This document describes a test method for measuring a quantity representative of the intrinsic characteristics of airborne sound insulation for traffic noise reducing devices: the sound insulation index.
The test method is intended for the following applications:
-   determination of the intrinsic characteristics of airborne sound insulation of noise reducing devices to be installed along roads, to be measured either in situ or in laboratory conditions;
-   determination of the in situ intrinsic characteristics of airborne sound insulation of noise reducing devices in actual use;
-   comparison of design specifications with actual performance data after the completion of the construction work;
-   verification of the long term performance of noise reducing devices (with a repeated application of the method);
-   interactive design process of new products, including the formulation of installation manuals.
The test method is not intended for the determination of the intrinsic characteristics of airborne sound insulation of noise reducing devices to be installed in reverberant conditions, e.g. inside tunnels or deep trenches or under covers.
Results are expressed as a function of frequency in one-third octave bands, where possible, between 100 Hz and 5 kHz. If it is not possible to get valid measurement results over the whole frequency range indicated, the results will be given in a restricted frequency range and the reasons for the restriction(s) will be clearly reported.

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This document specifies two tyres intended to serve as reference tyres when using the close-proximity (CPX) method specified in ISO 11819-2. The CPX method is a method for evaluating different road surfaces with respect to their influence on traffic noise, under conditions when tyre/road noise dominates. This method ideally requires the use of standardized tyres, which have noise characteristics that are broadly representative of the effect of road surfaces on the noise emission of passenger car and heavy vehicle tyres. However, such tyres are not specified in ISO 11819-2. This document serves to specify these standardized tyres.

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This document specifies the conditions for obtaining reproducible and comparable measurement results
of the airborne sound emitted by vessels of all kinds, on inland waterways and in ports and harbours,
except powered recreational craft as specified in the ISO 14509 series. This document is applicable to
sea-going vessels, harbour vessels, dredgers, and all watercraft, including non-displacement craft, used
or capable of being used as a means of transport on water. There are no limitations to the application
of this document with regard to speed, length and height of vessels, as long as the ship is determined to
act like a point source at the reference distance of 25 m.
All noise data obtained in accordance with this document are referred to a reference distance of 25 m.

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This document specifies the conditions for obtaining reproducible and comparable measurement results of the airborne sound emitted by vessels of all kinds, on inland waterways and in ports and harbours, except powered recreational craft as specified in the ISO 14509 series. This document is applicable to sea-going vessels, harbour vessels, dredgers, and all watercraft, including non-displacement craft, used or capable of being used as a means of transport on water. There are no limitations to the application of this document with regard to speed, length and height of vessels, as long as the ship is determined to act like a point source at the reference distance of 25 m. All noise data obtained in accordance with this document are referred to a reference distance of 25 m.

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This European standard describes the type test assessment method for acoustic signals at passenger external doors applying to rolling stock. The following applies to this standard: - this standard refers to acoustical passenger information indicating the release, opening and closing of passenger doors; - this standard is applicable to tonal signals with defined frequency components; - this standard is not applicable to spoken information.
NOTE 1   Acoustic door signals in terms of TSI compliance are defined in EN 16584-2 "Design for PRM use".
NOTE 2   Acoustic doors signals in terms of door system function are described in EN 14752.

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This European Standard specifies minimum requirements and other criteria for assessing the general safety and environmental performance of road traffic noise reducing devices under typical roadside conditions. Requirements for more onerous conditions are a matter for consideration by the designer. Appropriate test methods are provided where these are necessary, but for some aspects a declaration of material characteristics may be required for the information of designers. The treatment of each topic is covered separately in Annexes A to F.

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This document specifies methods for calculating an equivalent monopole source level by converting radiated noise level values obtained in deep water according to ISO 17208-1. Procedures are also given for direct calculation from measurements made in deep water with specific hydrophone geometry. The source level calculated by the procedure in this document is that of an equivalent monopole source at a specified nominal source depth, and for broadside aspect only. The nominal source depth is intended to be reported with the equivalent monopole broadside source level value.

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This document specifies methods for measuring tyre-to-road sound emissions from tyres fitted on a motor vehicle under coast-by conditions, i.e. when the vehicle is in free-rolling, non-powered operation. This is typically achieved by putting the transmission in the neutral or equivalent position and switching off the engine as well as all auxiliary systems not necessary for safe driving. This document is applicable to passenger cars and commercial vehicles as defined in ISO 3833. It is not intended to be used to determine the sound contribution of tyres of vehicles running in powered condition nor for the determination of traffic sound nuisance at a given location.

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This document specifies a test procedure, environment and instrumentation for measuring the exterior sound pressure levels from road vehicles under stationary conditions, providing a continuous measure of the sound pressure level over a range of engine speeds. This document applies only to road vehicles of categories L, M, and N equipped with internal combustion engines. Vehicles where an internal combustion engine cannot operate when the vehicle is at stationary conditions are outside the scope of this document. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. It is within the scope of this document to measure the stationary A-weighted sound pressure level during — type approval measurements of vehicle; — measurements at the manufacturing stage; — measurements at official testing stations; — measurements at roadside testing. This document specifices a test method to determine a reference sound level which is unique for the vehicle and therefore not suitable to compare against a general limit, as test condition, microphone condition location relative to the sound sources can vary significantly. The test conditions in proximity and at engine speeds significantly higher compared to real operation conditions in traffic are deliberately chosen to enable in-use tests at higher background conditions, which are typical for road-side checks. Technical background information is given in Annex A.

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This European Standard specifies a direct method for characterizing the surface roughness of the rail and
wheel associated with rolling noise ("acoustic roughness"), in the form of a one-third octave band spectrum. This
standard describes a method for:
a) selecting measuring positions along a track or selecting wheels of a vehicle;
b) selecting lateral positions for measurements;
c) the data acquisition procedure;
d) measurement data processing in order to estimate a set of one-third octave band roughness spectra;
e) presentation of this estimate for comparison with limits of acoustic roughness;
f) comparison with a given upper limit in terms of a one-third octave band wavelength spectrum;
g) the measuring system requirements.
It is applicable to:
a) the performance testing of reference track sections in relation to the acceptance test for noise emitted by
railway vehicles;
b) the performance testing of track sections in relation to noise emitted by railway vehicles;
c) the acceptance of the running surface condition only in the case where the acoustic roughness is the
acceptance criterion;
d) the assessment of the wheel surface condition as an input for the acoustic acceptance of brake blocks;
e) the assessment of the wheel and rail roughness as input to the calculation of combined wheel rail
roughness;
f) the diagnosis of wheel-rail noise issues for specific tracks or wheels;
g) the assessment of the wheel and rail roughness as input to rolling noise modelling;
h) the assessment of the wheel and rail roughness as input to noise source separation methods.
It is not applicable to the:
a) measurement of roughness using an indirect method;
b) direct measurement of combined wheel-rail roughness;
c) analysis of the effect of wheel-rail interaction, such as a “contact filter”;
d) approval of rail and wheel reprofiling, including rail grinding operations, except for those where the
acoustic roughness is specifically the approval criterion (and not the grinding quality criteria as provided
in e.g. EN 13231);
e) characterisation of track and wheel geometry except where associated with noise generation.

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1.1   This document specifies a direct measurement method for characterizing the surface roughness of the rail and wheel associated with rolling noise ("acoustic roughness"), in the form of a one-third octave band spectrum.
This document describes a method for:
a)   selecting measuring positions along a track or selecting wheels of a vehicle;
b)   selecting lateral positions for measurements;
c)   the data acquisition procedure;
d)   measurement data processing in order to estimate a set of one-third octave band roughness spectra;
e)   presentation of this estimate for comparison with limits of acoustic roughness;
f)   comparison with a given upper limit in terms of a one-third octave band wavelength spectrum;
g)   the measuring system requirements.
1.2   It is applicable to the:
a)   compliance testing of reference track sections in relation to the acceptance test for noise emitted by railway vehicles;
b)   performance testing of track sections in relation to noise emitted by railway vehicles;
c)   acceptance of the running surface condition only in the case where the acoustic roughness is the acceptance criterion;
d)   assessment of the wheel surface condition as an input for the acoustic acceptance of brake blocks;
e)   assessment of the wheel and rail roughness as input to the calculation of combined wheel rail roughness;
f)   diagnosis of wheel-rail noise issues for specific tracks or wheels;
g)   assessment of the wheel and rail roughness as input to rolling noise modelling;
h)   assessment of the wheel and rail roughness as input to noise source separation methods.
1.3   It is not applicable to the:
a)   measurement of roughness (rail roughness, wheel roughness or combined roughness) using an indirect method;
b)   analysis of the effect of wheel-rail interaction, such as a “contact filter”;
c)   approval of rail and wheel reprofiling, including rail grinding operations, except for those where the acoustic roughness is specifically the approval criterion (and not the grinding quality criteria as provided in e.g. EN 13231-3);
d)   characterization of track and wheel geometry except where associated with noise generation.

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This document describes a test method to determine the average depth of pavement surface
macrotexture (see Clause 3) by measuring the profile of a surface and calculating the texture depth
from this profile. The technique is designed to provide an average depth value of only the pavement
macrotexture and is considered insensitive to pavement microtexture and unevenness characteristics.
The objective of this document is to make available an internationally accepted procedure for
determination of pavement surface texture depth which is an alternative to the traditionally used
volumetric patch technique (generally using sand or glass beads), giving comparable texture depth
values. To this end, this document describes filtering procedures that are designed to give the best
possible representation of texture depths determined with the volumetric patch method[13].
Modern profilometers in use are almost entirely of the contactless type (e.g. laser, light slit or light
sheet, to mention a few) and this document is primarily intended for this type. However, this does not
exclude application of parts of it for other types of profilometers.
This ISO 13473 series has been prepared as a result of a need identified when specifying a test surface
for vehicle noise measurement (see ISO 10844:2014[6]). Macrotexture depth measurements according
to this document are not generally adequate for specifying test conditions of vehicle or traffic noise
measurements, but have limited applications as a supplement in conjunction with other ways of
specifying a surfacing.
This test method is suitable for determining the mean profile depth (MPD) of a pavement surface.
This MPD can be transformed to a quantity which estimates the macrotexture depth according to
the volumetric patch method. It is applicable to field tests as well as laboratory tests on pavement
samples. When used in conjunction with other physical tests, the macrotexture depth values derived
from this test method are applicable to estimation of pavement skid resistance characteristics (see e.g.
Reference [15]), estimation of noise characteristics and assessment of the suitability of paving materials
or pavement finishing techniques.
The method, together with other measurements (where applicable), such as porosity or microtexture,
can be used to assess the quality of pavements.
This document is adapted for pavement texture measurement and is not intended for other applications.
Pavement aggregate particle shape, size and distribution are surface texture features not addressed
in this procedure. The method is not meant to provide a complete assessment of pavement surface
texture characteristics. In particular, it is known that there are problems in interpreting the result if
the method is applied to porous surfaces or to grooved surfaces (see Annex B).
NOTE Other International Standards dealing with surface profiling methods include, for example,
References [1], [2] and [3]. Although it is not clearly stated in these, they are mainly used for measuring surface
finish (microtexture) of metal surfaces and are not intended to be applied to pavements.

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This document describes a test method to determine the average depth of pavement surface macrotexture (see Clause 3) by measuring the profile of a surface and calculating the texture depth from this profile. The technique is designed to provide an average depth value of only the pavement macrotexture and is considered insensitive to pavement microtexture and unevenness characteristics.
The objective of this document is to make available an internationally accepted procedure for determination of pavement surface texture depth which is an alternative to the traditionally used volumetric patch technique (generally using sand or glass beads), giving comparable texture depth values. To this end, this document describes filtering procedures that are designed to give the best possible representation of texture depths determined with the volumetric patch method[13].
Modern profilometers in use are almost entirely of the contactless type (e.g. laser, light slit or light sheet, to mention a few) and this document is primarily intended for this type. However, this does not exclude application of parts of it for other types of profilometers.
This ISO 13473 series has been prepared as a result of a need identified when specifying a test surface for vehicle noise measurement (see ISO 10844:2014[6]). Macrotexture depth measurements according to this document are not generally adequate for specifying test conditions of vehicle or traffic noise measurements, but have limited applications as a supplement in conjunction with other ways of specifying a surfacing.
This test method is suitable for determining the mean profile depth (MPD) of a pavement surface. This MPD can be transformed to a quantity which estimates the macrotexture depth according to the volumetric patch method. It is applicable to field tests as well as laboratory tests on pavement samples. When used in conjunction with other physical tests, the macrotexture depth values derived from this test method are applicable to estimation of pavement skid resistance characteristics (see e.g. Reference [15]), estimation of noise characteristics and assessment of the suitability of paving materials or pavement finishing techniques.
The method, together with other measurements (where applicable), such as porosity or microtexture, can be used to assess the quality of pavements.
This document is adapted for pavement texture measurement and is not intended for other applications. Pavement aggregate particle shape, size and distribution are surface texture features not addressed in this procedure. The method is not meant to provide a complete assessment of pavement surface texture characteristics. In particular, it is known that there are problems in interpreting the result if the method is applied to porous surfaces or to grooved surfaces (see Annex B).
NOTE Other International Standards dealing with surface profiling methods include, for example, References [1], [2] and [3]. Although it is not clearly stated in these, they are mainly used for measuring surface finish (microtexture) of metal surfaces and are not intended to be applied to pavements.

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This document describes a test method to determine the average depth of pavement surface macrotexture (see Clause 3) by measuring the profile of a surface and calculating the texture depth from this profile. The technique is designed to provide an average depth value of only the pavement macrotexture and is considered insensitive to pavement microtexture and unevenness characteristics. The objective of this document is to make available an internationally accepted procedure for determination of pavement surface texture depth which is an alternative to the traditionally used volumetric patch technique (generally using sand or glass beads), giving comparable texture depth values. To this end, this document describes filtering procedures that are designed to give the best possible representation of texture depths determined with the volumetric patch method[13]. Modern profilometers in use are almost entirely of the contactless type (e.g. laser, light slit or light sheet, to mention a few) and this document is primarily intended for this type. However, this does not exclude application of parts of it for other types of profilometers. This ISO 13473 series has been prepared as a result of a need identified when specifying a test surface for vehicle noise measurement (see ISO 10844:2014[6]). Macrotexture depth measurements according to this document are not generally adequate for specifying test conditions of vehicle or traffic noise measurements, but have limited applications as a supplement in conjunction with other ways of specifying a surfacing. This test method is suitable for determining the mean profile depth (MPD) of a pavement surface. This MPD can be transformed to a quantity which estimates the macrotexture depth according to the volumetric patch method. It is applicable to field tests as well as laboratory tests on pavement samples. When used in conjunction with other physical tests, the macrotexture depth values derived from this test method are applicable to estimation of pavement skid resistance characteristics (see e.g. Reference [15]), estimation of noise characteristics and assessment of the suitability of paving materials or pavement finishing techniques. The method, together with other measurements (where applicable), such as porosity or microtexture, can be used to assess the quality of pavements. This document is adapted for pavement texture measurement and is not intended for other applications. Pavement aggregate particle shape, size and distribution are surface texture features not addressed in this procedure. The method is not meant to provide a complete assessment of pavement surface texture characteristics. In particular, it is known that there are problems in interpreting the result if the method is applied to porous surfaces or to grooved surfaces (see Annex B). NOTE Other International Standards dealing with surface profiling methods include, for example, References [1], [2] and [3]. Although it is not clearly stated in these, they are mainly used for measuring surface finish (microtexture) of metal surfaces and are not intended to be applied to pavements.

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This European Standard specifies criteria to categorize road traffic noise reducing devices according to basic mechanical performance under standard conditions of exposure, irrespective of the materials used. A range of conditions and optional requirements is provided in order to take into account the wide diversity of practice in Europe. Individual aspects of performance are covered separately in the annexes. Safety considerations in the event of damage to noise reducing devices are covered in EN 1794-2.
This European Standard covers the current behaviour of the product. In order to assess its long term performances, EN 14389-2 should be used.
NOTE   The test procedure described in Annex A doesn't consider the fatigue effect.

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This part of ISO 14509 specifies the conditions for obtaining reproducible and comparable measurement
results of the maximum sound pressure level of airborne sound generated during the passage of powered
recreational craft of up to 24 m length of hull, including inboards, stern drives, personal watercraft (PWC) and
outboard motors. It also specifies standard craft based type tests for stern drives with integral exhaust
systems and for outboard motors. It also specifies the procedure to be followed if, in addition to the maximum
sound pressure level, the determination of the sound exposure level is desired.
NOTE For craft other than those specified above, ISO 2922 is applicable for sound emission measurements.
The accuracy grade of the acoustical test procedures specified in this part of ISO 14509 is engineering grade
(grade 2).

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This part of ISO 14509 specifies the procedures for assessing sound emission of powered monohull
recreational craft of length up to 24 m with a Froude number greater than 1,1. It is not applicable for personal
watercraft (PWC).
This part of ISO 14509 specifies the determination of the A-weighted sound pressure level by combining a
calculation method and a measurement method.

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This part of ISO 14509 specifies the conditions for obtaining reproducible and comparable measurement
results of the maximum sound pressure level of airborne sound generated during the passage of powered
recreational craft of up to 24 m length of hull, including inboards, stern drives, personal watercraft (PWC) and
outboard motors. It also specifies standard craft based type tests for stern drives with integral exhaust
systems and for outboard motors. It also specifies the procedure to be followed if, in addition to the maximum
sound pressure level, the determination of the sound exposure level is desired.
NOTE For craft other than those specified above, ISO 2922 is applicable for sound emission measurements.
The accuracy grade of the acoustical test procedures specified in this part of ISO 14509 is engineering grade
(grade 2).

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This part of ISO 14509 specifies the procedures for assessing sound emission of powered monohull
recreational craft of length up to 24 m with a Froude number greater than 1,1. It is not applicable for personal
watercraft (PWC).
This part of ISO 14509 specifies the determination of the A-weighted sound pressure level by combining a
calculation method and a measurement method.

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This draft European Standard specifies requirements for assessing the working life and provides the relevant exposure conditions.
Standards of construction and any material tests conducted should provide evidence of resistance to specified conditions selected from the following:
I.   Chemical Agents   Location
dependent
II.   De-icing salt   Location/climate
dependent
III.   Dirty water/dust   Location/
Climate
dependent
IV.   Dew   Climate
dependent
V.   Freeze/thaw   Climate
dependent
VI.   Cold   Climate
dependent
VII.   Heat   Climate
dependent
VIII.   UV Radiation   Climate
dependent
IX.   Traffic Vibration   Location
dependent
X.   Biological Process   Climate
dependent
XI.   Ozone   Location
dependent
XII.   Water   Climate
dependent
XIII.   Water spray
Wet/dry   Location
dependent
NOTE   Special care needs to be taken for combinations of different materials, whether inside a single device or in combination with other devices (for example: a combination of different acoustic elements or another combination of acoustic and structural elements).

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This draft European Standard applies only for noise barriers composed of posts as structural elements and panels as acoustic elements (fabricated for example from metal, timber, plastic or concrete panels, etc.), including accidental combination of these materials. It also applies for acoustic claddings of existing walls and partial or total acoustic coverings of the rail track.
Acoustic elements need to be tested together with the structural elements to represent the noise barrier as in the intended use.
This draft European Standard provides criteria to verify railway noise barriers and related devices according to basic mechanical performance under standard conditions of exposure, irrespective of the materials used. A range of conditions and optional requirements is provided to allow for the wide diversity of practice within Europe. Individual aspects of performance are covered separately in the annexes.
This draft European Standard provides test methods and criteria for the assessment of railway noise barriers with respect to their mechanical performance and stability under static loading.

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This European Standard describes the basic requirements for the verification of ultimate and serviceability limit states and the resistance to fatigue either of the noise barrier or its components by means of analytical methods and/or tests.
Analytical methods can be used for the determination of the characteristic values and design values.
Where sufficient information is not available, the analytical procedure may be combined with results from tests.
The following types of test procedures may be used:
- test on small samples for defining detail categories, which may not be covered by Eurocodes (verification procedure A provided within the present European Standard);
- test on a global element for defining the limit state against fatigue (verification procedure B provided within the present European Standard).
In order to verify the assumptions of the design model, a static load test of the components shall be performed according to prEN 16727-1.
Alternatively, fatigue resistance of the noise barrier components can be determined for defined loading conditions by mean of full scale tests under a given representative loading (verification procedure C provided within the present standard).

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This European Standard specifies the laboratory method for measuring the airborne sound insulation performance of road traffic noise reducing devices in reverberant conditions. It covers the assessment of the intrinsic performance of barriers that can reasonably be assembled inside the testing facility described in EN ISO 10140-2 and EN ISO 10140-4.
This method is not intended for the determination of the intrinsic characteristics of airborne sound insulation of noise reducing devices to be installed on roads in non-reverberant conditions.

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This document specifies the laboratory method for measuring the airborne sound insulation performance of road traffic noise reducing devices in reverberant conditions. It covers the assessment of the intrinsic performance of barriers that can reasonably be assembled inside the testing facility described in EN ISO 10140-2 and EN ISO 10140-4.
This method is not intended for the determination of the intrinsic characteristics of airborne sound insulation of noise reducing devices to be installed on roads in non-reverberant conditions.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for assessing the working life and provides the relevant exposure conditions.
Standards of construction and any material tests conducted should provide evidence of resistance to specified conditions selected from the following:
TABLE
NOTE   Special care needs to be taken for combinations of different materials, whether inside a single device or in combination with other devices (for example: a combination of different acoustic elements or another combination of acoustic and structural elements).

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This standard specifies a method for measuring the effect of road surfaces on traffic noise in cases when tyre/road noise dominates.

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ISO 11819-2:2017 specifies a method of evaluating different road surfaces with respect to their influence on traffic noise, under conditions when tyre/road noise dominates. The interpretation of the results applies to free-flowing traffic travelling on essentially level roads at constant speeds of 40 km/h and upwards, in which cases tyre/road noise is assumed to dominate (although in some countries it is possible that tyre/road noise does not dominate at 40 km/h when the proportion of heavy vehicles is high). For other driving conditions where traffic is not free-flowing, such as at junctions or under heavy acceleration, and where the traffic is congested, the influence of the road surface on noise emission is more complex. This is also the case for roads with high longitudinal gradients and a high proportion of heavy vehicles.
A standard method for comparing noise characteristics of road surfaces gives road and environment authorities a tool for establishing common practices or limits as to the use of surfacings meeting certain noise criteria. However, it is not within the scope of this document to suggest such criteria.
ISO 11819-1 defines another method: the statistical pass-by (SPB) method. The close-proximity (CPX) method specified in the present document has the same main objectives as the SPB method, but is intended to be used specifically in applications that are complementary to it, such as:
- noise characterization of road surfaces at almost any arbitrary site, with the main purpose of checking compliance with a surface specification (an example for conformity of production is suggested in Reference [1]);
- checking the acoustic effect of maintenance and condition, e.g. wear of and damage to surfaces, as well as clogging and the effect of cleaning of porous surfaces;
- checking the longitudinal and lateral homogeneity of a road section;
- the development of quieter road surfaces and research on tyre/road interaction.
NOTE This document does not describe the conditions of application for formal purposes of the measurement with the CPX method. Such conditions may be defined in other standards or legal texts. However, suggestions for the applicability of ISO 11819-1 and this document are provided in Annex D.
Measurements with the CPX method are faster and more practical than with the SPB method, but are more limited in the sense that it is relevant only in cases where tyre/road noise dominates and power unit noise can be neglected. Furthermore, it cannot take heavy vehicle tyre/road noise into account as fully as the SPB method can, since it uses a light truck tyre as a proxy for heavy vehicle tyres and does not take power unit noise into account.
The CPX method specified in this document is intended to measure the properties of road surfaces, not the properties of tyres. If the method is used for research purposes, to provide an indication of differences between tyres, the loads and inflations would normally be adjusted to other values than specified in this document.

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ISO 18405:2017 defines terms and expressions used in the field of underwater acoustics, including natural, biological and anthropogenic (i.e. man-made) sound. It includes the generation, propagation and reception of underwater sound and its scattering, including reflection, in the underwater environment including the seabed (or sea bottom), sea surface and biological organisms. It also includes all aspects of the effects of underwater sound on the underwater environment, humans and aquatic life. The properties of underwater acoustical systems are excluded.

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ISO 18407:2017 describes the methodologies, procedures, and measurement systems to be used for the measurement of the radiated underwater acoustic sound generated during pile driving using percussive blows with a hammer. A major motivation for undertaking measurements of the sound radiated during percussive pile driving is as part of an assessment of impact on aquatic fauna required by regulatory frameworks. This document describes a generic approach to measurements that can be applied to different regulatory requirements. ISO 18407:2017 is suitable for measurement of percussive pile driving undertaken for offshore installation of foundations (monopiles, jackets, tripods, etc.) used in construction of offshore wind farms, oil and gas platforms, and other inshore structures such as bridge foundations and aquatic renewable energy devices. This document does not cover measurement of the sound radiated by vibro-piling or sheet piling. This document does not cover piling in water of depth less than 4 m or greater than 100 m. The procedures described herein provide guidance on making measurements to satisfy the following objectives: - to monitor source output during piling, for example, for regulatory purposes; - to provide consistency in comparison of piling noise from different construction projects; - for validation of modelling or predictions. ISO 18407:2017 covers only the measurement of the sound field radiated during percussive pile driving. The scope of this document does not include the assessment of exposure metrics, or the use of exposure criteria. No attempt is made to prescribe a methodology for generating maps of the acoustic field in the vicinity of the source. In the normative part of this document, requirements and procedures are described for measurement of the sound field at specific ranges from the pile being driven. In this part of the document, no procedure is provided for determination of an acoustic output metric that is independent of the propagation path between source and receiver (such as a source level). Ideally, such a metric would have some predictive utility (for example, in calculating noise impact zones and noise maps). However, some information on the determination of a possible acoustic output metric is provided in Annex A. ISO 18407:2017 covers only the measurement of sound pressure in the water column. The scope does not include measurement of sound particle velocity in the water column due to the propagating sound wave, or seabed vibration caused by waves propagating across the sea-floor. This exclusion does not imply that such measures are unimportant; indeed, their importance in assessing the impact on aquatic life is recognized. However, at the time of drafting, measurement of these quantities is not yet mature enough for standardization.

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This European Standard specifies the laboratory method for measuring the sound absorption performance of road traffic noise reducing devices in reverberant conditions. It covers the assessment of the intrinsic sound absorption performance of devices that can reasonably be assembled inside the testing facility described in EN ISO 354.
This method is not intended for the determination of the intrinsic characteristics of sound absorption of noise reducing devices to be installed on roads in non-reverberant conditions.
The test method in EN ISO 354 referred to in this European Standard excludes devices that act as weakly damped resonators. Some devices will depart significantly from these requirements and in these cases care is needed in interpreting the results.

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ISO/TS 11819-3:2017 specifies two tyres intended to serve as reference tyres when using the close-proximity (CPX) method specified in ISO 11819-2. The CPX method is a method for evaluating different road surfaces with respect to their influence on traffic noise, under conditions when tyre/road noise dominates. This method ideally requires the use of standardized tyres, which have noise characteristics that are broadly representative of the effect of road surfaces on the noise emission of passenger car and heavy vehicle tyres. However, such tyres are not specified in ISO 11819-2. This document serves to specify these standardized tyres.

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ISO/TS 13471-1:2017 specifies procedures for determining the effect of temperature on tyre/road noise emission. Temperatures considered are tyre, road and ambient air temperatures. The noise emission for which this document is applicable is measured by means of ISO 11819‑2, or similar methods such as the on-board sound intensity (OBSI) method specified in Reference [1]. Measurement results obtained at a certain temperature, which may vary over a wide range, are normalized to a designated reference temperature (20 °C) using a correction procedure specified in this document.

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ISO 11819-2:2017 specifies a method of evaluating different road surfaces with respect to their influence on traffic noise, under conditions when tyre/road noise dominates. The interpretation of the results applies to free-flowing traffic travelling on essentially level roads at constant speeds of 40 km/h and upwards, in which cases tyre/road noise is assumed to dominate (although in some countries it is possible that tyre/road noise does not dominate at 40 km/h when the proportion of heavy vehicles is high). For other driving conditions where traffic is not free-flowing, such as at junctions or under heavy acceleration, and where the traffic is congested, the influence of the road surface on noise emission is more complex. This is also the case for roads with high longitudinal gradients and a high proportion of heavy vehicles. A standard method for comparing noise characteristics of road surfaces gives road and environment authorities a tool for establishing common practices or limits as to the use of surfacings meeting certain noise criteria. However, it is not within the scope of this document to suggest such criteria. ISO 11819-1 defines another method: the statistical pass-by (SPB) method. The close-proximity (CPX) method specified in the present document has the same main objectives as the SPB method, but is intended to be used specifically in applications that are complementary to it, such as: - noise characterization of road surfaces at almost any arbitrary site, with the main purpose of checking compliance with a surface specification (an example for conformity of production is suggested in Reference [1]); - checking the acoustic effect of maintenance and condition, e.g. wear of and damage to surfaces, as well as clogging and the effect of cleaning of porous surfaces; - checking the longitudinal and lateral homogeneity of a road section; - the development of quieter road surfaces and research on tyre/road interaction. NOTE This document does not describe the conditions of application for formal purposes of the measurement with the CPX method. Such conditions may be defined in other standards or legal texts. However, suggestions for the applicability of ISO 11819-1 and this document are provided in Annex D. Measurements with the CPX method are faster and more practical than with the SPB method, but are more limited in the sense that it is relevant only in cases where tyre/road noise dominates and power unit noise can be neglected. Furthermore, it cannot take heavy vehicle tyre/road noise into account as fully as the SPB method can, since it uses a light truck tyre as a proxy for heavy vehicle tyres and does not take power unit noise into account. The CPX method specified in this document is intended to measure the properties of road surfaces, not the properties of tyres. If the method is used for research purposes, to provide an indication of differences between tyres, the loads and inflations would normally be adjusted to other values than specified in this document.

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This European Standard specifies the laboratory method for measuring the sound absorption performance of road traffic noise reducing devices in reverberant conditions. It covers the assessment of the intrinsic sound absorption performance of devices that can reasonably be assembled inside the testing facility described in EN ISO 354.
This method is not intended for the determination of the intrinsic characteristics of sound absorption of noise reducing devices to be installed on roads in non-reverberant conditions.
The test method in EN ISO 354 referred to in this European Standard excludes devices that act as weakly damped resonators. Some devices will depart significantly from these requirements and in these cases, care is needed in interpreting the results.

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This European Standard specifies minimum requirements and other criteria for assessing the general safety and environmental performance of noise barriers and related devices acting on airborne sound propagation under typical rail-side conditions. Requirements for more onerous conditions are a matter for consideration by the designer. Appropriate test methods are provided where these are necessary, but for some aspects a declaration of material characteristics may be required for the information of designers. The treatment of each topic is covered separately in Annexes A to G.

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This European Standard describes a test method for determining the intrinsic characteristics of sound diffraction of added devices installed on the top of railway noise barriers. The test method prescribes measurements of the sound pressure level at several reference points near the top edge of a noise barrier with and without the added device installed on its top. The effectiveness of the added device is calculated as the difference between the measured values with and without the added devices, correcting for any change in height (the method described gives the acoustic benefit over a simple barrier of the same height; however, in practice the added device can raise the height and this would provide additional screening depending on the source and receiver positions).

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  • Standard
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ISO 362-3:2016 specifies an engineering method for measuring the noise emitted by road vehicles of categories M and N by using a semi anechoic chamber. The specifications are intended to achieve an acoustical correlation between testing the exterior noise of road vehicles in a semi anechoic chamber and outdoor testing as described in ISO 362-1. ISO 362-3:2016 provides all necessary specifications and procedures for indoor testing to obtain results which are comparable to typical run-to-run variations of measurements in today's type approval tests. It provides a method designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with the reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. NOTE 1 The results obtained by this method give an objective measure of the noise emitted under the specified conditions of test. It is necessary to consider the fact that the subjective appraisal of the noise annoyance of different classes of motor vehicles is not simply related to the indications of a sound measuring system. As annoyance is strongly related to personal human perception, physiological human conditions, culture, and environmental conditions, there is a large variation and annoyance is therefore not useful as a parameter to describe a specific vehicle condition. NOTE 2 If measurements are carried out in rooms which do not fulfill the requirements stated in ISO 362-3 :2016, the results obtained can deviate from the results using the specified conditions.

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The present document describes a test method for measuring a quantity representative of the intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection from road noise reducing devices: the reflection index.
The test method is intended for the following applications:
- determination of the intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection of noise reducing devices to be installed along roads, to be measured either on typical installations alongside roads or on a relevant sample section;
- determination of the in situ intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection of noise reducing devices in actual use;
- comparison of design specifications with actual performance data after the completion of the construction work;
- verification of the long-term performance of noise reducing devices (with a repeated application of the method).
The test method is not intended for the following applications:
- determination of the intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection of noise reducing devices to be installed in reverberant conditions, e.g. inside tunnels or deep trenches.
Results are expressed as a function of frequency, in one-third octave bands between 100 Hz and 5 kHz. If it is not possible to get valid measurements results over the whole frequency range indicated, the results shall be given in a restricted frequency range and the reasons of the restriction(s) shall be clearly reported.

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This method is used to determine combined wheel-rail roughness and track decay rates from rail vibration during the pass-by of a train. By combining sound pressure measurement from the same pass-by, a vibro-acoustic transfer function for rolling noise is determined.
The track decay rate is a vibration quantity that characterizes the attenuation of rail vibration along the track for a given wheel/rail contact excitation, and thereby affects the amount of sound radiation from the track.
Combined roughness is a quantity that determines the level of excitation of wheel-rail rolling noise. It can be determined from vertical rail vibration during a train pass-by and the vertical track decay rate. The transfer function can be used to characterize the vibro-acoustic behaviour of the vehicle-track system for a given roughness excitation and in relation to rolling noise. Combined roughness, track decay rates and transfer functions are determined as one-third octave spectra.
The method can be used for the following purposes:
-   to measure track decay rates under operational conditions;
-   to characterize the effectiveness of noise control measures in terms of combined roughness, transfer function and track decay rate;
-   to compare the combined roughness before and after noise control measures are implemented (thereby quantifying the effect of any change in wheel or rail roughness);
-   to monitor wheel roughness during a pass-by, either of whole trains or parts of trains;
-   to separate rolling noise from other sources;
-   to assess a threshold for the rail roughness by measuring multiple pass-bys.
The method is not for approval of sections of reference track in terms of acoustic rail roughness and track decay rates, which are covered by EN 15610 and EN 15461, respectively.
The method is applicable to trains on conventional tracks, i.e. normal ballasted tracks with wooden or concrete sleepers and on ballastless track systems.
The method has not yet been validated for:
-   non-standard wheel types such as small wheels, resilient tram wheels;
-   non-standard track types such as embedded rail or grooved rail.

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This European standard defines the loading, the relevant load model positions and the internal forces of noise barriers caused by the air pressure wave of passing trains based on EN 1991-2 Eurocode 1, clause 6.6.2. The vertical and horizontal shape of the air pressure wave and the dynamic effects have been taken into account. The calculation method described in this European standard has been developed for noise barriers having a post-panel structure with pile foundations and can also be used for claddings attached to rigid structures. For pile-founded structures an empirical formula for the determination of the natural frequency is given in Annex A, and in Annex B an example of use is shown.

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This method is used to determine combined wheel-rail roughness and track decay rates from rail vibration during the pass-by of a train. By combining sound pressure measurement from the same pass-by, a vibro-acoustic transfer function for rolling noise is determined.
The track decay rate is a vibration quantity that characterizes the attenuation of rail vibration along the track for a given wheel/rail contact excitation, and thereby affects the amount of sound radiation from the track.
Combined roughness is a quantity that determines the level of excitation of wheel-rail rolling noise. It can be determined from vertical rail vibration during a train pass-by and the vertical track decay rate. The transfer function can be used to characterize the vibro-acoustic behaviour of the vehicle-track system for a given roughness excitation and in relation to rolling noise. Combined roughness, track decay rates and transfer functions are determined as one-third octave spectra.
The method can be used for the following purposes:
-   to measure track decay rates under operational conditions;
-   to characterize the effectiveness of noise control measures in terms of combined roughness, transfer function and track decay rate;
-   to compare the combined roughness before and after noise control measures are implemented (thereby quantifying the effect of any change in wheel or rail roughness);
-   to monitor wheel roughness during a pass-by, either of whole trains or parts of trains;
-   to separate rolling noise from other sources;
-   to assess a threshold for the rail roughness by measuring multiple pass-bys.
The method is not for approval of sections of reference track in terms of acoustic rail roughness and track decay rates, which are covered by EN 15610 and EN 15461, respectively.
The method is applicable to trains on conventional tracks, i.e. normal ballasted tracks with wooden or concrete sleepers and on ballastless track systems.
The method has not yet been validated for:
-   non-standard wheel types such as small wheels, resilient tram wheels;
-   non-standard track types such as embedded rail or grooved rail.

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ISO 16254:2016 is derived from ISO 362‑1 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the sound emitted by M and N category road vehicles at standstill and low speed operating conditions. The specifications reproduce the level of sound which is generated by the principal vehicle sound sources consistent with stationary and low speed vehicle operating conditions relevant for pedestrian safety. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustic environment which is only obtained in an extensive open space. Such conditions usually exist during the following: - measurements of vehicles for regulatory certification; - measurements at the manufacturing stage; - measurements at official testing stations. The results obtained by this method give an objective measure of the sound emitted under the specified conditions of test. It is necessary to consider the fact that the subjective appraisal of the annoyance, perceptibility, and/or detectability of different motor vehicles or classes of motor vehicles due to their sound emission are not simply related to the indications of a sound measurement system. As annoyance, perceptibility and/or detectability are strongly related to personal human perception, physiological human condition, culture, and environmental conditions, there are large variations and therefore these terms are not useful as parameters to describe a specific vehicle condition. Spot checks of vehicles chosen at random rarely occur in an ideal acoustic environment. If measurements are carried out on the road in an acoustic environment which does not fulfil the requirements stated in this International Standard, the results obtained might deviate appreciably from the results obtained using the specified conditions. In addition, this International Standard provides an engineering method to measure the performance of external sound generation systems intended for the purpose of providing acoustic information to pedestrians on a vehicle's operating condition. This information is reported as objective criteria related to the external sound generation system's sound pressure level, frequency content, and changes in sound pressure level and frequency content as a function of vehicle speed. As such, these measures can provide pedestrians with information on the location, speed, acceleration, and deceleration behaviour of a vehicle. Annex A contains background information relevant in the development of this International Standard.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard describes a test method for measuring a quantity representative of the intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection from road noise reducing devices: the reflection index.
The test method is intended for the following applications:
- determination of the intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection of noise reducing devices to be installed along roads, to be measured either on typical installations alongside roads or on a relevant sample section;
- determination of the in situ intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection of noise reducing devices in actual use;
- comparison of design specifications with actual performance data after the completion of the construction work;
- verification of the long-term performance of noise reducing devices (with a repeated application of the method).
The test method is not intended for the following applications:
- determination of the intrinsic characteristics of sound reflection of noise reducing devices to be installed in reverberant conditions, e.g. inside tunnels or deep trenches.
Results are expressed as a function of frequency, in one-third octave bands between 100 Hz and 5 kHz. If it is not possible to get valid measurements results over the whole frequency range indicated, the results shall be given in a restricted frequency range and the reasons of the restriction(s) shall be clearly reported.

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ISO 17208-1:2016 specifies the general measurement system, procedure, and methodology used for the measurement of underwater sound from ships under a prescribed operating condition. It does not specify or provide guidance on underwater noise criteria or address the potential effects of noise on marine organisms. The resulting quantities are based on the root-mean-square sound pressure levels (SPL), herein used synonymously with sound pressure level or SPL measured in the far field of the ship and normalized to a distance of 1 m and reported in one-third octave bands (see 4.3). In this part of ISO 17208, the result of these measurements is called "radiated noise level". The underwater sound pressure level measurement is performed in the geometric far field and then adjusted to the 1 m normalized distance for use in comparison with appropriate underwater noise criteria. ISO 17208-1:2016 is applicable to any and all underway surface vessels, either manned or unmanned. It is not applicable to submerged vessels or to aircraft. The method has no inherent limitation on minimum or maximum ship size. It is limited to ships transiting at speeds no greater than 50 kn (25,7 m/s). The measurement method smooths the variability caused by Lloyd's mirror surface image coherence effects, but does not exclude a possible influence of propagation effects like bottom reflections, refraction and absorption. No specific computational adjustments for these effects are provided in this part of ISO 17208. A specific ocean location is not required to use this part of ISO 17208, but the requirements for an ocean test site are provided. The intended uses of the method described in this part of ISO 17208 are: to show compliance with contract requirements or criteria, for comparison of one ship to another ship, to enable periodic signature assessments, and for research and development. The intended users include government agencies, research vessel operators, and commercial ship owners. Additional post-processing would be required to use the data obtained from this measurement method for determination of the ship source levels to perform far field noise predictions such as needed for most environmental impact studies or for creating underwater noise contour maps.

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This Technical Specification specifies methods for the determination of insertion loss of outdoor noise barriers intended to shield railway noise. It specifies detailed procedures for in situ measurement of barrier insertion loss including microphone positions, source conditions and acoustic environments of the measurement sites.
This Technical Specification allows one to measure the insertion loss of a given noise barrier at a given site including given meteorological conditions. It does not make it possible to compare insertion loss values of an equivalent barrier at a different site. It can be used for comparing insertion loss values of different types of barriers at the same site under given meteorological conditions by the "direct method".
This Technical Specification gives a method for determining insertion loss:
a)   from the level difference before and after the installation of noise barriers (the "direct method") and when this is not possible because a barrier has already been installed;
b)   using an indirect method to estimate the sound pressure levels before installation of the barrier by measurement at another site which has been judged to be equivalent.
For equivalent sites, a close match is required in source characteristics, microphone locations, terrain profiles ground surface characteristics, surrounding artificial structures and meteorological conditions. This Technical Specification prescribes principles for ensuring that sufficiently equivalent conditions are maintained between "before" and "after" cases to permit certain, reliable and repeatable determination of barrier insertion loss.
This Technical Specification does not cover the determination of the intrinsic acoustic characteristics of the barrier, for example the sound insulation index and the sound absorption coefficient.
The equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level and one-third-octave band sound pressure level are used as noise descriptors.
This Technical Specification can be used for routine determination of barrier performance or for engineering or diagnostic evaluation. It can be used in situations where the barrier is to be installed or has already been installed.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for assessing the working life and provides the relevant exposure
conditions.
Standards of construction and any material tests conducted should provide evidence of resistance to specified
conditions selected from the following:
I. Chemical Agents Location dependent
II. De-icing salt Location/climate dependent
III. Dirty water/dust Location/climate dependent
IV. Dew Climate dependent
V. Freeze/thaw Climate dependent
VI. Cold Climate dependent
VII. Heat Climate dependent
VIII. UV Radiation Climate dependent
IX. Traffic Vibration Location dependent
X. Biological Process Climate dependent
XI. Ozone Location dependent
XII. Water Climate dependent
XIII. Water spray (Wet/dry) Location dependent
NOTE Special care is taken for combinations of different materials, whether inside a single device or in combination with other
devices (for example: a combination of different acoustic elements or another combination of acoustic and structural elements).

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This European Standard specifies requirements for assessing the working life and provides the relevant
exposure conditions.
Standards of construction and any material tests conducted should provide evidence of resistance to specified
conditions selected from the following:
I. Chemical Agents Location dependent
II. De-icing salt Location/climate dependent
III. Dirty water/dust Location/climate dependent
IV. Dew Climate dependent
V. Freeze/thaw Climate dependent
VI. Cold Climate dependent
VII. Heat Climate dependent
VIII. UV Radiation Climate dependent
IX. Traffic Vibration Location dependent
X. Biological Process Climate dependent
XI. Ozone Location dependent
XII. Water Climate dependent
XIII. Water spray (Wet/dry) Location dependent
NOTE Special care is taken for combinations of different materials, whether inside a single device or in combination
with other devices (for example: a combination of different acoustic elements or another combination of acoustic and
structural elements)

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