This document specifies requirements and test methods for the fire safety of candles intended to be burned outdoors.
Sticks wrapped with fuel-soaked materials, such as paper, cardboard or fabric, oil lamps on a stick and products intended to be used professionally to protect vineyards or fruit orchards from frost damages are not covered by this document.

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This document is a summary of the results of a questionnaire survey, which was conducted to gather information on the current state of performance-based fire safety design (P-B FSD) practices in various countries. The questions include what types of buildings and areas of fire safety systems are being applied, what are the legislative environments in terms of acceptance of P-B FSD, and what documents are needed/desired from ISO/TC 92/SC 4 if the countries/regions wish to adopt P-B FSD.

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This document provides guidance for the specification of design fires for use in fire safety engineering analysis of building and structures in the built environment. The design fire is intended to be used in an engineering analysis to determine consequences in fire safety engineering (FSE) analyses.

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This document specifies a method for determining the kinetics and yields of gaseous emissions from a specimen exposed to radiant heat in a cone calorimeter. Gas yields are determined by exposing small representative specimens to an external heat flux with or without spark ignition. The concentrations of specific gases in the effluent (smoke) are measured. In combination with calculated masses of gases, their yields from the specimen mass, mass loss or mass loss rate can be determined. This document uses Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as described in ISO 19702, with additional information on the test apparatus and gas analyser suitable for this specific application.

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This document describes a protocol for the verification and validation of building fire evacuation models. This document mostly addresses evacuation model components as they are in microscopic (agent-based) models. Nevertheless, it can be adopted (entirely or partially) for macroscopic models if the model is able to represent the components under consideration. The area of application of the evacuation models discussed in this document includes performance-based design of buildings and the review of the effectiveness of evacuation planning and procedures. The evacuation process is represented with evacuation models in which people's movement and their interaction with the environment make use of human behaviour in fire theories and empirical observations[5]. The simulation of evacuation is represented using mathematical models and/or agent‑to‑agent and agent-to-environment rules. The area of application of this document relates to buildings. This document is not intended to cover aspects of transportation systems in motion (e.g. trains, ships) since specific ad-hoc additional tests may be required for addressing the simulation of human behaviour during evacuation in these types of systems[6]. This document includes a list of components for verification and validation testing as well as a methodology for the analysis and assessment of accuracy associated with evacuation models. The procedure for the analysis of acceptance criteria is also included. A comprehensive list of components for testing is presented in this document, since the scope of the testing has not been artificially restricted to a set of straightforward applications. Nevertheless, the application of evacuation models as a design tool can be affected by the numbers of variables affecting human behaviour under consideration. A high number of influences can hamper the acceptance of the results obtained given the level of complexity associated with the results. Simpler calculation methods, such as macroscopic models, capacity analyses or flow calculations, are affected to a lower extent by the need to aim at high fidelity modelling. In contrast, more sophisticated calculation methods (i.e. agent-based models) rely more on the ability to demonstrate that the simulation is able to represent different emergent behaviours. For this reason, the components for testing are divided into different categories, enabling the evacuation model tester to test an evacuation model both in relation to the degree of sophistication embedded in the model as well as the specific scope of the model application. In Annex A, a reporting template is provided to provide guidance to users regarding a format for presenting test results and exemplary application of verification and validation tests are presented in Annex B.

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This document gives an overview of the evolution of regulations and application of Fire Safety Engineering (FSE) in Europe. Based on work performed in 2001-2002, a full update of information has been done. A global survey based on questionnaires defined in 2001, the evolution and possible perspectives of the FSE practices within two perimeters are presented:
-   The first perimeter is the same perimeter analysed in 2001 corresponding to the European Union defined in 2001 extended to European countries with European Union agreement (Switzerland, Norwegian and Iceland).
-   The second perimeter is the European Union perimeter of 2016 extended to European countries with European Union agreement (Switzerland, Norwegian and Iceland).
Conclusions and initiatives of the 2001 proposals were analysed 15 years after, with and without the extension of European Union. New initiatives have since been proposed.
In addition, the state-of-the-art of Fire Safety Engineering is updated.

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IEC 62899-505:2020(E) specifies mechanical and thermal test methods for the determination of the reliability characteristics of a printed flexible gas sensor, which is operated at relatively low temperature and is composed of a flexible substrate, electrode, and gas sensing layer. The examples of target gas include in-door air pollutants, combustion gas from a fire situation, and industrial flue gas.

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This document provides a complete example to illustrate ISO 23932-1. The example is a dry-cleaning store, for which the fire safety objective is life safety, for both people located inside or outside the shop, in the event of a fire within the shop. NOTE Generally, an FSE study is not needed for such a small shop. However, this example was chosen to demonstrate the application of ISO 23932-1 in detail while keeping the documentation provided sufficiently brief.

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This document describes tools and gives guidance concerning interlaboratory trials related to fire effluent analyses. It explains the relative contributions from the physical fire model and analytical techniques to evaluate trueness and fidelity. It also explains the difficulties involved with the interpretation of round-robin data and with the evaluation of trueness in fire effluent analyses. This document complements ISO 12828-1, which deals with limits of quantification and detection and ISO 12828-2, which deals with interlaboratory validation of analytical methods. It is a toolbox useful in the framework of ISO/IEC 17025 assessment of any fire laboratory. Examples of existing standards where the information contained in this document can be used are the analytical chemical methods in ISO 19701[2], ISO 19702[3], ISO 5660-1[4], and the chemical measurements in the methods discussed in ISO/TR 16312-2, ISO 16405[6], ISO/TS 19021[7], or their application to fire toxicity assessment using ISO 13571[1] and ISO 13344[8].

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This document provides principles for characterizing the measured production of toxic gases from a laboratory fire test and provides bases for comparing the results between different types and scales of such tests. It also includes consideration of the uncertainties in the gas determinations. The combined uncertainty is a key factor in the ability to establish similarity or difference of test results. The sufficiency of the agreement between a bench-scale test and a real-scale test depends on the precision needed in the fire hazard or risk assessment, which is not covered by this document. This document defines the relevance and significance of toxic gas data from measurements in different fire tests. With such a definition it is possible to provide generic guidance on how such data can be compared between different sizes and types of fire tests. The combustion conditions represented by the fire test, other specific characteristics of the test and the test specimen, the sampling strategy of the fire effluents, and the analysis technique for the toxic gas species are the most important factors when defining the significance of the toxic gas data. This document is intended to serve as a tool for the a) definition of the relevance and significance of toxic gas data from fire tests, b) comparison of toxic gas data from fire tests of different scales and characteristics, and c) prediction of toxic gas data from a large-scale test based on small-scale data or vice versa. This document gives general guidance regarding comparison of toxic gas data between physical fire models of different scales, but is principally developed for the gases listed in ISO 13571, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr, HF), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2), formaldehyde (CH2O) and acrolein (C3H4O). This document is not applicable to characterization and comparisons of the toxicity of the effluents from fire tests.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for the fire safety of candles intended to be burned indoors.

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This document gives guidelines whose primary focus is the assessment of the adverse environmental impact of fire effluents, including those from fires occurring in commercial and domestic premises, unenclosed commercial sites, industrial and agricultural sites, as well as those involving road, rail and maritime transport systems. It is not applicable to direct acute toxicity issues or wildland fires, which are covered by other existing ISO standards. It is intended to serve as a tool for the development of standard protocols for a) the assessment of local and remote adverse environmental impacts of fires, and the definition of appropriate preventive measures, b) post-fire analyses to identify the nature and extent of the adverse environmental impacts of fires, and c) the collection of relevant data for use in environmental fire hazard assessments. This document is intended as an umbrella document to set the scene concerning what should be considered when determining the environmental impact of fires. It is not a comprehensive catalogue of methods and models defining how to determine the environmental impact of fires, intended to be addressed by other parts of ISO 26367. This document is principally intended for use by firefighters and investigators, building owners and managers, storage facility operators, materials and product manufacturers, insurance providers, environmental regulatory authorities, civil defence organizations and public health authorities.

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This document specifies methods for identifying fire hazards resulting from machinery and for
performing a risk assessment.
It gives the basic concepts and methodology of protective measures for fire prevention and protection
to be taken during the design and construction of machinery. The measures consider the intended use
and reasonably foreseeable misuse of the machine.
It provides guidelines for consideration in reducing the risk of machinery fires to acceptable levels
through machine design, risk assessment and operator instructions.
This document is not applicable to:
— mobile machinery;
— machinery designed to contain controlled combustion processes (e.g. internal combustion engines,
furnaces), unless these processes can constitute the ignition source of a fire in other parts of the
machinery or outside of this;
— machinery used in potentially explosive atmospheres and explosion prevention and protection; and
— fire detection and suppression systems that are integrated in building fire safety systems.
It is also not applicable to machinery or machinery components manufactured before the date of its
publication.

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The requirements in this document govern the application of a set of explicit algebraic formulae for the calculation of specific characteristics of radiation heat flux from an open pool fire. This document is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving a set of explicit algebraic formulae. This document is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to the algebraic formulae is provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; b) documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; c) limitations of the calculation method; d) input parameters for the calculation method; and e) domain of applicability of the calculation method. Examples of sets of algebraic formulae meeting the requirements of this document are provided in Annexes A and B. Annex A contains a set of algebraic formulae for radiation heat fluxes from a circular or near-circular open pool fire. Annex B contains formulae for configuration factors of a flame to a target.

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    42 pages
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This document provides requirements to govern the application of explicit algebraic formulae sets to the calculation of fire phenomena. This document is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic formulae. This document is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic formulae are provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) Requirements governing description of physical phenomena; b) Requirements governing calculation process; c) Requirements governing limitations; d) Requirements governing input parameters; e) Requirements governing domain of applicability.

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This document provides a methodology for assessing the performance of structures in the built environment when exposed to a real fire. This document, which follows the principles outlined in ISO 23932-1, provides a performance-based methodology for engineers to assess the level of fire safety of new or existing structures. NOTE The fire safety of structures is evaluated through an engineering approach based on the quantification of the behaviour of a structure for the purpose of meeting fire safety objectives and can cover the entire time history of a real fire (including the cooling phase), and its consequences related to fire safety objectives such as life safety, property protection and/or environmental protection.

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This document addresses the impact of wildland fires and firefighting activities on the environment (air, water, soil, wildlife and vegetation). It further addresses the impact of wildland fire effluents on exposed human population, including firefighters, as well as food production, land, sea and air traffic, and the built environment. It also describes the environmental impacts of firefighting activities. This document also provides requirements and recommendations to quantify such impacts of wildland fires and to establish post-fire mitigation measures. The wildland fires covered include both natural wildland fires and man-initiated fires, including prescribed burning and agricultural fires, but not peat fires nor coal seam fires. This document is intended to serve as a tool for the development of standard protocols for: — the assessment of local and remote adverse environmental impacts of wildland fires; — the assessment of the effects of smoke and gas exposure on firefighters and exposed human populations. It provides guidance for incident commanders and other responsible or affected parties when decisions regarding firefighting strategies, tactics, and restoration are made. It is intended principally for use by firefighters and investigators, insurance providers, environmental regulatory authorities, civil defence organisations, public health authorities and land owners. This document does not include specific instruction on compiling and reporting the information needed to assess environmental damage caused by a fire incident, nor does it include specific sampling methodologies and analysis requirements. These topics are the focus of documents in the ISO 26367 series. This document does not address either fire damage to the built environment, direct acute toxicity issues, which are covered by other ISO standards, nor does it address economic impact, although the impact of climate change is discussed in Annex D.

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This document provides general principles and requirements for FSE, and is intended to be used by professionals involved in 1) performance-based fire safety design (of both new and existing built environments), 2) implementation for fire safety design plans, and 3) fire safety management. This document is not intended as a detailed technical design guide, but does provide the key elements necessary for addressing the different steps and their linkages in the fire safety design process. This document also provides key elements linked to the implementation of fire safety design plans and fire safety management. This document is intended not only to be used on its own, but also in conjunction with a consistent set of FSE documents covering methods in performance-based fire safety design, implementation and management. FSOs covered by this document include: — safety of life; — property protection; — continuity of operations; — protection of the environment; — preservation of heritage. The general principles and requirements of FSE can be applied to all configurations of the built environment, i.e. buildings or other structures (e.g. off-shore platforms; civil engineering works, such as tunnels, bridges and mines; and means of transportation, such as motor vehicles and marine vessels), but may not be applicable for construction sites. Because prescriptive regulations covering fire safety design commonly co-exist with performance-based design, this document acknowledges that fire safety designs conforming to prescriptive regulations can become the basis for comparison of engineered designs of built environments.

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This International Standard is intended to serve as general guidelines for the assessment of the fire threat to
people. It encompasses the development, evaluation and use of relevant quantitative information for use in
fire hazard and risk assessment. This information, generally obtained from fire-incidence investigation, fire
statistics, real-scale fire tests and from physical fire models, is intended for use in conjunction with
computational models for analysis of the initiation and development of fire, fire spread, smoke formation and
movement, chemical species generation, transport and decay, and people movement, as well as fire detection
and suppression [ISO/TR 13387 (all parts)]. Aspects of the methodology described in this International
Standard are further amplified in ISO 13571 and ISO 13344.
This International Standard is intended to facilitate addressing the consequences of a single, acute human
exposure to fire effluent. This International Standard does not address other effects of the heat, gases and
aerosols, such as effects on electronic equipment and effects of frequent, multiple environmental exposures of
people, which are of importance in fire safety design.

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This document provides definitions and equations for the calculation of toxic product yields and the fire conditions under which they have been derived in terms of equivalence ratio and combustion efficiency. Sample calculations for practical cases are provided. The methods are intended to be used to produce either instantaneous or averaged values for those experimental fires in which time-resolved data are available. This document is intended to provide guidance to fire researchers for — recording appropriate experimental fire data, — calculating average yields of gases and smoke in fire effluents in fire tests and fire-like combustion in reduced scale apparatus, — characterizing burning behaviour in experimental fires in terms of equivalence ratio and combustion efficiency using oxygen consumption and product generation data. This document does not provide guidance on the operating procedure of any particular piece of apparatus or interpretation of data obtained therein (e.g. toxicological significance of results).

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ISO/TR 24679-6:2017 provides an example of fire safety engineering design in the application of ISO 24679‑1 to an office building. In ISO/TR 24679-6:2017, an overall structural analysis of a building is undertaken. It consists in a numerical assessment of the structural performance of an eight-storey concrete building when subjected to a fire. This analysis is performed in order to demonstrate that the fire safety objectives, for the relevant design fire scenarios, due to structural behaviour of building in the event of fire, are met with the trial plan for the safety of structure. With regards to this, a fully developed fire was studied. The purpose of this document is to assess the performance of an office building which is fully accessible to public in case of fire, using ISO 24679‑1. In this respect, a critical design fire was identified and analysed using detailed fire modelling. A more detailed analysis was then performed for critical design fire using the finite element model. The advanced model provided all the comprehensive information necessary for analysing the given built environment with respect to fire safety. It is to be noted that this document only addresses the fire safety objectives related to the structural performance during fire. The analysis within this document is therefore only part of the overall building fire safety strategy.

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This document defines terminology relating to fire safety as used in ISO and IEC fire standards.

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ISO 13943:2017 defines terminology relating to fire safety as used in ISO and IEC fire standards.

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ISO/TR 24679-4:2017 provides a fire engineering application relative to the fire resistance assessment of a fifteen-storey steel framed building following the methodology given in ISO 24679-1. This document describes the adopted process which follows the same step by step procedure as that provided in ISO 24679-1. The annexes of this document present the detailed assessment results obtained for the most severe fire scenarios on the basis of the outcome of this specific fire safety engineering procedure for the building. The fire safety engineering applied in this example to the office building with respect to its fire resistance considers specific design fire scenarios as well as the corresponding fire development. It takes into account fully-developed compartment fires. In realistic situations, activation of fire suppression systems and/or intervention of fire brigade are expected, but their beneficial effects are not taken into account. It should be noted that these severe fire scenarios have been selected for fire resistance purposes. Global structural behaviour is not explicitly considered, but implicitly included in the calculation formulae. Since the building of the example is located in a seismic region, principal structural elements are rigidly connected to each other. Load redistribution from heated elements to cold surrounding elements exists, but it's not taken into account in the design calculations. By this approach, design is conservative, while the process of safety checking is greatly simplified and clear. As a result, all the calculations were carried out by explicit algebraic formulae.

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ISO 13943:2017 defines terminology relating to fire safety as used in ISO and IEC fire standards.

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ISO 26367-2:2017 specifies a methodology for compiling the information needed to assess the environmental damage caused by a fire incident. This includes conducting a site reconnaissance, establishing data quality objectives and designing sampling programmes. This document also provides a standardized method for reporting the results of the compilation and findings of the analyses, for use in contingency planning or for the assessment of the potential adverse environmental impact of a specific fire incident. This document does not include specific instruction on sampling and analysis of fire effluents. Sampling and analysis are the focus of a future document in the ISO 26367 series. ISO 26367-2:2017 is applicable to uncontrolled fires, including fires in commercial and domestic premises, unenclosed commercial sites, agricultural storage sites, wildland and forest fires, as well as fires involving road, rail and maritime transport systems. ISO 26367-2:2017 focuses on the fire effluents that are environmentally significant, including pollutants causing short-term effects (e.g. pollutants causing biotope damage and components of smog) and long-term effects (e.g. persistent organic pollutants, POP). Since it is not possible to treat all potential pollutants that could be found in fire effluents in a single document, a list of those pollutants specifically addressed in this document is given below: a) pollutants with short-term effects: halogenated acids (HX), metals, nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, and sulfur oxides (SOx); b) pollutants with long-term effects: metals, particulates, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polyhalogenated dioxins and furans (PXDD/PXDF). The reporting template provided in Annex D proposes additional potential pollutants and indicators for inclusion in the compilation. Not all of the pollutants and indicators listed in Table D.1 are relevant to every fire site, and others not mentioned in the table can apply. ISO 26367-2:2017 does not include direct acute toxicity issues on humans, which are covered by other standards, such as ISO 13344 and ISO 13571.

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ISO/TR 24672-2:2017 provides a fire engineering application relative to fire resistance assessment of an airport terminal structure according to the methodology given in ISO 24679‑1. It follows step by step the procedure given by ISO 24679‑1. Some requirements relative to Chinese building regulation are taken into account concerning the fire scenarios. The fire safety engineering applied to an airport terminal takes into account the real fire data based in fire tests. It is important to note that the intervention of fire service brigade dedicated to this airport, located approximately 1 km away, has been taken into account in definition of fire scenarios. For the fire modelling, both fire extinguishing system and the smoke extraction are not considered but the fire fighter intervention has been taken into account 10 min after the starting of fire.

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ISO/TR 16576:2017 compiles examples of fire safety design objectives, functional requirements and safety criteria from Japan, France and New Zealand.

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ISO 12828-2:2016 describes tools and techniques for use in validating the analysis of fire gases when an analytical method is developed in a laboratory. It complements ISO 12828‑1, which deals with limits of quantification and detection. The tools and techniques described can be applied to the measurement of quantities, concentrations (molar and mass), volume fractions, and concentration or volume fraction versus time analyses. Fire effluents are often a complex matrix of chemical species, strongly dependent on the materials involved in the fire, but also dependent on fire scenario parameters (see ISO 19706). With such a wide variety of conditions, the analytical techniques available will differ in terms of the influence of the matrix on the methods and on the concentration ranges which can be measured. The analytical techniques available are likely to differ significantly in several respects, such as their sensitivity to the matrix and the range of concentrations/volume fractions which can be reliably measured. For these reasons, a unique reference analytical technique for every fire effluent of interest is, in practical terms, difficult or impossible to achieve. The tools in this document allow verification of the reliable measurement ranges and conditions for the analysis of fire effluents, thereby enabling a comparison among various analytical techniques. Examples of existing International Standards where the information contained in this document can be used are the analytical chemical methods in ISO 19701, ISO 19702, ISO 5660‑1, and the chemical measurements in the methods discussed in ISO/TR 16312‑2, ISO 16405, or their application to fire toxicity assessment using ISO 13571 and ISO 13344. NOTE 1 The variable "concentration" is used throughout this document, but it can be replaced in all places with "volume fraction" without altering the meaning. This does not apply to the Annexes. NOTE 2 Concentration can be calculated from volume fraction by multiplying by the density of the relevant gas at the relevant temperature and pressure.

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ISO/TS 19700:2016 describes a steady-state tube furnace (SSTF) method for the generation of fire effluent for the identification and measurement of its constituent combustion products, in particular, the yields of toxicants under a range of fire decomposition conditions. It uses a moving test specimen and a tube furnace at different temperatures and airflow rates as the fire model. The interlaboratory reproducibility has been assessed with selected homogenous thermoplastic materials and this document is therefore limited in applicability to such materials. The method is validated for testing homogeneous thermoplastic materials that produce yields of a defined consistency. See limitations in Clause 12.

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ISO 24678-6:2016 provides requirements to govern the application of explicit algebraic formula sets to the calculation of flashover-related phenomena. It is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic formulae. ISO 24678-6:2016 is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic flashover formulae are provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; b) documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; c) limitations of the calculation method; d) input parameters for the calculation method; e) domain of applicability of the calculation method.

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    19 pages
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ISO/TR 13571-2:2016 describes the practical application of ISO 13571 as a tool to evaluate effects of fire effluents on people. The method of application, performance criteria and evaluation of the impact are explained and illustrated by two families of examples: application to real-scale tests (Annex A and Annex B) and application to Fire Safety Engineering (Annex C, D and E).

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ISO/TS 29761:2015 describes a methodology for the selection of design occupant behavioural scenarios that are severe but credible for use in deterministic fire safety engineering analyses of any built environment including buildings, structures, or transportation vehicles. Occupant behavioural scenarios are linked to design fire scenarios. Guidance on the selection of design fire scenarios and design fires is covered in ISO 16733‑1. The steps in ISO 16733‑1 are followed in this Technical Specification with life safety of the occupants as the single fire safety objective under consideration. ISO/TR 16738 provides information on methods for the quantification of the different aspects of human evacuation behaviour in a design context. One part of that process involves the selection of occupant behavioural scenarios. This Technical Specification provides guidance for that aspect of the evaluation of an egress design. ISO/TS 29761:2015 addresses behaviours that occur after fire ignition and does not deal with behaviours that influence fire ignition.

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ISO 16733-1:2015 describes a methodology for the selection of design fire scenarios that are credible but conservative for use in fire safety engineering analyses of any built environment, including buildings, structures or transportation systems. Following the procedures given in this part of ISO 16733-1:2015, a manageable number of design fire scenarios is selected using a qualitative or semi-quantitative approach. For a full quantitative approach using risk assessment, the reader is directed to ISO 16732‑1.

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  • Standard
    36 pages
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This International Standard describes the objectives and functional requirements for the control and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore installations used for the development of hydrocarbon resources.
This International Standard is applicable to the following:
— fixed offshore structures;
— floating systems for production, storage, and offloading;
— petroleum and natural gas industries.
Mobile offshore units as defined in this International Standard and subsea installations are excluded, although many of the principles contained in this International Standard can be used as guidance. This International Standard is based on an approach where the selection of control and mitigation measures for fires and explosions is determined by an evaluation of hazards on the offshore installation.
The methodologies employed in this assessment and the resultant recommendations will differ depending on the complexity of the production process and facilities, type of facility (i.e. open or enclosed), manning levels, and environmental conditions associated with the area of operation. NOTE Statutory requirements, rules, and regulations can, in addition, be applicable for the individual offshore installation concerned.

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ISO/TR 24679-4:2015 provides a fire safety engineering application relative to fire resistance assessment of an open car park according to the methodology given in ISO/TS 24679. It describes the adopted process which followed the same step by step procedure as that given within ISO/TS 24679. The annexes of ISO/TR 24679-4:2015 presents the detailed numerical analysis results obtained for most severe fire scenarios on the basis of this specific fire safety engineering procedure for open car parks.

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ISO 13702:2015 describes the objectives and functional requirements for the control and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore installations used for the development of hydrocarbon resources.
ISO 13702:2015 is applicable to the following:
fixed offshore structures;
floating systems for production, storage, and offloading;
petroleum and natural gas industries.

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ISO 19702:2015 specifies requirements and makes recommendations for sampling systems for use in small and large-scale fire tests, for the selection of parameters and use of the FTIR instrument itself and for collection and use of calibration spectra.

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ISO 16730-1:2015 establishes a framework for the verification and validation of all types of calculation methods used as tools for fire safety engineering by specifying specific procedures and requirements for the purpose. It does not address specific fire models, but it is applicable to analytical models, algebraic correlations and complex numerical models, which are addressed as calculation methods in the context of this International Standard. This International Standard includes - a process to determine that the relevant equations and calculation methods are implemented correctly (verification) and that the calculation method being considered is an accurate representation of the real world (validation), - requirements for documentation to demonstrate the adequacy of the scientific and technical basis of a calculation method, - requirements for data against which a calculation method's predicted results are checked, and - guidance on use of this International Standard by developers and/or users of calculation methods, and by those assessing the results obtained by using calculation methods.

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ISO 16405:2015 gives guidance concerning suitable apparatus and procedures to be used when applying the FTIR method to measure concentrations of effluent gases produced in large-scale or simulated real-scale fire tests. Such tests include the room corner test (see ISO 9705) and open calorimeter tests as described in ISO 24473. This guidance and measuring method only describes the way in which the sampling of the gases and collection of FTIR spectra are performed. Analysis of spectra and calibration is part of ISO 19702.

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Supplementary to Part 1-1. Additional and varied rules to be used for the design of composite structures which are required to avoid premature structural collapse and to limit the spread of fire in the accidental situation of exposure to fire.

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ISO 16730‑1 describes what the contents of a technical documentation and of a user's manual should be for an assessment, if the application of a calculation method as engineering tool to predict real-world scenarios leads to validated results. The purpose of ISO/TR 16730-3:2013 is to show how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method, for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. The example in ISO/TR 16730-3:2013 describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model (ISIS). The main objective of the specific model treated in ISO/TR 16730-3:2013 is the simulation of a fire in an open environment or confined compartments with natural or forced ventilation system.

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ISO 16730‑1 describes what the contents of a technical documentation and of a user's manual should be for an assessment, if the application of a calculation method as engineering tool to predict real-world scenarios leads to validate results. The purpose of ISO 16730-5:2013 is to show how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method, for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. The example in ISO 16730-5:2013 describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for an evacuation model (EXIT89). The main objective of the specific model treated in ISO 16730-5:2013 is the simulation of the evacuation of a high-rise building with a large occupant population.

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ISO 16730-4:2013 shows how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. The example it gives describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for a structural fire resistance model. The main objective of the specific model treated here is the simulation of the heat transfer and structural responses of wall assemblies.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for determining the contribution made by applied passive fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural steel members, which can be used as beams or columns. It considers only sections without openings in the web. It is not directly applicable to structural tension members without further evaluation. Results from analysis of I or H -sections are directly applicable to angles, channels and T-sections for the same section factor, whether used as individual elements or as bracing. This European Standard does not apply to solid bar or rod. This European standard covers fire protection systems that involve only passive materials and not to reactive fire protection materials as defined in this document. The evaluation is designed to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material, a range of steel sections, characterized by their section factors, a range of design temperatures and a range of valid fire protection classification periods. This European standard contains the fire test procedures, which specifies the tests which should be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain coherent and attached to the steelwork, and to provide data on the thermal characteristics of the fire protection system, when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve specified in EN 1363-1. The fire test methodology makes provision for the collection and presentation of data, which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance of steel structural members in accordance with the procedures given in EN 1993-1-2 and EN 1994-1-2. This European standard also contains the assessment, which prescribes how the analysis of the test data shall be made and gives guidance on the procedures by which interpolation should be undertaken. The assessment procedure is used to establish: a) on the basis of temperature data derived from testing loaded and unloaded sections, a correction factor and any practical constraints on the use of the fire protection system under fire test conditions, (the physical performance); b) on the basis of the temperature data derived from testing short steel sections, the thermal properties of the fire protection system, (the thermal performance). The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with permitted direct application of the results to different steel sections and grades and to the fire protection system. The results of the test and assessment obtained according to this European standard are directly applicable to steel sections of I and H cross sectional shape and hollow sections.

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ISO 29904:2013 provides a guide to the generation of aerosol particles in fires, defines apparatus and procedures for the sampling and measurement of aerosols, and provides procedures for the interpretation and reporting of the data. It is intended to assist fire test designers and those making measurements at unwanted fires to choose and use appropriate methods for aerosol measurement for differing hazards to people and the environment. ISO 29904:2013 identifies the scope, applicability, and limitations of each method. The interpretation of the data from these measurements is strongly dependent on the end use of the data. Fire-generated aerosols may present a direct risk of restricting escape from fire by obscuring an exit route, or they may produce chronic health and environmental hazards from chemical compounds contained in the aerosol (for example, toxic chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot or radionuclides form nuclear plant fires.) Aerosol particles may be inhaled to various depths in the lungs, depending on their size and density, or may be released into the environment and deposited on land and in watercourses. In particular, it addresses the following aspects of aerosol generation and measurement in fires: Adsorbed/dissolved gas or vapour phase species; Physical mechanisms involved in the transport of aerosols, dispersal in the fire plume, coagulation/agglomeration leading to variation in particle sizes and fractions, "thermophoresis" (main cause of soot deposition), "diffusiophoresis" and, sedimentation. The interactions between gases and vapours and aerosol: adsorption and removal of species from gas phase, transportation of adsorbed gases into the lungs; Sampling and measurement methods, including their principles of operation, method description, the data provided, and in each case their scope, field of application, advantages and disadvantages; Metrology of the measurement methods, and in the generation of "standard aerosols", and the related uncertainties; Physiological and environmental effects of aerosols insofar as these effects can be used to define the measurement method for specific applications; and Hazards of carbon particles present in the fire effluent as visible "smoke" through their size, morphology, chemical nature, and the nature of the effluent in which they are (or were) suspended. ISO 29904:2013 is not oriented toward the aerosols generated from controlled combustion. (e.g. incineration). However, much of the material in ISO 29904:2013 is common to such aerosols.

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ISO/TR 16730-2:2013 shows how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. ISO/TR 16730-2:2013 describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for a fire zone model (CFAST). The main objective of the specific model treated here is the simulation of a fire in an open environment or in confined compartments with a natural or forced ventilation system.

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ISO/TR 15657:2013 provides an overview of the advances that have been made in understanding how structures respond to fire. This is reviewed in terms of heat transfer to the structural elements from primarily nominal (furnace) fires changes in the elevated temperature, physical and mechanical characteristics of structural materials, and how the information is used in the analysis of structural elements for the fire limit state. In reviewing the fire scenarios the report concentrates primarily on standardized heating curves but includes the basis of characteristic curves, which may at some time in the future be adopted in a standardized way. Reference is made to time equivalent as a recognized methodology in relating a natural or characteristic fire to an equivalent period of heating in the ISO 834 furnace test.

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ISO 19701:2013 presents a range of sampling and chemical analytical methods suitable for the analysis of individual chemical species in fire atmospheres. The procedures relate to the analysis of samples extracted from an apparatus or effluent flow from a fire test rig or physical fire test model and are not concerned with the specific nature of the fire test. It does not cover aerosols and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique.

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ISO/TS 13477:2013 provides guidance for assessing the use of fire zone models for calculating gas temperature and concentrations and smoke layer position due to fire within an enclosure. It contains general guidance to be read in conjunction with specific model documentation provided by the model developers. It is not a basis for justifying the use of any particular model. It is important that users of fire zone models understand the theoretical basis of a model and are capable of assessing the accuracy and validity of the results. Zone models can also include additional sub-models for predicting related phenomena such as sprinkler, thermal or smoke detector activation, mechanical ventilation, glass fracture or flame spread. ISO/TS 13477:2013 is not intended as a basis for regulation.

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