1.1   This standard applies to paper making and paper finishing machines. It contains definitions and requirements which apply to all paper making and paper finishing machines listed in annex A and shall be used in connection with the specific part applicable for the respective machine listed in annex A. Specific parts can contain additional requirements or deviations from EN 1034-1 in which case the specific stipulations take precedence over the specification made in EN 1034-1. The standard deals with the hazards listed in 4.
1.2   This standard does not apply to machines used in paper converting. See EN 1010-1 to EN 1010-5.
1.3   This standard applies to machines produced after............. (date of CEN approval).

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  • Draft
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This document describes a methodology for reducing the overall environmental impact through product design and development that is tailored to mechanical products as defined in 3.1.
This methodology is particularly well suited to the redesign of an existing product; it can also be applied for the design of a new product provided the necessary assumptions regarding a (virtual) reference product are taken.
It addresses companies which have decided to integrate an ecodesign approach to optimise environmental impacts within the product life cycle, in relation to the other product aspects, such as functionality, quality, costs, etc.
It also helps to meet some requirements of ISO 14001:2015 on the integration of environmental aspects in the design of products.
NOTE 1   This document targets persons who are directly involved in the design and development of mechanical products, as well as managers responsible for defining corporate policies, and decision-makers. The proposed methodology is intended to kick-start ecodesign initiatives within companies as part of a teaching and continuous improvement approach.
This document also includes a template that companies can use as part of the communication on their environmental approach.
This document is neither intended nor suitable to compare products (even similar) of different suppliers.
This document is neither intended nor suitable for product certification purposes.
NOTE 2   An example of implementation of the methodology is given in Annex D; the basic principles for the establishment of this method are given in Annex E.

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This amendment 1 is valid for the following parts of the IEC 60317: Part 2 (1990), Part 3 (1990), Part 4 (1990), Part 10 (1972), Part 12 (1990), Part 14 (1990), Part 15 (1990), Part 16 (1990), Part 17 (1990), Part 18 (1990), Part 19 (1990), Part 20 (1990), Part 21 (1990), Part 22 (1990), Part 23 (1990), Part 24 (1990), Part 26 (1990), Part 28 (1990), Part 29 (1990), Part 30 (1990), Part 35 (1992), Part 36 (1992), Part 37 (1992) and Part 38 (1992).

  • Standard
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IEC 61163-2 provides guidance on RSS techniques and procedures for electrical,electronic, and mechanical components. This document is procedural in nature and is not, andcannot be, exhaustive with respect to component technologies due to the rapid rate ofdevelopments in the component industry.This document is:a) intended for component manufacturers as a guideline;b) intended for component users as a guideline to negotiate with component manufacturers onRSS requirements;c) intended to allow the planning of an RSS process in house to meet reliability requirementsor to allow the re-qualification of components for specific, upgraded, environments;d) intended as a guideline to sub-contractors who provide RSS as a service.This document is not intended to provide test plans for specific components or for delivery ofcertificates of conformance for batches of components.The use of bi-modal Weibull analysis to select and optimize an RSS process without having toestimate the reliability and life time of all items is described.

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IEC TR 62998-2:2020 establishes guidance for the application of IEC TS 62998-1:2019.
It provides examples of:
– application for which SRS/SRSS are relevant,
– use of SRS/SRSS information from an application point of view,
– fusion of SRS into SRSS for given applications, and
– appropriate information for use for given applications.

  • Technical report
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EN-IEC 61123 is intended to define a procedure to verify if a reliability of an item/system complies with the stated requirements. The requirement is assumed to be specified as the percentage of success (success ratio) or the percentage of failures (failure ratio). This document can be used where a number of items are tested (number of trials performed) and classified as passed or failed. It can also be used where one or a number of items are tested repeatedly. The procedures are based on the assumption that the probability of success or failure is the same from trial to trial (statistically independent events). Plans for fixed trial/failure terminated tests as well as truncated sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs) are included. This document contains extensive tables with ready-to-use SPRT plans and their characteristics for equal and non-equal risks for supplier and customer. In the case of the reliability compliance tests for constant failure rate/intensity, IEC 61124 applies.

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IEC 61123:2019 is intended to define a procedure to verify if a reliability of an item/system complies with the stated requirements. The requirement is assumed to be specified as the percentage of success (success ratio) or the percentage of failures (failure ratio). This document can be used where a number of items are tested (number of trials performed) and classified as passed or failed. It can also be used where one or a number of items are tested repeatedly. The procedures are based on the assumption that the probability of success or failure is the same from trial to trial (statistically independent events). Plans for fixed trial/failure terminated tests as well as truncated sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs) are included. This document contains extensive tables with ready-to-use SPRT plans and their characteristics for equal and non-equal risks for supplier and customer. In the case of the reliability compliance tests for constant failure rate/intensity, IEC 61124 applies. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1991. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) [1, 2][1] has been significantly developed in recent years [3, 4, 5]. This edition contains shorter and accurate tests, a wide range of test plans, and significant additional characteristic data, as follows: the tests are significantly truncated (the maximum trial numbers are low) without substantially increasing the expected number of trials to decision (ENT); the true producer’s and consumer’s risks (α', β') are given and very close to the nominal (α, β); the range of the test parameters is wide (failure ratio, risks and discrimination ratio); the test plans include various risk ratios (not restricted to equal risks only); the values of ENT are accurate and given in the relevant region (for practical use); guidelines for extension of the test sets (interpolation and extrapolation) are included. In Annex C, the use of the cumulative binomial distribution function of Excel that simplifies the procedure of designing has been added (Clause C.3). Keywords: verify if a reliability of an item/system complies with the stated requirements

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This document specifies the requirements for a digital mock-up virtual assembly test (VAT) for mechanical products, which is suitable for guiding virtual assembly testing before physical production. The application of this document is intended to result in an effective VAT and efficient on-site assembly. This test is applicable to 3D nominal models with theoretically exact dimensions.

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This document gives guidance on the use of failure rate data for reliability prediction of
electric components used in equipment.
The method presented in this document uses the concept of reference conditions which are
the typical values of stresses that are observed by components in the majority of applications.
Reference conditions are useful since they provide a known standard basis from which failure
rates can be modified to account for differences in environment from the environments taken
as reference conditions. Each user can use the reference conditions defined in this document
or use their own. When failure rates stated at reference conditions are used it allows realistic
reliability predictions to be made in the early design phase.
The stress models described herein are generic and can be used as a basis for conversion of
failure rate data given at these reference conditions to actual operating conditions when
needed and this simplifies the prediction approach. Conversion of failure rate data is only
possible within the specified functional limits of the components.
This document also gives guidance on how a database of component failure data can be
constructed to provide failure rates that can be used with the included stress models.
Reference conditions for failure rate data are specified, so that data from different sources
can be compared on a uniform basis. If failure rate data are given in accordance with this
document then additional information on the specified conditions can be dispensed with.
This document does not provide base failure rates for components – rather it provides models
that allow failure rates obtained by other means to be converted from one operating condition
to another operating condition.
The prediction methodology described in this document assumes that the parts are being
used within its useful life. The methods in this document have a general application but are
specifically applied to a selection of component types as defined in Clauses 6 to 20 and I.2.

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IEC 61123:2019 is intended to define a procedure to verify if a reliability of an item/system complies with the stated requirements. The requirement is assumed to be specified as the percentage of success (success ratio) or the percentage of failures (failure ratio). This document can be used where a number of items are tested (number of trials performed) and classified as passed or failed. It can also be used where one or a number of items are tested repeatedly. The procedures are based on the assumption that the probability of success or failure is the same from trial to trial (statistically independent events). Plans for fixed trial/failure terminated tests as well as truncated sequential probability ratio tests (SPRTs) are included. This document contains extensive tables with ready-to-use SPRT plans and their characteristics for equal and non-equal risks for supplier and customer. In the case of the reliability compliance tests for constant failure rate/intensity, IEC 61124 applies. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1991. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) [1, 2][1] has been significantly developed in recent years [3, 4, 5]. This edition contains shorter and accurate tests, a wide range of test plans, and significant additional characteristic data, as follows:
the tests are significantly truncated (the maximum trial numbers are low) without substantially increasing the expected number of trials to decision (ENT);
the true producer’s and consumer’s risks (α', β') are given and very close to the nominal (α, β);
the range of the test parameters is wide (failure ratio, risks and discrimination ratio);
the test plans include various risk ratios (not restricted to equal risks only);
the values of ENT are accurate and given in the relevant region (for practical use);
guidelines for extension of the test sets (interpolation and extrapolation) are included.
In Annex C, the use of the cumulative binomial distribution function of Excel that simplifies the procedure of designing has been added (Clause C.3).
Keywords: verify if a reliability of an item/system complies with the stated requirements

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IEC 60050-192:2015 gives the general terminology used in the field of dependability. The terms are generic and are applicable to all fields of dependability methodology, including electrotechnical applications. The document is not an exhaustive vocabulary for all IEC standards in the dependability field: definitions for some specialized terms may only be found in the relevant standards. This document replaces sections 1 to 20 of IEC 60050-191:1990, which has been subjected to a systematic, in-depth review and revision, in order to reflect the current usage of the terms in the dependability field, to introduce new terms from new or revised standards, and other informed sources, and to provide a grammatical form, and presentation to comply with the IEC directives. It has the status of a horizontal standard in accordance with IEC Guide 108:2006. This terminology is consistent with the terminology developed in the other specialized parts of the IEV.

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This document provides requirements and guidance for obsolescence management applicable
to any organization that is dependent on another organization to obtain value from the
usefulness of the items that it provides. A cost-effective obsolescence management process
and the activities used to implement the process are applicable throughout all phases of an
item’s life cycle.
This document covers the following areas:
• establishing an obsolescence management policy;
• establishing an infrastructure and an organization;
• developing an obsolescence management plan (OMP);
• developing strategies to minimize obsolescence during design;
• determining an obsolescence management approach;
• selecting obsolescence resolution and implementation;
• measuring and improving the performance of the outcomes of the obsolescence
management activities.
Guidance on obsolescence management is included as notes, in the informative annexes and
references in the Bibliography.

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IEC 62402:2019 provides requirements and guidance for obsolescence management applicable to any organization that is dependent on another organization to obtain value from the usefulness of the items that it provides. A cost-effective obsolescence management process and the activities used to implement the process are applicable throughout all phases of an item’s life cycle. This document covers the following areas: • establishing an obsolescence management policy; • establishing an infrastructure and an organization; • developing an obsolescence management plan (OMP); • developing strategies to minimize obsolescence during design; • determining an obsolescence management approach; • selecting obsolescence resolution and implementation; • measuring and improving the performance of the outcomes of the obsolescence management activities. Guidance on obsolescence management is included as notes, in the informative annexes and references in the Bibliography. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) this document has now been written with requirements as a standard, not a guide; b) this document continues to have guidance in the informative annexes; c) this document has been written as a general process for all technologies and items. Keywords: obsolescence management

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IEC 62402:2019 provides requirements and guidance for obsolescence management applicable to any organization that is dependent on another organization to obtain value from the usefulness of the items that it provides. A cost-effective obsolescence management process and the activities used to implement the process are applicable throughout all phases of an item’s life cycle. This document covers the following areas:
• establishing an obsolescence management policy;
• establishing an infrastructure and an organization;
• developing an obsolescence management plan (OMP);
• developing strategies to minimize obsolescence during design;
• determining an obsolescence management approach;
• selecting obsolescence resolution and implementation;
• measuring and improving the performance of the outcomes of the obsolescence management activities.
Guidance on obsolescence management is included as notes, in the informative annexes and references in the Bibliography. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) this document has now been written with requirements as a standard, not a guide;
b) this document continues to have guidance in the informative annexes;
c) this document has been written as a general process for all technologies and items.
Keywords: obsolescence management

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IEC TS 62998-1:2019 gives requirements for the development and integration of safety related sensors (SRS) and safety related sensor systems (SRSS) used for protection of persons with special attention to systematic capabilities.
This generic standard only applies if
– protection of persons is to be performed by using sensors, and
– standards for functional safety of electrical control systems address sensor(s) as subsystem or subsystem element, and
– product specific sensor standards (e.g. IEC 61496 (all parts), IEC 60947-5-2) do not contain all necessary provisions, or product specific sensor standards are not developed.
The approach of examination of systematic capabilities by using different safety related sensor standards is described in Annex A.
The requirements and methods within this document are limited to the purpose of protection of persons
– by detection of potentially hazardous objects,
– by detection of a body, parts of a body and objects associated to parts of a body entering a hazardous area, or
– by classification respective discrimination of these against other objects.
Special attention is given to the sensing function and dependability of the detection capability. Environmental influences and tests for indoor and outdoor use are defined which influence the sensing function and dependability of the detection capability.
IEC TS 62998-1:2019 can be relevant to applications other than those for the protection of persons in industries, for example, for the protection of persons in public like agriculture or metro stations.
IEC TS 62998-1:2019 does not consider and address proven in use (e.g. processes or elements) as done in IEC 61508-2.

  • Technical specification
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This document explains how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), including the failure
modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) variant, is planned, performed, documented
and maintained.
The purpose of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is to establish how items or
processes might fail to perform their function so that any required treatments could be
identified. An FMEA provides a systematic method for identifying modes of failure together
with their effects on the item or process, both locally and globally. It may also include
identifying the causes of failure modes. Failure modes can be prioritized to support decisions
about treatment. Where the ranking of criticality involves at least the severity of
consequences, and often other measures of importance, the analysis is known as failure
modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA).
This document is applicable to hardware, software, processes including human action, and
their interfaces, in any combination.
An FMEA can be used in a safety analysis, for regulatory and other purposes, but this being a
generic standard, does not give specific guidance for safety applications.

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This document provides guidance in relation to a set of requirements placed upon system life
cycles in order for an open system to achieve open systems dependability.
This document elaborates on IEC 60300-1 by providing details of the changes needed to
accommodate the characteristics of open systems. It defines process views based on
ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, which identifies the set of system life cycle processes.
This document is applicable to life cycles of products, systems, processes or services involving
hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements.
For open systems, security is especially important since the systems are particularly exposed to
attack.
This document can be used to improve the dependability of open systems and to provide
assurance that the process views specific to open systems achieve their expected outcomes. It
helps an organization define the activities and tasks that need to be undertaken to achieve
dependability objectives in an open system, including dependability related communication,
dependability assessment and evaluation of dependability throughout system life cycles.

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IEC 60812:2018 explains how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), including the failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) variant, is planned, performed, documented and maintained. The purpose of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is to establish how items or processes might fail to perform their function so that any required treatments could be identified. An FMEA provides a systematic method for identifying modes of failure together with their effects on the item or process, both locally and globally. It may also include identifying the causes of failure modes. Failure modes can be prioritized to support decisions about treatment. Where the ranking of criticality involves at least the severity of consequences, and often other measures of importance, the analysis is known as failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). This document is applicable to hardware, software, processes including human action, and their interfaces, in any combination. An FMEA can be used in a safety analysis, for regulatory and other purposes, but this being a generic standard, does not give specific guidance for safety applications. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2006. This edition constitutes a technical revision.This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) the normative text is generic and covers all applications; b) examples of applications for safety, automotive, software and (service) processes have been added as informative annexes; c) tailoring the FMEA for different applications is described; d) different reporting formats are described, including a database information system; e) alternative means of calculating risk priority numbers (RPN) have been added; f) a criticality matrix based method has been added; g) the relationship to other dependability analysis methods have been described. Keywords: failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), failure modes effects and criticality analysis (FMECA)

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IEC 62853:2018 provides guidance in relation to a set of requirements placed upon system life cycles in order for an open system to achieve open systems dependability. This document elaborates on IEC 60300-1 by providing details of the changes needed to accommodate the characteristics of open systems. It defines process views based on ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, which identifies the set of system life cycle processes. This document is applicable to life cycles of products, systems, processes or services involving hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements. For open systems, security is especially important since the systems are particularly exposed to attack. This document can be used to improve the dependability of open systems and to provide assurance that the process views specific to open systems achieve their expected outcomes. It helps an organization define the activities and tasks that need to be undertaken to achieve dependability objectives in an open system, including dependability related communication, dependability assessment and evaluation of dependability throughout system life cycles. Keywords: dependability of open systems

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Obsolescence is a significant risk factor for an organisation and/or a programme activity regarding the continuity of productions, services and maintenance in operational conditions of equipments and systems. It can appear in any phase of the product life cycle. Thus it is essential that the organisation determines the best strategy to be implemented in order to control these risks, implying its customers and suppliers in the definition of this strategy.
This recommendation is a document meant to be used as guidelines, for an organisation and/or a given programme, for the implementation of a coordinated management process of obsolescence risks related to chemical products and to their effects on products, especially on materials, processes and mechanical parts.
Can be subject to obsolescences:
—   all categories of equipments as well as their components;
—   materials and processes used to produce, operate or maintain a product;
—   all that can be bought, manufactured, repaired, be it done internally or externally;
—   means of production, test and maintain.
This document excludes obsolescences related to electronic components and softwares (for more information on that subject see EN 62402).

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Obsolescence is a significant risk factor for an organisation and/or a programme activity regarding the continuity of productions, services and maintenance in operational conditions of equipments and systems. It can appear in any phase of the product life cycle. Thus it is essential that the organisation determines the best strategy to be implemented in order to control these risks, implying its customers and suppliers in the definition of this strategy.
This recommendation is a document meant to be used as guidelines, for an organisation and/or a given programme, for the implementation of a coordinated management process of obsolescence risks related to chemical products and to their effects on products, especially on materials, processes and mechanical parts.
Can be subject to obsolescences:
—   all categories of equipments as well as their components;
—   materials and processes used to produce, operate or maintain a product;
—   all that can be bought, manufactured, repaired, be it done internally or externally;
—   means of production, test and maintain.
This document excludes obsolescences related to electronic components and softwares (for more information on that subject see EN 62402).

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IEC 60812:2018 explains how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), including the failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) variant, is planned, performed, documented and maintained. The purpose of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is to establish how items or processes might fail to perform their function so that any required treatments could be identified. An FMEA provides a systematic method for identifying modes of failure together with their effects on the item or process, both locally and globally. It may also include identifying the causes of failure modes. Failure modes can be prioritized to support decisions about treatment. Where the ranking of criticality involves at least the severity of consequences, and often other measures of importance, the analysis is known as failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). This document is applicable to hardware, software, processes including human action, and their interfaces, in any combination. An FMEA can be used in a safety analysis, for regulatory and other purposes, but this being a generic standard, does not give specific guidance for safety applications. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2006. This edition constitutes a technical revision.This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) the normative text is generic and covers all applications;
b) examples of applications for safety, automotive, software and (service) processes have been added as informative annexes;
c) tailoring the FMEA for different applications is described;
d) different reporting formats are described, including a database information system;
e) alternative means of calculating risk priority numbers (RPN) have been added;
f) a criticality matrix based method has been added;
g) the relationship to other dependability analysis methods have been described.
Keywords: failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), failure modes effects and criticality analysis (FMECA)

  • Standard
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IEC 62853:2018 provides guidance in relation to a set of requirements placed upon system life cycles in order for an open system to achieve open systems dependability. This document elaborates on IEC 60300-1 by providing details of the changes needed to accommodate the characteristics of open systems. It defines process views based on ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, which identifies the set of system life cycle processes. This document is applicable to life cycles of products, systems, processes or services involving hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements. For open systems, security is especially important since the systems are particularly exposed to attack. This document can be used to improve the dependability of open systems and to provide assurance that the process views specific to open systems achieve their expected outcomes. It helps an organization define the activities and tasks that need to be undertaken to achieve dependability objectives in an open system, including dependability related communication, dependability assessment and evaluation of dependability throughout system life cycles.
Keywords: dependability of open systems

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  • Standard
    4 pages
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  • Standard
    4 pages
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This document gives guidance on the use of failure rate data for reliability prediction of
electric components used in equipment.
The method presented in this document uses the concept of reference conditions which are
the typical values of stresses that are observed by components in the majority of applications.
Reference conditions are useful since they provide a known standard basis from which failure
rates can be modified to account for differences in environment from the environments taken
as reference conditions. Each user can use the reference conditions defined in this document
or use their own. When failure rates stated at reference conditions are used it allows realistic
reliability predictions to be made in the early design phase.
The stress models described herein are generic and can be used as a basis for conversion of
failure rate data given at these reference conditions to actual operating conditions when
needed and this simplifies the prediction approach. Conversion of failure rate data is only
possible within the specified functional limits of the components.
This document also gives guidance on how a database of component failure data can be
constructed to provide failure rates that can be used with the included stress models.
Reference conditions for failure rate data are specified, so that data from different sources
can be compared on a uniform basis. If failure rate data are given in accordance with this
document then additional information on the specified conditions can be dispensed with.
This document does not provide base failure rates for components – rather it provides models
that allow failure rates obtained by other means to be converted from one operating condition
to another operating condition.
The prediction methodology described in this document assumes that the parts are being
used within its useful life. The methods in this document have a general application but are
specifically applied to a selection of component types as defined in Clauses 6 to 20 and I.2.

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Provides a general introduction to the concept of life cycle costing, covers all applications and particularly highlights the costs associated with dependability of the product. Explains the purpose and value of life cycle costing and outlines the general approaches involved. Identifies typical life cycle cost elements to facilitate project and programme planning. General guidance is provided for conducting a life cycle cost analysis, including life cycle cost model development. Illustrative examples are provided to explain the concepts.

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Provides a general introduction to the concept of life cycle costing, covers all applications and particularly highlights the costs associated with dependability of the product. Explains the purpose and value of life cycle costing and outlines the general approaches involved. Identifies typical life cycle cost elements to facilitate project and programme planning. General guidance is provided for conducting a life cycle cost analysis, including life cycle cost model development. Illustrative examples are provided to explain the concepts.

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This document describes requirements for spare parts provisioning as a part of supportability
activities that affect dependability performance so that continuity of operation of products,
equipment and systems for their intended application can be sustained.
This document is intended for use by a wide range of suppliers, maintenance support
organizations and users and can be applied to all items.

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IEC 62550:2017 describes requirements for spare parts provisioning as a part of supportability activities that affect dependability performance so that continuity of operation of products, equipment and systems for their intended application can be sustained. This document is intended for use by a wide range of suppliers, maintenance support organizations and users and can be applied to all items.
Keywords: necessary spare parts

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IEC 60300-3-3:2017 establishes a general introduction to the concept of life cycle costing and covers all applications. Although costs incurred over the life cycle consist of many contributing elements, this document particularly highlights the costs associated with the dependability of an item. This forms part of an overall dependability management programme as described in IEC 60300-1. Guidance is provided on life cycle costing for use by managers, engineers, finance staff, and contractors; it is also intended to assist those who may be required to specify and commission such activities when undertaken by others. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2004. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- addition of a complete analysis process;
- greater reference to international accounting practices;
- increased discussion of financial concepts.

  • Standard
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IEC 62550:2017 describes requirements for spare parts provisioning as a part of supportability activities that affect dependability performance so that continuity of operation of products, equipment and systems for their intended application can be sustained. This document is intended for use by a wide range of suppliers, maintenance support organizations and users and can be applied to all items.

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This document provides guidance on how to apply existing communication models regarding environmental concerns to mechanical products.
Carrying out communication models for environmental performances of mechanical products can be relevant for several entities, e.g. single companies, enterprises, collective bodies (trade associations, standardization committees, etc.) and others.
On the one hand side mechanical products represent a large variety of nonuniform items. They can be characterized by several properties distinguishing them from each other. On the other hand side various generic standards/standard-series are existent addressing on how to communicate environmental issues.
This document provides a consistent approach on how to match a particular mechanical product with an appropriate generic standard.
In order to do so, this document contains criteria to cluster the great variety of mechanical products into categories. Based on this categorization existing standards concerning environmental performance communication are evaluated with regards to their suitability.

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This International Standard describes:
• the requirements to apply when reliability block diagrams (RBDs) are used in
dependability analysis;
• the procedures for modelling the dependability of a system with reliability block diagrams;
• how to use RBDs for qualitative and quantitative analysis;
• the procedures for using the RBD model to calculate availability, failure frequency and
reliability measures for different types of systems with constant (or time dependent)
probabilities of blocks success/failure, and for non-repaired blocks or repaired blocks;
• some theoretical aspects and limitations in performing calculations for availability, failure
frequency and reliability measures;
• the relationships with fault tree analysis (see IEC 61025 [1]) and Markov techniques (see
IEC 61165 [2]).

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This International Standard provides mathematical expressions for selected reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support measures defined in IEC 60050192:2015. In addition, it introduces some terms not covered in IEC 60050-192:2015. They are related to aspects of the system of item classes (see hereafter).
According to IEC 60050-192:2015, dependability [192-01-22] is the ability of an item to perform as and when required and an item [192-01-01] can be an individual part, component, device, functional unit, equipment, subsystem, or system.
To account for mathematical constraints, this standard splits the items between the individual items considered as a whole (e.g. individual components) and the systems made of several individual items. It provides general considerations for the mathematical expressions for systems as well as individual items but the individual items which are easier to model are analysed in more detail with regards to their repair aspects.
The following item classes are considered separately:
• Systems;
• Individual items:
– non-repairable [192-01-12];
– repairable [192-01-11]:
i) with zero (or negligible) time to restoration;
ii) with non-zero time to restoration.
In order to explain the dependability concepts which can be difficult to understand, keep the standard self-contained and the mathematical formulae as simple as possible, the following basic mathematical models are used in this standard to quantify dependability measures:
• Systems:
– state-transition models;
– Markovian models.
• Individual items:
– random variable (time to failure) for non-repairable items;
– simple (ordinary) renewal process for repairable items with zero time to restoration;
– simple (ordinary) alternating renewal process for repairable items with non-zero time to restoration.
The application of each dependability measure is illustrated by means of simple examples.
This standard is mainly applicable to hardware dependability, but many terms and their definitions may be applied to items containing software.

  • Standard
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  • Standard
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IEC 61703:2016 provides mathematical expressions for selected reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support measures defined in IEC 60050­192:2015. In addition, it introduces some terms not covered in IEC 60050-192:2015. They are related to aspects of the system of item classes (see hereafter). According to IEC 60050-192:2015, dependability [192-01-22] is the ability of an item to perform as and when required and an item [192-01-01] can be an individual part, component, device, functional unit, equipment, subsystem, or system. To account for mathematical constraints, this standard splits the items between the individual items considered as a whole (e.g. individual components) and the systems made of several individual items. It provides general considerations for the mathematical expressions for systems as well as individual items but the individual items which are easier to model are analysed in more detail with regards to their repair aspects. This standard is mainly applicable to hardware dependability, but many terms and their definitions may be applied to items containing software. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2001. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - standard made as self containing as possible; - item split between individual items and systems; - generalization of the dependability concepts for systems made of several components [introduction of the conditional failure intensity (Vesely failure rate); - introduction of the state-transition and the Markovian models; - generalization of the availability to production availability]; - introduction of curves to illustrate the various concepts. Keywords: mathematical expressions for dependability

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  • Standard
    101 pages
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IEC 61703:2016 provides mathematical expressions for selected reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support measures defined in IEC 60050­192:2015. In addition, it introduces some terms not covered in IEC 60050-192:2015. They are related to aspects of the system of item classes (see hereafter). According to IEC 60050-192:2015, dependability [192-01-22] is the ability of an item to perform as and when required and an item [192-01-01] can be an individual part, component, device, functional unit, equipment, subsystem, or system. To account for mathematical constraints, this standard splits the items between the individual items considered as a whole (e.g. individual components) and the systems made of several individual items. It provides general considerations for the mathematical expressions for systems as well as individual items but the individual items which are easier to model are analysed in more detail with regards to their repair aspects. This standard is mainly applicable to hardware dependability, but many terms and their definitions may be applied to items containing software. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2001. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- standard made as self containing as possible;
- item split between individual items and systems;
- generalization of the dependability concepts for systems made of several components [introduction of the conditional failure intensity (Vesely failure rate);
- introduction of the state-transition and the Markovian models;
- generalization of the availability to production availability];
- introduction of curves to illustrate the various concepts. Keywords: mathematical expressions for dependability

  • Standard
    209 pages
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Applies to any software forming part of a safety-related system or used to develop a safety-related system within the scope of IEC 61508-1 and IEC 61508-2. Provides requirements: - for safety lifecycle phases and actvities; - for informatin relating to the software safety validation; - for the preparation of information and procedures concerning software; - to be met by the organisation carrying out modifications to safety-related software; - for supporting tools. Has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.[
]The contents of the corrigendum of April 1999 have been included in this copy.

  • Standard
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This International Standard gives guidance on the content and application of a dependability
case and establishes general principles for the preparation of a dependability case.
This standard is written in a basic project context where a customer orders a system that
meets dependability requirements from a supplier and then manages the system until its
retirement. The methods provided in this standard may be modified and adapted to other
situations as needed.
The dependability case is normally produced by the customer and supplier but can also be
used and updated by other organizations. For example, certification bodies and regulators
may examine the submitted case to support their decisions and users of the system may
update/expand the case, particularly where they use the system for a different purpose.

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  • Standard
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ISO/IEC 14543-5-7:2015(E) specifies the architecture and framework for the remote access of IGRS devices and services in the home electronic system. The remote access communications protocol and application profiles are specified in other parts of this series. The relationship among these parts is specified in this standard. It is applicable to the remote access of an IGRS sub-network (called an IGRS subnet) for resource sharing and service collaboration among home and/or remote computers, consumer electronics and communication devices.

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IEC 62741:2015 gives guidance on the content and application of a dependability case and establishes general principles for the preparation of a dependability case. This standard is written in a basic project context where a customer orders a system that meets dependability requirements from a supplier and then manages the system until its retirement. The methods provided in this standard may be modified and adapted to other situations as needed. The dependability case is normally produced by the customer and supplier but can also be used and updated by other organizations. For example, certification bodies and regulators may examine the submitted case to support their decisions and users of the system may update/expand the case, particularly where they use the system for a different purpose. Keywords: dependability, reliability, availability, maintainability, supportability, usability, testability, durability.

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  • Standard
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IEC 60050-192:2015 gives the general terminology used in the field of dependability. The terms are generic and are applicable to all fields of dependability methodology, including electrotechnical applications. The document is not an exhaustive vocabulary for all IEC standards in the dependability field: definitions for some specialized terms may only be found in the relevant standards. This document replaces sections 1 to 20 of IEC 60050-191:1990, which has been subjected to a systematic, in-depth review and revision, in order to reflect the current usage of the terms in the dependability field, to introduce new terms from new or revised standards, and other informed sources, and to provide a grammatical form, and presentation to comply with the IEC directives. This terminology is consistent with the terminology developed in the other specialized parts of the IEV.
It has the status of a horizontal standard in accordance with IEC Guide 108.

  • Standard
    239 pages
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IEC 62741:2015 gives guidance on the content and application of a dependability case and establishes general principles for the preparation of a dependability case. This standard is written in a basic project context where a customer orders a system that meets dependability requirements from a supplier and then manages the system until its retirement. The methods provided in this standard may be modified and adapted to other situations as needed. The dependability case is normally produced by the customer and supplier but can also be used and updated by other organizations. For example, certification bodies and regulators may examine the submitted case to support their decisions and users of the system may update/expand the case, particularly where they use the system for a different purpose. Keywords: dependability, reliability, availability, maintainability, supportability, usability, testability, durability.

  • Standard
    95 pages
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EN IEC 60300-1 establishes a framework for dependability management. It provides guidance on dependability management of products, systems, processes or services involving hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements. It presents guidance on planning and implementation of dependability activities and technical processes throughout the life cycle taking into account other requirements such as those relating to safety and the environment. This standard gives guidelines for management and their technical personnel to assist them to optimize dependability. This standard is not intended for the purpose of certification.

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IEC 60300-1:2014 establishes a framework for dependability management. It provides guidance on dependability management of products, systems, processes or services involving hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements. It presents guidance on planning and implementation of dependability activities and technical processes throughout the life cycle taking into account other requirements such as those relating to safety and the environment. This standard gives guidelines for management and their technical personnel to assist them to optimize dependability. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2003 and constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - an updating of definitions to reflect IEC 60050-191:2014; - an enhanced description of dependability and its attributes; - a more generic approach to dependability management; - revised guidelines for application of dependability management; - a more generic approach to the life cycle; - a framework for dependability standards. Keywords: dependability management

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IEC 60300-1:2014 establishes a framework for dependability management. It provides guidance on dependability management of products, systems, processes or services involving hardware, software and human aspects or any integrated combinations of these elements. It presents guidance on planning and implementation of dependability activities and technical processes throughout the life cycle taking into account other requirements such as those relating to safety and the environment. This standard gives guidelines for management and their technical personnel to assist them to optimize dependability. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2003 and constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- an updating of definitions to reflect IEC 60050-191:2014;
- an enhanced description of dependability and its attributes;
- a more generic approach to dependability management;
- revised guidelines for application of dependability management;
- a more generic approach to the life cycle;
- a framework for dependability standards. Keywords: dependability management

  • Standard
    93 pages
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This International Standard provides guidance on the application of various accelerated test techniques for measurement or improvement of product reliability. Identification of potential failure modes that could be experienced in the use of a product/item and their mitigation is instrumental to ensure dependability of an item. The object of the methods is to either identify potential design weakness or provide information on item dependability, or to achieve necessary reliability/availability improvement, all within a compressed or accelerated period of time. This standard addresses accelerated testing of non-repairable and repairable systems. It can be used for probability ratio sequential tests, fixed duration tests and reliability improvement/growth tests, where the measure of reliability may differ from the standard probability of failure occurrence. This standard also extends to present accelerated testing or production screening methods that would identify weakness introduced into the product by manufacturing error, which could compromise product dependability.

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IEC 62506:2013 provides guidance on the application of various accelerated test techniques for measurement or improvement of product reliability. Identification of potential failure modes that could be experienced in the use of a product/item and their mitigation is instrumental to ensure dependability of an item. The object of the methods is to either identify potential design weakness or provide information on item dependability, or to achieve necessary reliability/availability improvement, all within a compressed or accelerated period of time. This standard addresses accelerated testing of non-repairable and repairable systems. It can be used for probability ratio sequential tests, fixed duration tests and reliability improvement/growth tests, where the measure of reliability may differ from the standard probability of failure occurrence. This standard also extends to present accelerated testing or production screening methods that would identify weakness introduced into the product by manufacturing error, which could compromise product dependability. Keywords: test techniques for measurement or improvement of product reliability

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IEC/TR 61156-1-5:2013(E), which is a Technical Report, describes correction procedures for the measurement results of return loss and input impedance.

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IEC 62506:2013 provides guidance on the application of various accelerated test techniques for measurement or improvement of product reliability. Identification of potential failure modes that could be experienced in the use of a product/item and their mitigation is instrumental to ensure dependability of an item. The object of the methods is to either identify potential design weakness or provide information on item dependability, or to achieve necessary reliability/availability improvement, all within a compressed or accelerated period of time. This standard addresses accelerated testing of non-repairable and repairable systems. It can be used for probability ratio sequential tests, fixed duration tests and reliability improvement/growth tests, where the measure of reliability may differ from the standard probability of failure occurrence. This standard also extends to present accelerated testing or production screening methods that would identify weakness introduced into the product by manufacturing error, which could compromise product dependability. Keywords: test techniques for measurement or improvement of product reliability

  • Standard
    184 pages
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This International Standard provides guidance on a Petri net based methodology for dependability purposes. It supports modelling a system, analysing the model and presenting the analysis results. This methodology is oriented to dependability-related measures with all the related features, such as reliability, availability, production availability, maintainability and safety (e.g. safety integrity level (SIL) [2] related measures). This standard deals with the following topics in relation to Petri nets: a) defining the essential terms and symbols and describing their usage and methods of graphical representation; b) outlining the terminology and its relation to dependability; c) presenting a step-by-step approach for 1) dependability modelling with Petri nets, 2) guiding the usage of Petri net based techniques for qualitative and quantitative dependability analyses, 3) representing and interpreting the analysis results; d) outlining the relationship of Petri nets to other modelling techniques; e) providing practical examples. This standard does not give guidance on how to solve mathematical problems that arise when analysing a PN; such guidance can be found in [3] and [4]. This standard is applicable to all industries where qualitative and quantitative dependability analyses is performed.

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