This document provides general considerations to support the design guidance to geotechnical and civil engineers involved in the design of structures in which a geotextile is used as reinforcement. The key potential failure mechanisms are described, and guidance is proposed to select engineering properties.

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This document provides general considerations to support the design guidance to geotechnical and civil engineers involved in the design of structures in which a geotextile is used as a filter. The key potential failure mechanisms are described, and guidance is proposed to select engineering properties.

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This document specifies index test methods for determining the compressive creep properties of
geosynthetic products. The test specimens are subjected either to normal compressive loading or to a
combination of normal compressive loading and shear loading.
The test method with a normal load only (see Clause 5) is the standard method.
The test method in which combined normal and shear loads are applied (see Clause 6) is intended for
products that are sensitive to shear failure, i.e. which have a columnar or cuspated structure.
The tests are carried out on dry specimens or on specimens immersed in water. The test is intended
to be carried out with the specimen immersed in water when any part of the geosynthetic product
contains a hydrophilic polymer.

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This specific test serves to determine the protective effect of different geosynthetics against water erosion by heavy rain. The test is performed in a laboratory apparatus and the results serve as a performance test.

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This document specifies index test methods for determining the compressive creep properties of geosynthetic products. The test specimens are subjected either to normal compressive loading or to a combination of normal compressive loading and shear loading. The test method with a normal load only (see Clause 5) is the standard method. The test method in which combined normal and shear loads are applied (see Clause 6) is intended for products that are sensitive to shear failure, i.e. which have a columnar or cuspated structure. The tests are carried out on dry specimens or on specimens immersed in water. The test is intended to be carried out with the specimen immersed in water when any part of the geosynthetic product contains a hydrophilic polymer.

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This standard specifies a method for the determination of the microbiological resistance of geotextiles and geotextile-related products by a soil burial test. It does not specify for which products or in which applications the soil burial test is required. Further reference should be made to CR ISO 13434.

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This document specifies a method for determining the constant-head water flow capacity within the
plane of a geotextile or geotextile-related product. This document describes the in-plane water flow
index test, only applicable to factory-assembled products. For the in-plane water flow performance test,
see ISO 12958-2.

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This document specifies a method for determining the constant-head water flow capacity within the
plane of a geotextile or geotextile-related product, using boundary materials and test conditions of
interest. A standard series of test conditions are proposed, involving soil confinement, low hydraulic
gradients, seating times and an array of normal loads.

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This document provides guidelines for the assessment of the durability of geosynthetics, the object of which is to provide the design engineer with the necessary information, generally defined as changes in material properties or as partial safety factors, to ensure that the expected design life of a geosynthetic can be achieved with confidence. This document is not applicable to products designed to survive for only a limited time, such as erosion-control fabric based on natural fibres. This document is applicable to the durability of the geosynthetics and not to the durability of the geotechnical structure as a whole. NOTE The calculation of reduction factors for soil reinforcement applications is described in ISO/TR 20432.

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This document specifies a method for determining the constant-head water flow capacity within the plane of a geotextile or geotextile-related product, using boundary materials and test conditions of interest. A standard series of test conditions are proposed, involving soil confinement, low hydraulic gradients, seating times and an array of normal loads.

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This document specifies a method for determining the constant-head water flow capacity within the plane of a geotextile or geotextile-related product. This document describes the in-plane water flow index test, only applicable to factory-assembled products. For the in-plane water flow performance test, see ISO 12958-2.

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This standard specifies methods for screening the resistance of geotextile products to liquids while not subjecting them to external mechanical stress.
The standard is applicable to all geotextiles and geotextile related products.
Method A applies particularly to polyamides and method B to polyesters and polyamides. The test results should be interpreted in the context of site conditions.
NOTE This standard only considers conditions where the specimens are fully immersed in the liquids. Though outside the scope of this standard, the test conditions may be modified to accommodate particular applications, e.g. gaseous media. This standard does not preclude use for test specimens that are pre-treated by some method, e.g. by weathering, aqueous extraction conditions or installation damage.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the abrasion resistance of geotextiles and geotextile-related products under wet conditions. This document is applicable to geotextiles and geotextile-related products intended to be used as e.g. geo bags or filter beneath armourstone. The test method simulates abrasion impacts on geotextiles and geotextile-related products such as that caused by the movement of rocks in an embankment or transport of sediment in rivers. This document provides an index test which can be used for performance and acceptance testing. It can be used as performance test by comparison of mechanical and/or additional hydraulic properties before and after abrasion impact.

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This document specifies test methods for the determination of tensile properties of polymeric geosynthetic barriers (PE (PEHD and PELLD, FPO (EVA, FPP, and PEVLD), PVC-P and EPDM).
Method A is suitable for testing polymeric geosynthetic barriers (GBRP), PVC, EPDM and FPO (EVA, FPP and PEVLD), non-reinforced (including 80gsm glass fleece) and without backing.
Method B is suitable for testing polymeric geosynthetic barriers (GBRP), PE (HDPE and PELLD), non-reinforced and without backing.
Method C is suitable for testing polymeric geosynthetic barriers (GBRP), reinforced and/or with  backing.
Method D is suitable for measuring modulus (if required) of all non-reinforced products.

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This document specifies methods for screening the resistance of geotextile and geotextile-related products to liquids while not subjecting them to external mechanical stress. It is applicable to all geotextiles and geotextile-related products. Method A applies particularly to polyamides and method B to polyesters and polyamides. The test results are intended to be interpreted in the context of site conditions. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO/TS 13434. NOTE This document only considers conditions where the specimens are fully immersed in the liquids. Though outside the scope of this document, the test conditions can be modified to accommodate particular applications, e.g. gaseous media. This document does not preclude use for test specimens that are pre-treated by some method, e.g. by weathering, aqueous extraction conditions or installation damage.

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This document provides general considerations to support the guidance to geotechnical and civil engineers for design using geosynthetics provided in the subsequent parts of the ISO/TR 18228 series.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic size ofthe openings of a single layer of a geotextile or geotextile-related productusing the wet-sieving principle.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic size of the openings of a single layer of a geotextile or geotextile-related product using the wet-sieving principle.

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This Standard describes an index test procedure for simulating mechanical damage to geosynthetics, caused by granular material, under repeated loading. The damage is assessed visually and by the loss of tensile strength. Other reference tests can be used to assess the damage caused by this test. The test method described is an index test procedure, using a standard granular material, and is not intended to be used for the derivation of a reduction factor for geosynthetic reinforcement.

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This Standard describes index test methods for the determination of the strength of internal structural junctions of geocells under different loading conditions.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic size of the openings of a single layer of a geotextile or geotextile-related product using the wet-sieving principle.

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This document describes an index test procedure for simulating mechanical damage to geosynthetics, caused by granular material, under repeated loading. The damage is assessed visually and by the loss of tensile strength.
Other reference tests can be used to assess the damage caused by this test. The test method described is an index test procedure, using a standard granular material, and is not intended to be used for the derivation of a reduction factor for geosynthetic reinforcement.

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This document describes index test methods for the determination of the strength of internal structural junctions of geocells under different loading conditions.

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This document describes an index test procedure for simulating mechanical damage to geosynthetics, caused by granular material, under repeated loading. The damage is assessed visually and by the loss of tensile strength. Other reference tests can be used to assess the damage caused by this test. The test method described is an index test procedure, using a standard granular material, and is not intended to be used for the derivation of a reduction factor for geosynthetic reinforcement.

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  • Standard
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This document describes index test methods for the determination of the strength of internal structural junctions of geocells under different loading conditions.

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This standard specifies a method for the on-site installation, retrieval and testing of geotextile samples, irrespective of the particular degradation mechanisms to which they are exposed.
The method is also appropriate to test for mechanical damage, much of which occurs during installation, and to provide an owner with information about the state of the geotextile or geotextile-related product in his structure.
NOTE : The durability of geotextiles or geotextile-related products is assessed by short-term accelerated tests under conditions more extreme than those experienced in service. In order to establish the validity of these tests it is essential to compare their predictions with tests made on material extracted from site.

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This document specifies a method for the on-site installation and retrieval of geosynthetic samples, irrespective of the particular degradation mechanisms to which they are exposed.
The method is also appropriate to test for mechanical damage, much of which occurs during installation, and to provide an owner with information about the state of the geosynthetic product in their structure.

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This document specifies a method for the on-site installation and retrieval of geosynthetic samples, irrespective of the particular degradation mechanisms to which they are exposed. The method is also appropriate to test for mechanical damage, much of which occurs during installation, and to provide an owner with information about the state of the geosynthetic product in their structure.

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This document specifies two test methods for determining the water permeability characteristics of a
single layer of geotextile or geotextile-related product normal to the plane:
a) the constant head method; and
b) the falling head method.

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This European Standard specifies a method for measuring the steady-state liquid flow through a geosynthetic barrier, used to contain liquids in long-term applications. The test method and described apparatus allow the measurement of flows accurately down to 10-6 m3/m2/day. In particular circumstances where testing indicates that values obtained for a geosynthetic barrier lie below the threshold of sensitivity of this test method, then the value of liquid flow is declared as being less than 10-6 m3/m2/day. Due to its long duration this test method is not suitable for production control testing. Geosynthetic clay liners cannot be tested with this apparatus.

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This document specifies two test methods for determining the water permeability characteristics of a single layer of geotextile or geotextile-related product normal to the plane:
a) the constant head method; and
b) the falling head method.

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This document specifies a method for measuring the steady-state liquid flow through a geosynthetic barrier, used to contain liquids in long-term applications.
The test method and described apparatus allow the measurement of flows accurately down to 10−6 m³/m²/day. In particular circumstances where testing indicates that values obtained for a geosynthetic barrier lie below the threshold of sensitivity of this test method, then the value of liquid flow is declared as being less than10−6 m³/m²/day.
Due to its long duration, this test method is not suitable for production control testing.
Clay geosynthetic barriers cannot be tested with this apparatus.

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This document specifies two test methods for determining the water permeability characteristics of a single layer of geotextile or geotextile-related product normal to the plane: a) the constant head method; and b) the falling head method.

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This document specifies the information accompanying geosynthetics to enable the user on site to
identify the goods as being identical to the goods ordered. The positive identification, e.g. of unwrapped
or rolled-out geosynthetics, is an important aim of this document.
The information specified does not replace a technical data sheet and cannot be used to verify the
conformance of the product with the technical requirements.

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This document specifies the information accompanying geosynthetics to enable the user on site to identify the goods as being identical to the goods ordered. The positive identification, e.g. of unwrapped or rolled-out geosynthetics, is an important aim of this document.
The information specified does not replace a technical data sheet and cannot be used to verify the conformance of the product with the technical requirements.

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This document specifies the information accompanying geosynthetics to enable the user on site to identify the goods as being identical to the goods ordered. The positive identification, e.g. of unwrapped or rolled-out geosynthetics, is an important aim of this document. The information specified does not replace a technical data sheet and cannot be used to verify the conformance of the product with the technical requirements.

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This international standard specifies a screening test method for determining the resistance of geotextiles and geotextile-related products to oxidation. The test is applicable to polypropylene and polyethylene based products.
The data are suitable for screening purposes but not for deriving performance data such as lifetime unless supported by further evidence.

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This document specifies an index test method to determine the friction characteristics of geosynthetics
in contact with a standard sand as described in EN 196-1, i.e. with a specified density and moisture
content, under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus.
The same testing procedure can be used with any type of soil with the density and moisture content
that are required to evaluate the performance under specific conditions or with another geosynthetic
under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus.
The procedure can also be used for testing geosynthetic barriers.

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This document specifies a test method for the measurement of the strain hardening modulus which is
used as a measure for the resistance to slow crack growth of polyethylene. The strain hardening
modulus is obtained from true stress versus draw ratio curves on PE-HD geosynthetic barrier samples.
This standard specifies how measurement is performed and how the strain hardening modulus is
determined. Details of the required equipment, precision and sample preparations are given.
This test method is suitable for all PE-HD types of GBR-P.

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This document specifies a screening test method for determining the resistance of geotextiles and geotextile-related products to oxidation. The test is applicable to products as follows:
— Method A for material consisting solely in polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyamide (PA), aramide (AR);
— Method B for material consisting solely in polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL).
The data are suitable for screening purposes but not for deriving performance data such as lifetime, unless supported by further evidence.

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This document specifies an index test method to determine the friction characteristics of geosynthetics in contact with a standard sand as described in EN 196-1, i.e. with a specified density and moisture content, under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus.
The same testing procedure can be used with any type of soil with the density and moisture content that are required to evaluate the performance under specific conditions or with another geosynthetic under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus.
The procedure can also be used for testing geosynthetic barriers.

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This document specifies an index test method to determine the friction characteristics of geosynthetics in contact with a standard sand as described in EN 196-1, i.e. with a specified density and moisture content, under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus. The same testing procedure can be used with any type of soil with the density and moisture content that are required to evaluate the performance under specific conditions or with another geosynthetic under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus. The procedure can also be used for testing geosynthetic barriers.

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This document specifies a test method for the measurement of the strain hardening modulus which is used as a measure for the resistance to slow crack growth of polyethylene. The strain hardening modulus is obtained from true stress versus draw ratio curves on PE-HD geosynthetic barrier samples.
This standard specifies how measurement is performed and how the strain hardening modulus is determined. Details of the required equipment, precision and sample preparations are given.
This test method is suitable for all PE-HD types of GBR-P.

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This document specifies a screening test method for determining the resistance of geotextiles and geotextile-related products to oxidation. The test is applicable to products as follows: — Method A for material consisting solely in polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyamide (PA), aramide (AR); — Method B for material consisting solely in polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL). The data are suitable for screening purposes but not for deriving performance data such as lifetime, unless supported by further evidence.

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