegetation it can be necessary to further improve the clean-up. This can also apply to sediments and mineral wastes.

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the sludge (bulk) density. The procedure to determine density of the liquid and of the solid fractions of a suspension is described in Annex C.
This document is applicable to sludge suspensions from:
-   storm water handling;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271 EEC);
-   water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge suspensions from other origin, provided the necessary verifications are done.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the sludge (bulk) density. The procedure to determine density of the liquid and of the solid fractions of a suspension is described in Annex C.
This document is applicable to sludge suspensions from:
-   storm water handling;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater [7];
-   water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge suspensions from other origin, provided the necessary verifications are done.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of drainability of flocculated sludge. It is applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions from:
-   storm water handling;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
-   water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge suspensions from other origin.

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This European Standard specifies the quantitative determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (see Table 2) in sludge, soil and treated biowaste using GC-MS and HPLC-UV-DAD/FLD covering a wide range of PAH contamination levels (see also Annex B).
When using fluorescence detection, acenaphthylene cannot be measured.
(...)
The limit of detection depends on the determinants, the equipment used, the quality of chemicals used for the extraction of the sample and the clean-up of the extract.
Typically, a lower limit of application of 0,01 mg/kg (expressed as dry matter) can be ensured for each individual PAH. This depends on instrument and sample.
Sludge, soil and treated biowaste can differ in properties and also in the expected contamination levels of PAHs and presence of interfering substances. These differences make it impossible to describe one general procedure. This European Standard contains decision tables based on the properties of the sample and the extraction and clean-up procedure to be used. Two general lines are followed, an agitation procedure (shaking) or use of soxhlet/pressurized liquid extraction.
NOTE   Other PAH compounds can also be analysed with this method, provided suitability has been proven.

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IWA 28:2018 specifies requirements and test methods to ensure safety, performance and sustainability of community-scale resource-oriented faecal sludge treatment units that serve approximately 1 000 to 100 000 people. IWA 28:2018 applies to treatment units that: · primarily treat faecal sludge; · are able to operate in non-sewered and off-grid environments; · are prefabricated. IWA 28:2018 does not apply to sanitation treatment units requiring sewer infrastructure, or to those requiring electric grid access during steady state operation. Treatment units to which IWA 28:2018 applies exhibit resource recovery capability (e.g. recovering energy, reusable water, soil amendment) and are capable of being energy neutral or energy net positive.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of mercury in aqua regia or nitric acid digests of sludge, treated biowaste and soil, obtained according to EN 16173 or EN 16174 using cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). The lower working range limit is 0,03 mg/kg (dry matter basis).

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This part of the European Standard specifies a method for determining the flowability, as defined in CEN/TR 15463 [1], of sludge by means of the extrusion tube apparatus.
This part of this European standard is applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions from:
 storm water handling;
 urban wastewater collecting systems;
 urban wastewater treatment plants;
 plants treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
 water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions of other origins.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of mercury in aqua regia or nitric acid digests of sludge, treated biowaste and soil, obtained according to EN 16173 or EN 16174 using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). The lower working range limit is 0,003 mg/kg (dry matter basis).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the following elements in aqua regia or nitric acid digests of sludge, treated biowaste and soil:
Aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), cerium (Ce), cesium (Cs), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), gold (Au), hafnium (Hf), holmium (Ho), indium (In), iridium (Ir), iron (Fe), lanthanum (La), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), lutetium (Lu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), neodymium (Nd), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), phosphorus (P), platinum (Pt), potassium (K), praseodymium (Pr), rhenium (Re), rhodium (Rh), rubidium (Rb), ruthenium (Ru), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), silver (Ag), sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), sulfur (S), tellurium (Te), terbium (Tb), thallium (Tl), thorium (Th), thulium (Tm), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), ytterbium(Yb), yttrium (Y), zinc (Zn), and zirconium (Zr).
The working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered.
The method detection limit of the method is between 0,1 mg/kg dry matter and 2,0 mg/kg dry matter for most elements. The limit of detection will be higher in cases where the determination is likely to be interfered (see Clause 4) or in case of memory effects (see e.g. 8.3 of EN ISO 17294-1:2006).
The method has been validated for the elements given in Table A.1 (sludge), Table A.2 (compost) and Table A.3 (soil). The method is applicable for the other elements listed above, provided the user has verified the applicability.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the following elements in aqua regia, nitric acid digest solutions of sludge, treated biowaste and soil: Aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), gallium (Ga), indium (In), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), silver (Ag), sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), sulfur (S), thallium (Tl), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn) and zirconium (Zr).
The method has been validated for the elements given in Table A.1. The method is applicable for the other elements listed above, provided the user has verified the applicability.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in liquid waste containment projects, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, reinforcement and protection.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
NOTE   Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardised – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This part of the European Standard specifies a method for determining the flowability, as defined in CEN/TR 15463, of sludge by means of the extrusion tube apparatus.
This part of this European Standard is applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions from:
—   storm water handling;
—   urban wastewater collecting systems;
—   urban wastewater treatment plants;
—   plants treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
—   water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions of other origins.

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The assessment in laboratory of sludge amenability to several treatments, dewaterability in particular, is sensitive to the operating procedure adopted for the chemical conditioning step, as it depends on a lot of conditions, including shearing degree, mixing time, apparatus size, etc.
The proposed standard is aimed to define a standardised procedure for the conditioning operation when selecting type and dosage of a conditioning product at laboratory scale. This standard would allow results obtained at different places and on different times to be compared.
A Technical Report on this subject has been already published in 2006 (CEN/TR 14742): it will be the base for the development of this new Standard.

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CEN/TC 308 origin - editorial modification in 5.1.2 in the mother standard (concerns the English language version).

  • Corrigendum
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CEN/TC 308 origin - editorial modification in 5.1.2 in the mother standard (concerns the English language version).

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The laboratory assessment of sludge dewaterability is sensitive to the operating procedure adopted for the conditioning step. No generalized ranking of products in order of effectiveness can be given since the ranking changes with the sludge type, dosage of conditioning agent, degree of shearing and dewatering device.
The scope of this European Standard applies for sludges and suspensions from:
- storm water handling;
- urban wastewater collecting systems;
- urban wastewater treatment plants;
- industrial wastewater that has been treated similarly to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
- water supply plants.
This method is applicable to sludge and suspensions of other origin.

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This Technical Report describes good practice for the incineration and other organic matter treatment by thermal processes of sludges.
Thermal drying, thermal conditioning and thermal hydrolysis are excluded.
This Technical Report is applicable for sludges described in the scope of CEN/TC 308 specifically derived from:
-   storm water handling;
-   night soil;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
but excluding hazardous sludges from industry.

  • Technical report
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Fresh sludges are unsuitable for circulation of samples for interlaboratory trials. The circulation of analysts is needed for standards validation dealing with physical properties of sludges.
For purposes of comparison and reproductibility, it would be useful to have a European reference for organic synthetic suspension. Elaborating such a standard aims at having an alternative to fresh sludges because :
- Sludge characteristics change with storage time
- Sludge characteristics are strongly affected by transport and handling
- Fresh sludges require particular precautions and authorization for transportation
Aerobic sludge first targeted ; potentially: anaerobic sludges, physico-chemical sludges, water supply treatment sludges ; potentially inorganic sludges (sediments)

  • Technical report
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This Technical Report deals with methodologies for preparing synthetic suspensions. Synthetic suspensions can be used for:
a)   evaluating or testing new devices or techniques for suspension treatment;
b)   studying the influence of different compounds on suspension behaviour with regard to specific parameters, e.g. settleability, dewaterability, physical consistency, etc.
The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of suspensions are subjected to changes as soon as they are collected. Guidance exists on the sampling and handling techniques (see ISO 5667 12 and EN ISO 5667 13), and on the preservation and storage procedures (EN ISO 5667 15) that help minimize changes in the composition. This is mainly achieved by suppressing chemical and/or biological activity and by avoiding contamination.

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This Technical Report describes good practice for the incineration and other organic matter treatment by thermal processes of sludges.
Thermal drying, thermal conditioning and thermal hydrolysis are excluded.
This Technical Report is applicable for sludges described in the scope of CEN/TC 308 specifically derived from:
-   storm water handling;
-   night soil;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
but excluding hazardous sludges from industry.

  • Technical report
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This Technical Specification specifies a method to determine the physical impurities > 2 mm and stones > 5 mm in sludge, treated biowaste and soil. Fragments of wood or bark can be acceptable constituents of the sample.

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This Technical Specification specifies a test procedure for the determination of the content of unwanted viable weed seeds and plant propagules in growing media and soil improvers (see also Annex B for validation results). The method in general is also applicable to soils and sludges.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method to determine the physical impurities > 2 mm and stones > 5 mm in sludge, treated biowaste and soil.
Fragments of wood or bark can be acceptable constituents of the sample.

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This Technical Report describes good practice for sludge dewatering and belongs to a series on sludge management options. It gives guidance on technical and operational aspects of conditioning, thickening and dewatering processes. Drying, which is another water content reduction process, is not dealt with in this document, but in CEN/TR 15473, Characterization of sludges - Good practice for sludges drying. This report is applicable for sludges from: urban wastewater treatment plants; treatment plants for industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater; water supply treatment plants. This document may be applicable to sludges of other origin.

  • Technical report
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This Technical Specification gives guidance for dealing with the production and control of sludge in relation to inputs and treatment and gives a strategic evaluation of recovery, recycling and disposal options for sludge according to its properties and the availability of outlets. This Technical Specification is applicable for sludges from: - storm water handling; - night soil; - urban wastewater collecting systems; - urban wastewater treatment plants; - treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EC); - water supply treatment plants; but excluding hazardous sludges from industry.

  • Technical specification
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This CEN Technical Report describes good practice for sludge dewatering and belongs to a series on sludge management options.
It gives guidance on technical and operational aspects of:
-   conditioning, thickening and dewatering processes.
Drying, which is another water content reduction process, is not dealt with in this document, but in CEN/TR 15473, Characterization of sludges - Good practice for sludges drying.
This report is applicable for sludges from:
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   treatment plants for industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater;
-   water supply treatment plants.
This document may be applicable to sludges of other origin.

  • Technical report
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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the specific resistance to filtration of conditioned and non-conditioned sludges, provided that no sedimentation occurs during filtration (i.e. single phase
suspension with particles in suspension). This European Standard is applicable to sludges and sludge suspensions from:
- storm water handling;
- urban wastewater collecting systems;
- urban wastewater treatment plants;
- industrial wastewater that has been treated similarly to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
- water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions of other origins.

  • Standard
    20 pages
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This Technical Report specifies three methods for the detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli in sludge, treated biowaste and soil:
- Method A - Membrane filtration method for quantification (see Clause 6);
- Method B - Miniaturised method (Most Probable Number, MPN) by inoculation in liquid medium (see Clause 7);
- Method C - Macromethod (Most Probable Number) in liquid medium (see Clause 8).

  • Technical report
    51 pages
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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of the specific electrical conductivity in aqueous suspensions of sludge (fresh), treated biowaste (fresh) or soil (fresh or air-dry).

  • Technical specification
    9 pages
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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the specific resistance to filtration of conditioned and non-conditioned sludges, provided that no sedimentation occurs during filtration (i.e. single phase suspension with particles in suspension).
This European Standard is applicable to sludges and sludge suspensions from:
-   storm water handling;
-   urban wastewater collecting systems;
-   urban wastewater treatment plants;
-   industrial wastewater that has been treated similarly to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC);
-   water supply treatment plants.
This method is also applicable to sludge and sludge suspensions of other origins.

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    20 pages
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This European Standard specifies a method for microwave digestion of sludge, treated biowaste and soil using nitric acid. This method is applicable for microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion of sludge, treated biowaste and soils for the following elements: Aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), cerium (Ce), cesium (Cs), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), gold (Au), hafnium (Hf), holmium (Ho), indium (In), iridium (Ir), iron (Fe), lanthanum (La), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), lutetium (Lu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), neodymium (Nd), nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), phosphorus (P), platinum (Pt), potassium (K), praseodymium (Pr), rubidium (Rb), rhenium (Re), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), sulphur (S), tellurium (Te), terbium (Tb), thallium (Tl), thorium (Th), thulium (Tm), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), ytterbium (Yb), yttrium (Y), zinc (Zn), and zirconium (Zr). This European Standard may also be applicable for the digestion of other elements. Digestion with nitric acid will not necessarily accomplish total decomposition of the sample. The extracted analyte concentrations may not necessarily reflect the total content in the sample.

  • Standard
    11 pages
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This European Standard specifies the pretreatment required for sludge, treated biowaste and soil (including soil-like materials), that are subject to the analysis of organic as well as inorganic chemical and physicochemical parameters. The pretreatment of samples aims at preparing a (small) test sample which is representative for the original sample. This European Standard describes the pretreatment which could be performed under field conditions if necessary and the sample pretreatment under laboratory conditions. For determining inorganic chemical and physico-chemical parameters this European Standard describes procedures to prepare: - test samples for tests under field moist conditions; - test samples for testing after drying, crushing, grinding, sieving etc.; - test samples of liquid sludge. For determination of organic compounds three pretreatment methods are specified: - a pretreatment method if volatile organic compounds are to be measured; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the result of the following analysis will be accurate and reproducible; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field moist sample or if only indicative results are required. The choice of the method depends above all on the volatility of the analyte. It also depends on the particle size distribution of the material, the heterogeneity of the sample and the following analytical procedure.

  • Standard
    45 pages
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This European Standard specifies an empirical method for the direct determination of organically bound chlorine, bromine and iodine (but not fluorine) adsorbed and occluded to the sample matrix. Non-volatile organically bound halogens adsorbable on activated carbon present in the aqueous phase of the sample prior to drying or adsorbed to sample surface are included in the determination. This European Standard is intended for analysis of sludge, treated biowaste or soil in concentrations ranging from 5 mg/kg dry matter to approximately 6 g/kg dry matter. The exact concentration range covered depends on the instrument used for determination.

  • Standard
    17 pages
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This European Standard specifies the determination of total nitrogen (organic and inorganic) according to the procedure of Dumas in sludge, treated biowaste and soil. A typical limit of detection is 0,02 % nitrogen, and a typical limit of quantification is 0,08 % nitrogen.

  • Standard
    11 pages
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This European Standard specifies the determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen according to the Kjeldahl procedure in sludge, treated biowaste and soil. Nitrate and nitrite are not included. Compounds with nitrogen bound in N-N, N-O linkages and some heterocycles (pyridines) are only partially determined. The limit of detection (LOD) is usually 0,03 % nitrogen, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0,1 % nitrogen (using 0,25 mol/l sulfuric acid for titration).

  • Standard
    12 pages
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This European Standard specifies the pretreatment required for sludge, treated biowaste and soil (including soil-like materials), that are subject to the analysis of organic as well as inorganic chemical and physicochemical parameters. The pretreatment of samples aims at preparing a (small) test sample which is representative for the original sample. This European Standard describes the pretreatment which could be performed under field conditions if necessary and the sample pretreatment under laboratory conditions. For determining inorganic chemical and physico-chemical parameters this European Standard describes procedures to prepare: - test samples for tests under field moist conditions; - test samples for testing after drying, crushing, grinding, sieving etc.; - test samples of liquid sludge. For determination of organic compounds three pretreatment methods are specified: - a pretreatment method if volatile organic compounds are to be measured; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the result of the following analysis will be accurate and reproducible; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field moist sample or if only indicative results are required. The choice of the method depends above all on the volatility of the analyte. It also depends on the particle size distribution of the material, the heterogeneity of the sample and the following analytical procedure.

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    12 pages
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This European Standard specifies two methods for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in sludge, treated biowaste, soil, waste and sediment samples containing more than 1 g carbon per kg of dry matter (0,1 %). For sludge, treated biowaste and soil only Method A is validated.

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    24 pages
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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of pH within the range pH 2 to pH 12 in a suspension of sludge, treated biowaste or soil in either water (pH-H2O), or a 0,01 mol/l calcium chloride solution (pH-CaCl2). This European Standard is applicable to sludge, treated biowaste and fresh or air-dry soil samples.

  • Standard
    11 pages
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