This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded hog fuel and wood chips for industrial use. It covers only hog fuel and wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): —   1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; —   1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; —   1.3 Used wood; —   1.4 Blends and mixtures. This document covers hog fuel that has pieces of varying size and shape, produced by crushing with blunt tools such as rollers, hammers, or flails, and wood chips which are defined as chipped woody biomass with a sub-rectangular shape and a typical length of 5 mm to 50 mm typically in the form of pieces with a defined particle size produced by mechanical treatment with sharp tools such as knives. See 1.1.2 in ISO 17225-1, Table 1 for by-products and residues from wood processing industry, which can include chemically treated material (e.g. glued, painted, laminated), are not allowed to contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values or higher than typical values of the country of origin (see Annex B in ISO 17225-1). NOTE      If 1.4 Blends and mixtures includes 1.3.2 Chemically treated used wood, it can be only used in the installations permitted to use 1.3.2.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded firewood. This document covers only firewood produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17725‑1:2021, Table 1): —   1.1.1 Whole trees without roots; —   1.1.3 Stem wood; —   1.1.4 Logging residues (thick branches, tops etc.); —   1.2.1 Chemically untreated by-products and residues from wood processing industry.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody briquettes. This document covers only non-woody briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   2 Herbaceous biomass —   3 Fruit biomass —   4 Aquatic biomass —   5 Biomass blends and mixtures NOTE 1   Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their by-products such as cereals. NOTE 2   Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1. If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated. NOTE 3             Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this document

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody pellets. This document covers only non-woody pellets produced from the following raw material (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   2 Herbaceous biomass —   3 Fruit biomass —   4 Aquatic biomass —   5 Biomass blends and mixtures NOTE 1   Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their by-products such as cereals. NOTE 2   Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1. If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated. NOTE 3   Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw and processed materials originating from a) forestry and arboriculture; b) agriculture and horticulture; c) aquaculture. Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the country of origin. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit, aquatic biomass and biodegradable waste originating from above sectors.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood pellets for non-industrial and industrial use. This document covers only wood pellets produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; —   1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; —   1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood. Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of water sorption in a laboratory setting and provides a measure for how the durability is impacted as a result of immersion in water. Post-immersion durability reduction is calculated as the difference between the durability of the as-received sample and the durability of the wetted product.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood chips. This document covers only wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1): 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood. This document covers only wood chips, which are produced with sharp tools, and does not cover hog fuel, which is produced with blunt tools.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood briquettes. This document covers only wood briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1: 2021, Table 1): 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood NOTE Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This International Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the biomass content in solid
recovered fuels: the selective dissolution and the 14C content method. The standard provides the
criteria for choosing the more appropriate method and some examples of application.

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This document specifies basket heating tests for the characterization of self-heating properties of solid biofuel pellets. This document includes: a) a compilation of basket heating test methods; b) guidance on the applicability and use of basket heating tests for solid biofuel pellets; c) information on the application of basket heating test data for calculations of critical conditions in storages. Data on spontaneous heat generation determined using this document is only associated with the specific quality and age of the sample material. The information derived using this document is for use in quality control and in hazard and risk assessments related to the procedures given in ISO 20024. The described methods can be used for other substances than solid biofuel pellets (e.g. wood chips).

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This document covers the requirements for the design, installation, operation, maintenance and the safety of Household Biogas Systems (HBSs), producing biogas in an amount equivalent to an installation capacity of less than 100 MWh per year. The document applies to HBSs comprising of pipeline and equipment with pressure levels of less than 5 kPa. Any equipment or appliances connected to an HBS or utilizing the biogas energy of an HBS are not a part of the scope of this document.

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This document specifies the requirements and test methods for bamboo charcoal. It is applicable to the bamboo charcoal briquette.

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This document specifies the requirements and test methods of the raw and moulded bamboo charcoal for fuel applications.

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This Technical Specification defines requirements for provision by economic operators of the required evidence that biofuels and bioliquids fulfil the sustainability criteria as defined in the Renewable Energy Directive [1]. This Technical Specification is applicable to the initial biomass production or to the point of collection for waste and residue and to each stage within the chain of custody. It also defines requirements on conformity assessment bodies when checking compliance with the present standard.
This revision is basically a small amendment to align the text with the new requirements following the iLUC Directive and include the changes listed in in document N 224 as agreed upon during the plenary meeting.

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This document summarizes current knowledge concerning a test method and its technical implementation, and existing knowledge about the bridging performance of biofuels. The document consists of three parts, as follows: — Part I: Method for direct determination of bridging behaviour, to make it available for research and development purposes (see Clause 4). — Part II: Implementing the measurement principle, to assist in the construction of test apparatus and to illustrate the performance of a bridging test (see Clause 5). — Part III: Experience and results from bridging tests, to provide typical results on bridging for a wide range of biofuels already tested (see Clause 6).

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This document applies to the design, manufacture, installation and operation of flares for the combustion of biogas. Test methods and performance requirements are also included. Biogas systems are amongst others applied at industrial plants like food and beverage industries, waste water treatment plants, waste plants, landfill sites, small scale plants next to agricultural companies and small-scale household systems.

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This document: a) specifies a general test procedure for quantification of the spontaneous heat generation from solid biofuel pellets using isothermal calorimetry; b) specifies a screening test procedure for wood pellets using an instrument temperature of 60 °C; c) establishes procedures for sampling and sample handling of solid biofuel pellets prior to the analysis of spontaneous heat generation; and d) gives guidance on the applicability and use of isothermal calorimetry for calculation of the net reaction rate of the heat producing reactions of solid biofuel pellets. The test procedure given in this document quantifies the thermal power (heat flow) of the sample during the test, it does not identify the source of self-heating in the test portion analysed. Data on spontaneous heat generation determined using this document is only associated with the specific quality and age of the sample material. The results are product specific. This document is applicable to solid biofuel pellets only. The information derived using this document is for use in quality control and in hazard and risk assessments related to the procedures given in ISO 20024:2020.

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This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications.
The standard covers the entire handling and storage process of pellets, (i) at a pellets production plant, from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation and (ii) at a power plant from the receiving station until fed into a pulverizer or furnace.
The process of production of pellets and safety issues related to production are not covered by this standard, nor is the pulverizing or combustion process. Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included, the safety issues during the transport itself are not.

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This document defines a method for determination of off-gassing (permanent gases) and oxygen depletion from woody as well as non-woody biomass, including densified materials such as pellets and briquettes, as well as non-densified materials such as chips. The method is also applicable for thermally treated materials, including torrefied and carbonized materials. The emission and depletion factor and emission and depletion rate for various gas species emitted from sample within a closed test container is determined by means of gas chromatography. The emission and depletion factor and emission and depletion rate provide guidance for ventilation requirements to keep gas concentrations below Permissible Exposure Levels (PEL) in spaces where workers can be exposed to the enclosed atmosphere.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications. This document is using a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures should be considered.
Facilities with a storage capacity <100 t are covered by ISO 20023. Generally, for end-user facilities with a storage capacity of <1 000 t, ISO 20023 could also be applicable if storage principle and facility complexity is in-line with the objectives of ISO 20023.
This document covers the handling and storage process of pellets in the following applications:
— at a pellet production plant from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation;
— at a commercial distributor from the receiving station until loaded for transportation; and
— at an industrial end-user from the receiving station until fed into the fuel preparation or combustion process.
Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included in the operational envelops defined above, the safety aspect of the transportation itself is beyond the scope of this document.
This document also gives specific guidance on detection and suppression systems and preparatory measures to enable safe and efficient firefighting operations. Guidance on the management of fire and explosion incidents is also specified.

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This document describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small scale applications and storages including preparation of sampling plans and reports. The main focus is on storages with a size of ≤100 t. This document is applicable to the following solid biofuels:
1) fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
2) coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials (up to 200 mm nominal top size) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel and nut shells;
3) large pieces (above 200 mm nominal top size) which are picked manually (e.g. firewood and briquettes).
This document can also be used for other solid biofuels not listed above if the procedures described in this document are applicable. This document specifies methods to be used, for example, when a sample is to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, mechanical durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.
Additionally, it describes a method for the reduction of sample size and defines requirements on handling and storage of samples.
NOTE 1 If higher precision of analytical results is needed or when in doubt if this document is applicable ISO 18135 can be used. Using the number of increments given in this document the resulting precision for analytical results can be estimated with the formulas given in ISO 18135.
NOTE 2 Pellets can generate CO and CO2 off gasses by nature. If pellets are sampled, check for CO and CO2 and O2 levels prior and during the sample taking process in a confined space like a container, silo or shed and have another person standby at the entrance.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications. This document is using a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures should be considered. Facilities with a storage capacity This document covers the handling and storage process of pellets in the following applications: — at a pellet production plant from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation; — at a commercial distributor from the receiving station until loaded for transportation; and — at an industrial end-user from the receiving station until fed into the fuel preparation or combustion process. Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included in the operational envelops defined above, the safety aspect of the transportation itself is beyond the scope of this document. This document also gives specific guidance on detection and suppression systems and preparatory measures to enable safe and efficient firefighting operations. Guidance on the management of fire and explosion incidents is also specified.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic temperatures for the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels.

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This document describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small scale applications and storages including preparation of sampling plans and reports. The main focus is on storages with a size of ≤100 t. This document is applicable to the following solid biofuels: 1) fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets; 2) coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials (up to 200 mm nominal top size) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel and nut shells; 3) large pieces (above 200 mm nominal top size) which are picked manually (e.g. firewood and briquettes). This document can also be used for other solid biofuels not listed above if the procedures described in this document are applicable. This document specifies methods to be used, for example, when a sample is to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, mechanical durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition. Additionally, it describes a method for the reduction of sample size and defines requirements on handling and storage of samples. NOTE 1 If higher precision of analytical results is needed or when in doubt if this document is applicable ISO 18135 can be used. Using the number of increments given in this document the resulting precision for analytical results can be estimated with the formulas given in ISO 18135. NOTE 2 Pellets can generate CO and CO2 off gasses by nature. If pellets are sampled, check for CO and CO2 and O2 levels prior and during the sample taking process in a confined space like a container, silo or shed and have another person standby at the entrance.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic temperatures for the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels.

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This European Standard specifies a detailed methodology that will allow any economic operator in a biofuel or bioliquid chain to calculate the actual GHG emissions associated with its operations in a standardised and transparent manner, taking all materially relevant aspects into account. It includes all steps of the chain from biomass production to the end transport and distribution operations.
The methodology strictly follows the principles and rules stipulated in the RED and particularly its Annex V, the EC decision dated 10 June 2010 "Guideline for calculation of land carbon stocks" for the purpose of Annex V to Directive 2009/28/EC (2010/335/EU) [5] as well as any additional interpretation of the legislative text published by the EU Commission. Where appropriate these rules are clarified, explained and further elaborated. In the context of accounting for heat and electricity consumption and surpluses reference is also made to Directive 2004/8/EC [6] on "the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market" and the associated EU Commission decision of 21/12/2006 "establishing harmonised efficiency reference values for separate production of electricity and heat" [7].
The main purpose of this standard is to specify a methodology to estimate GHG emissions at each step of the biofuel/bioliquid production and transport chain. The specific way in which these emissions have to be combined to establish the overall GHG balance of a biofuel or bioliquid depends on the chain of custody system in use and is not per se within the scope of this part 4 of the EN 16214 standard. Part 2 of the standard, addresses these issues in detail also in accordance with the stipulations of the RED. Nevertheless, Clause 6 of this part of the standard includes general indications and guidelines on how to integrate the different parts of the chain.

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This European Standard defines the terminology to be used in the field of sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications. This European Standard specifically considers some relevant terms and definitions used in the European Commission Directive 2009/28/EC [1], referred to as Renewable Energy Directive (RED), and in the European Commission Directive 2009/30/EC [2] referred to as Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), or in other European regulations.

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This European Standard defines the terminology to be used in the field of sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications. This European Standard specifically considers some relevant terms and definitions used in the European Commission Directive 2009/28/EC [1], referred to as Renewable Energy Directive (RED), and in the European Commission Directive 2009/30/EC [2] referred to as Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), or in other European regulations.

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This European Standard specifies a detailed methodology that will allow any economic operator in a biofuel or bioliquid chain to calculate the actual GHG emissions associated with its operations in a standardised and transparent manner, taking all materially relevant aspects into account. It includes all steps of the chain from biomass production to the end transport and distribution operations.
The methodology strictly follows the principles and rules stipulated in the RED and particularly its Annex V, the EC decision dated 10 June 2010 "Guideline for calculation of land carbon stocks" for the purpose of Annex V to Directive 2009/28/EC (2010/335/EU) [5] as well as any additional interpretation of the legislative text published by the EU Commission. Where appropriate these rules are clarified, explained and further elaborated. In the context of accounting for heat and electricity consumption and surpluses reference is also made to Directive 2004/8/EC [6] on "the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market" and the associated EU Commission decision of 21/12/2006 "establishing harmonised efficiency reference values for separate production of electricity and heat" [7].
The main purpose of this standard is to specify a methodology to estimate GHG emissions at each step of the biofuel/bioliquid production and transport chain. The specific way in which these emissions have to be combined to establish the overall GHG balance of a biofuel or bioliquid depends on the chain of custody system in use and is not per se within the scope of this part 4 of the EN 16214 standard. Part 2 of the standard, addresses these issues in detail also in accordance with the stipulations of the RED. Nevertheless, Clause 6 of this part of the standard includes general indications and guidelines on how to integrate the different parts of the chain.

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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be
applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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This document provides principles and requirements for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from loading of the delivery truck, requirements of delivery trucks, connections to the end-user's store and the delivery process. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This document addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing, oxygen depletion, damage to appliances and buildings through swelling of pellets and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets according to ISO 17225-2.

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This document explains an approach for assessment of limit values for contaminants that may be found
in biomethane. Limit values are generally required as an adjunct to a biomethane specification (such as
parts 1 and 2 of EN 16723, or an equivalent National specification) or as part of a Network Entry
Agreement for injection of biomethane into gas networks.
The methodology employed will permit derivation of limit values based solely on consideration of
potential for impact on human health and does not consider other impacts, such as integrity and
operation of plant and pipelines used to convey biomethane or appliances involved in its combustion or
other regulations like CLP regulation. Where consideration of such impacts would result in proposing
lower limit values than those based on health impacts, then the lowest limit values should generally be
proposed.

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This document provides principles and requirements for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from loading of the delivery truck, requirements of delivery trucks, connections to the end-user's store and the delivery process. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This document addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing, oxygen depletion, damage to appliances and buildings through swelling of pellets and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets according to ISO 17225-2.

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This document explains an approach for assessment of limit values for contaminants that may be found in biomethane. Limit values are generally required as an adjunct to a biomethane specification (such as parts 1 and 2 of EN 16723, or an equivalent National specification) or as part of a Network Entry Agreement for injection of biomethane into gas networks.
The methodology employed will permit derivation of limit values based solely on consideration of potential for impact on human health and does not consider other impacts, such as integrity and operation of plant and pipelines used to convey biomethane or appliances involved in its combustion or other regulations like CLP regulation. Where consideration of such impacts would result in proposing lower limit values than those based on health impacts, then the lowest limit values should generally be proposed.

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ISO 20675:2018 defines terms and describes classifications related to biogas production by anaerobic digestion, gasification from biomass and power to gas from biomass sources, biogas conditioning, biogas upgrading and biogas utilization from a safety, environmental, performance and functionality perspective, during the design, manufacturing, installation, construction, testing, commissioning, acceptance, operation, regular inspection and maintenance phases. Biogas installations are, among others, applied at industrial plants like food and beverage industries, waste water treatment plants, waste plants, landfill sites, small scale plants next to agricultural companies and small scale household installations. The following topics are excluded from this document: - boilers, burners, furnaces and lightening, in case these are not specifically applied for locally produced biogas; - gas-fuelled engines for vehicles and ships; - the public gas grid; - specifications to determine biomethane quality; - transportation of compressed or liquefied biogas; - transportation of biomass or digestate; - assessment and determination whether biomass is sourced sustainably or not. ISO 20675:2018 describes the following for information purposes as well: - the parameters to determine the size (e.g. small, medium-sized, or large scale); - the parameters to determine the type of installation (e.g. domestic, industrial); - the parameters to describe the type of technique; - terms and processes in order to develop health, safety and environmental protection guidelines for biogas installations. NOTE For an explanation of the Scope, see Annex A.

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This European Standard only defines procedures, criteria and indicators to provide the required evidence for:
-   production of raw material in areas for nature protection purposes;
-   harvesting of raw material from non-natural highly biodiverse grasslands; and
-   cultivation and harvesting on peatland.
This European Standard specifies requirements relevant for the provision of evidence by economic operators that the production, cultivation and harvesting of raw materials is in accordance with legal or other requirements concerning the areas mentioned above.
This European Standard is applicable to production, cultivation and harvesting of biomass for biofuels and bioliquids production.
NOTE   At several occasions in the text the plural form "purposes" is used, but in practice there can be just one nature protection or harvesting of raw material purpose.

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This European Standard only defines procedures, criteria and indicators to provide the required evidence for:
-   production of raw material in areas for nature protection purposes;
-   harvesting of raw material from non-natural highly biodiverse grasslands; and
-   cultivation and harvesting on peatland.
This European Standard specifies requirements relevant for the provision of evidence by economic operators that the production, cultivation and harvesting of raw materials is in accordance with legal or other requirements concerning the areas mentioned above.
This European Standard is applicable to production, cultivation and harvesting of biomass for biofuels and bioliquids production.
NOTE   At several occasions in the text the plural form "purposes" is used, but in practice there can be just one nature protection or harvesting of raw material purpose.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for natural gas (group L and H, as in EN 437), biomethane and blends of both at the point of use as automotive fuels.
This European Standard applies to the previously mentioned fuels irrespective of the storage state (compressed or liquefied).
To check compliance with some requirements set by the standard, LNG or liquefied biomethane should be re-gasified prior to testing.

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ISO 18125:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.
The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, biofuels are burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is either not condensed (removed as vapour with the flue gases) or condensed. Under both conditions, the operative heat of combustion to be used is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume may also be used; formulae are given for calculating both values.
General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the biofuel experiments are presented in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in Annexes A to C. Annex D contains checklists for performing calibration and fuel experiments using specified types of calorimeters. Annex E gives examples to illustrate some of the calculations.

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ISO 14780:2017 defines methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods defined in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.

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ISO 19743:2017 specifies a method for the determination of content of heavy extraneous materials larger than 3,15 mm by the use of sink-and-float separation combined with elutriation. This document is applicable to woody biomass in accordance with ISO 17225‑1:2014, Table 1.

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ISO 18135:2017 describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates, as well as taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries, e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either:
- fine (particle sizes up to about 10 mm) and regularly shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, for example, sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
- coarse or irregularly shaped particulate materials (particle sizes up to about 200 mm) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, for example, wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw;
- baled materials, for example, baled straw or grass;
- large pieces (particle sizes above 200 mm) that are either picked manually or automatically;
- vegetable waste, fibrous waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp that has been dewatered;
- thermally treated and densified biomass materials;
- roundwood.
ISO 18135:2017 is not applicable to airborne dust from solid biofuels. It may be possible to use this document for other solid biofuels.
The methods described in this document may be used, for example, when the samples are to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.

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ISO 14780:2017 defines methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels. The methods defined in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.

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ISO 18125:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid. The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, biofuels are burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is either not condensed (removed as vapour with the flue gases) or condensed. Under both conditions, the operative heat of combustion to be used is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume may also be used; formulae are given for calculating both values. General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the biofuel experiments are presented in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in Annexes A to C. Annex D contains checklists for performing calibration and fuel experiments using specified types of calorimeters. Annex E gives examples to illustrate some of the calculations.

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ISO 19743:2017 specifies a method for the determination of content of heavy extraneous materials larger than 3,15 mm by the use of sink-and-float separation combined with elutriation. This document is applicable to woody biomass in accordance with ISO 17225‑1:2014, Table 1.

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ISO 18135:2017 describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates, as well as taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries, e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either: - fine (particle sizes up to about 10 mm) and regularly shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, for example, sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets; - coarse or irregularly shaped particulate materials (particle sizes up to about 200 mm) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, for example, wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw; - baled materials, for example, baled straw or grass; - large pieces (particle sizes above 200 mm) that are either picked manually or automatically; - vegetable waste, fibrous waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp that has been dewatered; - thermally treated and densified biomass materials; - roundwood. ISO 18135:2017 is not applicable to airborne dust from solid biofuels. It may be possible to use this document for other solid biofuels. The methods described in this document may be used, for example, when the samples are to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.

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ISO 18134-2:2017 describes the method of determining the total moisture content of a test sample of solid biofuels by drying in an oven and is used when the highest precision is not needed, e.g. for routine production control on site. The method described in ISO 18134 (all parts) is applicable to all solid biofuels. The moisture content of solid biofuels (as received) is always reported based on the total mass of the test sample (wet basis).

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ISO 18134-2:2017 describes the method of determining the total moisture content of a test sample of solid biofuels by drying in an oven and is used when the highest precision is not needed, e.g. for routine production control on site. The method described in ISO 18134 (all parts) is applicable to all solid biofuels. The moisture content of solid biofuels (as received) is always reported based on the total mass of the test sample (wet basis).

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