This document specifies limit deviations and limits of sizes for the pitch and crest diameters of the hot-dip galvanized metric external screw threads conforming to the coarse thread series of ISO 262 (from M8 to M64) having a basic profile according to ISO 68-1. This document is applicable to the hot-dip galvanized metric external screw threads to mate with the internal screw threads tapped with tolerance position H or G after galvanizing.

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This document specifies limit deviations for pitch and crest diameters for ISO general purpose metric screw threads (M) conforming to ISOÂ 261 having basic profile in accordance with ISOÂ 68-1. The limit deviations specified are derived from the fundamental deviations and tolerances specified in ISOÂ 965-1. This document is applicable to ISO general purpose metric screw threads with the recommended tolerance classes.

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1.1   This standard applies to paper making and paper finishing machines. It contains definitions and requirements which apply to all paper making and paper finishing machines listed in annex A and shall be used in connection with the specific part applicable for the respective machine listed in annex A. Specific parts can contain additional requirements or deviations from EN 1034-1 in which case the specific stipulations take precedence over the specification made in EN 1034-1. The standard deals with the hazards listed in 4.
1.2   This standard does not apply to machines used in paper converting. See EN 1010-1 to EN 1010-5.
1.3   This standard applies to machines produced after............. (date of CEN approval).

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This document specifies supplementary background information regarding the derivation of mathematical expressions and factors given in ISOÂ 281:2007.

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This document establishes rules for the simplified representation of threaded parts, with the exception of screw thread inserts, which are covered in ISO 6410-2. This representation is applicable when it is not necessary to show the exact shape and details of the parts (see ISO 6410-1), for example in assembly drawings.

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This document specifies a method of improving test result comparability by evaluating the stresses in the bearing layers leading to fatigue (see Annex A). A similar evaluation is required in practical applications. Because the stresses are the result of pressure build-up in the hydrodynamic film, it is essential to fully state the conditions of operation and lubrication. In addition to dynamic loading, dimensional and running characteristics, the inclusion of the following adequately defines the fatigue system: a)  under conditions of dynamic loading the minimum bearing oil film thickness as a function of time and location to ensure no excessive local overheating or shearing as a result of mixed lubrication when running in; b)  the distribution of pressure circumferentially and axially with time under dynamic loading; c)  from this the resulting stresses in the bearing layers as a function of time and location, especially the maximum alternating stress. Furthermore, bearing fatigue can be affected by mixed lubrication, wear, dirt, tribochemical reactions and other effects encountered in use thus complicating the fatigue problem. This document is therefore restricted to fatigue under full hydrodynamic separation of the bearing surfaces by a lubricant film. This document applies to oil-lubricated plain cylindrical bearings, in test rigs and application running in conditions of full hydrodynamic lubrication. It comprises dynamic loading in bi-metal and multilayer bearings. NOTE     The number of practical applications with different requirements has led to the development of many bearing test rigs. If the conditions of lubrication employed on these test rigs are not defined in detail, test results from different rigs are generally neither comparable nor applicable in practice. Different test rigs can yield inconsistent ranking among equal materials.

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This European Standard is applicable to the selection of bolting for equipment subject to the Pressure Equipment Directive 2014/68/EU.
It specifies standards and additional requirements for dimensions, materials and technical conditions of delivery for bolting.
The bolting selection covered by this European Standard is regarded to be used for combination with flanges according to the series EN 1092 (PN designated flanges) and the series EN 1759 (Class designated flanges).
The selection is based on commonly used materials, bolts and nuts. It covers temperature ranges of the general service of standard flanges (based on PN or Class).
NOTE 1   The bolting selection given may be used in combination with non-standard flanges too provided that the range of application of the equipment for which the bolting is intended to be used is covered. It is the purchaser's option to decide on this.
When selecting bolting according to this European Standard it is essential to take into account other parameters such as type of fluids, corrosion hazards and relaxation at elevated temperatures.
The purpose of this European Standard is to provide a selection of most commonly used bolting types and bolting material combinations as well a tool for easy selection of suitable bolting for equipment.
It is not the intention to specify all possible applications but to give guidance on the most commonly applications. According to this, e.g. application limits for material in the creep range are not explicitly covered in this European Standard but some bolting materials listed (see Table 3, footnote h) are suitable to be used in this temperature range. Wherever the starting material standard provides mechanical properties for this temperature range respective reference is made in Table 3.
NOTE 2   Special services and ambient conditions may require the application of coatings. It is the purchaser's option to decide on this. Depending on the coating used, a verification of the temperature ranges

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This document specifies the required characteristics, inspections and tests, quality assurance, conditions for qualification, acceptance and delivery of rod-ends with self-aligning bearings metal to metal designed to withstand slight swivelling under load. They are intended for use in fixed or moving parts of the aircraft structure and their control mechanisms.
This document applies to all rod-ends with self-aligning bearings metal to metal. It may be applied when referred to in a product standard or in a design specification.

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This document specifies a calculation method for oil-lubricated hydrodynamic plain bearings with complete separation of the thrust collar and tilting pad thrust bearing surfaces by a film of lubricant. This document applies to plain thrust bearings with tilting-type sliding blocks (tilting pads), where a wedge-shaped lubrication clearance gap is automatically formed during operation. The ratio of width to length of one pad can be varied in the range B/LÂ =Â 0,5 to 2. This document is not applicable to heavily loaded tilting pad thrust bearings. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Equivalent calculation procedures exist that enable operating conditions to be estimated and checked against acceptable conditions. The use of them is equally admissible.

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This document provides a calculation method for bevel and hypoid gears regarding scuffing based on experimental and theoretical investigation[7]. This calculation method is a flash temperature method. The formulae in this document are intended to establish uniformly acceptable methods for calculating scuffing resistance of straight, helical (skew), spiral bevel, Zerol and hypoid gears made of steel. They are applicable equally to tapered depth and uniform depth teeth. Hereinafter, the term “bevel gear” refers to all of these gear types; if not the case, the specific forms are identified. A calculation method of the scuffing load capacity of bevel and hypoid gears based on an integral temperature method is not available when this document is published. The formulae in this document are based on virtual cylindrical gears and restricted to bevel gears whose virtual cylindrical gears have transverse contact ratios of εvαÂ

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This document provides calculation examples for different bevel gear designs regarding the scuffing load capacity according to ISO/TS 10300-20. The initial geometry data of the gear necessary for these calculations are in accordance with ISO 23509. The term "bevel gear" is used to mean straight, helical (skew), spiral bevel, zerol and hypoid gear designs. Where this document pertains to one or more, but not all, the specific forms are identified. The formulae in this document are based on virtual cylindrical gears and restricted to bevel gears whose virtual cylindrical gears have transverse contact ratios of εvαÂ

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This document specifies the measurement and test methods for the general characteristics of cold formed helical compression springs made from round wire, excluding dynamic testing.

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This document specifies the dimensions and tolerances for inserted thermoplastic bushes used as plain bearings with or without lubrication grooves in accordance with ISO 12128. These thermoplastic bushes are dimensionally exchangeable to wrapped bushes according to ISO 3547-1. This document is not applicable to reinforced plastics.

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This document establishes rules for the simplified representation of threaded parts, with the exception of screw thread inserts, which are covered in ISO 6410-2. This representation is applicable when it is not necessary to show the exact shape and details of the parts (see ISO 6410-1), for example in assembly drawings.

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This document specifies, in graphic form, characteristic values used in the calculation of oil-lubricated plain journal bearings with drainage grooves.

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This document provides the data and indications necessary for the design and manufacture of straight (non-helical) side-fitting cylindrical involute splines. Limiting dimensions, tolerances, manufacturing deviations and their effects on the fit between connecting coaxial spline elements are defined in the formulae and given in the tables. Unless otherwise specified, linear dimensions are expressed in millimetres and angular dimensions in degrees.

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This document provides data, guidance and requirements for the inspection of straight (non-helical) side fitting cylindrical involute splines. Limiting dimensions, tolerances, manufacturing deviations and their effects on the fit between connecting coaxial spline elements are defined and tabulated. Linear dimensions are expressed in millimetres and angular dimensions in degrees.

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This document specifies geometry and inspection dimensions for the design and manufacture of straight (non-helical) side-fitting cylindrical involute splines. Limiting dimensions, tolerances, manufacturing errors and their effects on the fit between connecting coaxial spline elements are defined and tabulated. Linear dimensions are expressed in millimetres and angular dimensions in degrees. The specified diameters for external splines in the geometry tables and the values in the inspection dimension tables are only valid for fundamental deviation "h". For fundamental deviations other than "h", diameters and tooth thicknesses are calculated for external splines according to the formulae in ISO 4156-1 and inspection dimensions according to the formulae in ISO 4156-3.

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This European standard specifies the requirements when applying material to the active interface between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail and includes trainborne and track side equipment.
This technical specification only covers the equipment and application of material to the active interface.
This document defines:
- the characteristics that systems of top of rail equipment for wheel-rail interface shall achieve, together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;
- all relevant terminology which is specific to the application of top of rail materials of the wheel-rail interface.
This document only applies to the mainline railway
NOTE   This document can also be used for other railways, e. g urban rail’

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This document describes a methodology for reducing the overall environmental impact through product design and development that is tailored to mechanical products as defined in 3.1.
This methodology is particularly well suited to the redesign of an existing product; it can also be applied for the design of a new product provided the necessary assumptions regarding a (virtual) reference product are taken.
It addresses companies which have decided to integrate an ecodesign approach to optimise environmental impacts within the product life cycle, in relation to the other product aspects, such as functionality, quality, costs, etc.
It also helps to meet some requirements of ISO 14001:2015 on the integration of environmental aspects in the design of products.
NOTE 1   This document targets persons who are directly involved in the design and development of mechanical products, as well as managers responsible for defining corporate policies, and decision-makers. The proposed methodology is intended to kick-start ecodesign initiatives within companies as part of a teaching and continuous improvement approach.
This document also includes a template that companies can use as part of the communication on their environmental approach.
This document is neither intended nor suitable to compare products (even similar) of different suppliers.
This document is neither intended nor suitable for product certification purposes.
NOTE 2   An example of implementation of the methodology is given in Annex D; the basic principles for the establishment of this method are given in Annex E.

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This amendment 1 is valid for the following parts of the IEC 60317: Part 2 (1990), Part 3 (1990), Part 4 (1990), Part 10 (1972), Part 12 (1990), Part 14 (1990), Part 15 (1990), Part 16 (1990), Part 17 (1990), Part 18 (1990), Part 19 (1990), Part 20 (1990), Part 21 (1990), Part 22 (1990), Part 23 (1990), Part 24 (1990), Part 26 (1990), Part 28 (1990), Part 29 (1990), Part 30 (1990), Part 35 (1992), Part 36 (1992), Part 37 (1992) and Part 38 (1992).

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This document specifies the requirements for an engine bearing test rig that uses an actual connecting rod to determine plain bearing performance in automotive engines, evaluating fundamental bearing properties such as seizure resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance and resistance to the impact of foreign material.

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This document specifies the dimensions and tolerances applicable to sintered bearings for the following ranges of inside diameters:
— cylindrical bearings: 1 mm to 60 mm;
— flanged bearings: 1 mm to 60 mm;
— spherical bearings: 1 mm to 20 mm.

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This document specifies design characteristics for centre flange bearings for the size range 9 to 28, as well as design characteristics for shafts.
It is applicable to centre flange bearings used mainly in electrical and turbo engineering industries.

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The document specifies, following ISO 12301, the checking of the inside diameter of wrapped bushes (see ISO 3547‑2:2017, method C) and describes the necessary checking methods and measuring equipment.
NOTE 1 All dimensions in this document are given in millimetres except where otherwise noted/designated.
NOTE 2 The dimensions and tolerances of wrapped bushes are given in ISO 3547‑1.
NOTE 3 Checking of the wall thickness is the subject of ISO 3547‑7.
NOTE 4 Checking of the outside diameter of wrapped bushes is the subject of ISO 3547‑5.

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This document specifies requirements for the accuracy of general-purpose hobs of 0,5 module to 40 module.
These hobs are intended for producing gears which conform to ISO 53 and ISO 54.
This document applies to hobs for spur and helical gears. It applies to solid (monobloc) and inserted blade hobs.
The elemental features of hobs are graded according to accuracy, as follows:
— Grade 4A;
— Grade 3A;
— Grade 2A;
— Grade A;
— Grade B;
— Grade C;
— Grade D.
Grade 4A is the highest order of precision.
In addition to the elemental tests for hobs, this document gives permitted tolerances for composite tests that are taken along the cutting edges on the line of action. The two groups of tests are not equivalent and one can choose between one or the other. If there was no previous agreement, the hob is regarded as belonging to the precision class specified if it satisfies one or the other of the two methods of inspection.
NOTE The tolerances in this document were determined for gear hobs whose dimensions conform to ISO 2490, but with certain precautions they can be applied to hobs not specified in this document.

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This document presents the basic principles of, an introduction to, and the general influence factors for the calculation of the load capacity of spur and helical gears. Together with the other documents in the ISO 6336 series, it provides a method by which different gear designs can be compared. It is not intended to assure the performance of assembled drive gear systems. It is not intended for use by the general engineering public. Instead, it is intended for use by the experienced gear designer who is capable of selecting reasonable values for the factors in these formulae based on the knowledge of similar designs and the awareness of the effects of the items discussed.
The formulae in the ISO 6336 series are intended to establish a uniformly acceptable method for calculating the load capacity of cylindrical gears with straight or helical involute teeth.
The ISO 6336 series includes procedures based on testing and theoretical studies as referenced by each method. The methods are validated for:
— normal working pressure angle from 15° to 25°;
— reference helix angle up to 30°;
— transverse contact ratio from 1,0 to 2,5.
If this scope is exceeded, the calculated results will need to be confirmed by experience.
The formulae in the ISO 6336 series are not applicable when any of the following conditions exist:
— gears with transverse contact ratios less than 1,0;
— interference between tooth tips and root fillets;
— teeth are pointed;
— backlash is zero.
The rating formulae in the ISO 6336 series are not applicable to other types of gear tooth deterioration such as plastic deformation, case crushing and wear, and are not applicable under vibratory conditions where there can be an unpredictable profile breakdown. The ISO 6336 series does not apply to teeth finished by forging or sintering. It is not applicable to gears which have a poor contact pattern.
The influence factors presented in these methods form a method to predict the risk of damage that aligns with industry and experimental experience. It is possible that they are not entirely scientifically exact. Therefore, the calculation methods from one part of the ISO 6336 series is not applicable in another part of the ISO 6336 series unless specifically referenced.
The procedures in the ISO 6336 series provide rating formulae for the calculation of load capacity with regard to different failure modes such as pitting, tooth root breakage, tooth flank fracture, scuffing and micropitting. At pitch line velocities below 1 m/s the gear load capacity is often limited by abrasive wear (see other literature such as References [23] and [22] for further information on such calculation).

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This document specifies tolerances on form and position as well as the surface roughness of shafts, flanges and thrust collars as used in plain bearing units. It is applicable to journal or thrust plain bearing units or to a combination of both, installed either horizontally or vertically.
This document is not applicable to crankshaft bearing units in combustion engines.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the endurance limit in fatigue of plain strips of multilayer bearing materials. Additionally, it provides the opportunity of studying the influence on the strips of hydraulic pressure and variable temperature.

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This part of IEC 61400 defines standard electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind
power plants. The specified models are time domain positive sequence simulation models,
intended to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The models are applicable for
dynamic simulations of short term stability in power systems.
This document defines the generic terms and parameters for the electrical simulation models.
This document specifies electrical simulation models for the generic wind power plant
topologies / configurations currently on the market. The wind power plant models include wind
turbines, wind power plant control and auxiliary equipment. The wind power plant models are
described in a modular way which can be applied for future wind power plant concepts and with
different wind turbine concepts.
This document specifies electrical simulation models for the generic wind turbine
topologies/concepts/configurations currently on the market. The purpose of the models is to
specify the electrical characteristics of a wind turbine at the wind turbine terminals. The wind
turbine models are described in a modular way which can be applied for future wind turbine
concepts. The specified wind turbine models can either be used in wind power plant models or
to represent wind turbines without wind power plant relationships.
The electrical simulation models specified in IEC 61400-27-1 are independent of any software
simulation tool.

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This document specifies in accordance with ISO 12301 the checking of the wall-thickness of thin-walled half bearings with or without flange and describes the necessary checking methods and measuring equipment. It applies to a maximum bearing diameter of 150 mm. It can be applied to a bigger diameter, provided that there is an agreement between the supplier and the user.

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This document specifies an ultrasonic testing method for determining bond defects between the bearing metal and the backing. The test can be performed on metallic multilayer plain bearings consisting of steel- or copper-based material backings lined with bearing metal based on lead and tin, with layer thicknesses greater than or equal to 0,5 mm. For cast iron backings, this document is applicable with restrictions.
The ultrasonic signal reflected by the bond interface between the bearing metal and the backing is used to determine bonding defects.
Ultrasonic testing is not possible on edge zones of sliding surface, flange sides, joint areas, oil holes, grooves, etc. in a range of less than half the diameter of the ultrasonic probe because of undefined reflections. The same applies to bearings with dovetail keying grooves at the bond. Ultrasonic testing of bond does not apply along the edges of the dovetails.
Evaluation of the bond on the visible transition from the backing to the bearing metal (on end faces or joint faces) is only practicable by the penetrant testing method specified in ISO 4386-3.
This document only describes in detail the pulse-echo method. Within the meaning of this document, the ultrasonic method only permits a qualitative evaluation of the bonding and not a quantitative determination of the bond strength. The ultrasonic bond test differs only between bond and bond defect.

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This document supplements ISO 1328‑1:2013. It provides a code of practice dealing with measurements on flanks of individual cylindrical involute gears, i.e. with the measurement of pitch, profile, helix and tangential composite characteristics. It describes measuring equipment, provides advice for gear measuring methods and for the analysis of measurement results, and discusses the interpretation of results.
Measurements using a double flank tester are not included (see ISO/TR 10064‑2). This document only applies to involute gears.

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This document specifies requirements for the accuracy of general-purpose hobs of 0,5 module to 40 module. These hobs are intended for producing gears which conform to ISO 53 and ISO 54. This document applies to hobs for spur and helical gears. It applies to solid (monobloc) and inserted blade hobs. The elemental features of hobs are graded according to accuracy, as follows: — Grade 4A; — Grade 3A; — Grade 2A; — Grade A; — Grade B; — Grade C; — Grade D. Grade 4A is the highest order of precision. In addition to the elemental tests for hobs, this document gives permitted tolerances for composite tests that are taken along the cutting edges on the line of action. The two groups of tests are not equivalent and one can choose between one or the other. If there was no previous agreement, the hob is regarded as belonging to the precision class specified if it satisfies one or the other of the two methods of inspection. NOTE The tolerances in this document were determined for gear hobs whose dimensions conform to ISO 2490, but with certain precautions they can be applied to hobs not specified in this document.

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This document specifies the dimensional and geometrical characteristics, boundary dimensions and tolerances of insert bearings and eccentric locking collars and the radial internal clearances of insert bearings.

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This document defines, describes and classifies the characteristics of damage occurring in service to hydrodynamically lubricated metallic plain bearings and journals. It assists in the understanding of the various characteristic forms of damage which can occur.
Consideration is restricted to damage characteristics which have a well-defined appearance and which can be attributed to particular damage causes with a high degree of certainty. Various appearances are illustrated with photographs and diagrams.

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This document specifies the fundamental formulae for use in tooth bending stress calculations for involute external or internal spur and helical gears with a rim thickness sR > 0,5 ht for external gears and sR > 1,75 mn for internal gears. In service, internal gears can experience failure modes other than tooth bending fatigue, i.e. fractures starting at the root diameter and progressing radially outward. This document does not provide adequate safety against failure modes other than tooth bending fatigue. All load influences on the tooth root stress are included in so far as they are the result of loads transmitted by the gears and in so far as they can be evaluated quantitatively.
This document includes procedures based on testing and theoretical studies such as those of Hirt[11], Strasser[14] and Brossmann[10]. The results are in good agreement with other methods (References [5], [6], [7] and [12]). The given formulae are valid for spur and helical gears with tooth profiles in accordance with the basic rack standardized in ISO 53. They can also be used for teeth conjugate to other basic racks if the virtual contact ratio εαn is less than 2,5.
The load capacity determined on the basis of permissible bending stress is termed "tooth bending strength". The results are in good agreement with other methods for the range, as indicated in the scope of ISO 6336‑1.
If this scope does not apply, refer to ISO 6336-1:2019, Clause 4.

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ISO 6279:2017 specifies the composition and properties of preferred cast aluminium alloys for use in solid plain bearings. Other alloys can be specified with agreement between the manufacturer and user.

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ISO 15242-4:2017 specifies vibration measuring methods for single-row and double-row radial cylindrical roller bearings with cylindrical bore and outside surface, under established measurement conditions.

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This document specifies vibration measuring methods for double-row radial spherical roller bearings
and single-row and double-row radial tapered roller bearings, with cylindrical bore and outside surface
and a contact angle up to and including 45°, under established measuring conditions.

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ISO 23509:2016 specifies the geometry of bevel gears.
The term bevel gears is used to mean straight, spiral, zerol bevel and hypoid gear designs. If the text pertains to one or more, but not all, of these, the specific forms are identified.
The manufacturing process of forming the desired tooth form is not intended to imply any specific process, but rather to be general in nature and applicable to all methods of manufacture.
The geometry for the calculation of factors used in bevel gear rating, such as ISO 10300 (all parts), is also included.
ISO 23509:2016 is intended for use by an experienced gear designer capable of selecting reasonable values for the factors based on his/her knowledge and background. It is not intended for use by the engineering public at large.
Annex A provides a structure for the calculation of the methods provided in this document.

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This document establishes a vocabulary of terms, with their definitions, applied in the field of rolling bearings and their technology under ISO Technical Committee TC 4 management.
It includes terms related to all types of rolling bearings wherein the principal degree of freedom is continuous rotation about an axis enabled by an ordered set of rolling elements between two circular raceways such that loads can be transmitted between them in a particular range of radial and/or axial directions. Also included are accessories to these products.
The following types of terms are not included:
— terms specified in ISO 76, ISO 281 and ISO 1132‑1;
— terms which are narrowly applied in only one specialised rolling bearing International Standard.

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ISO 3547-4:2017 gives specifications for solid and multi-layer bearing materials, such as those used for wrapped bushes in accordance with the other parts of ISO 3547.

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This document specifies a tensile test method for determination of the bond strength between the bearing metal and the backing. The test can be applied to multilayer plain bearings with bearing metals based on lead, tin, copper or aluminium. For tested layer thicknesses ≥ 2 mm, a raw lining thickness of a minimum additional 1 mm is necessary.
The backings are from steel, cast steel or copper alloys. The bond strength test does not apply to bearings with cast iron backing.
The test applies to all thrust bearings and to journal bearings with an inner diameter of backing ≥ 90 mm.
The test can be used for comparative investigations into the influence on the bond strength of various processes and types of material. In addition, the test is suitable for production control and for process qualification of bearing production.
For non-destructive ultrasonic testing of the bond between bearing metal and backing for bearing metal layer thicknesses ≥ 2 mm, see ISO 4386-1.

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This document specifies bearing and subunit boundary dimensions for complete single-row and double-row tapered roller bearings. It also specifies the flange dimensions of flanged outer rings for a selection of these bearings. A series designation for each bearing is also specified.

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