This document specifies a method for the determination of aflatoxin M1 content in milk and milk powder.
The lowest level of validation is 0,08 μg/kg for whole milk powder, i.e. 0,008 μg/l for reconstituted
liquid milk. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0,05 μg/kg for milk powder and 0,005 μg/kg for liquid milk.
The limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0,1 μg/kg for milk powder and 0,01 μg/kg for liquid milk.
The method is also applicable to low-fat milk, skimmed milk, low-fat milk powder and skimmed milk
powder.

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This document gives guidelines for the establishment of a conversion relationship between the results
of an alternative method and an anchor method, and its verification for the quantitative determination
of the microbiological quality of milk.
NOTE The conversion relationship can be used a) to convert results from an alternative method to the anchor
basis or b) to convert results/limits, expressed on an anchor basis, to results in units of an alternative method.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of aflatoxin M1 content in milk and milk powder. The lowest level of validation is 0,08 µg/kg for whole milk powder, i.e. 0,008 µg/l for reconstituted liquid milk. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0,05 μg/kg for milk powder and 0,005 μg/kg for liquid milk. The limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0,1 μg/kg for milk powder and 0,01 μg/kg for liquid milk. The method is also applicable to low-fat milk, skimmed milk, low-fat milk powder and skimmed milk powder.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se) using inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
The method is applicable for the determination of all 12 elements in infant formula and adult nutritional products. The method is also applicable for milk, milk powder, whey powder, butter and cheese excluding the determination of Cr, because all Cr results were below the quantification limit and reproducibility could not be determined in these matrices[1]. The present method is an extension of ISO 20649 | IDF 235 (AOAC 2011.19[2]) which was validated only for Cr, Mo and Se in infant formula and adult nutritional products.

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ISO 16958:2015 specifies a method for the quantification of individual and/or all fatty acids in the profile of milk, milk products, infant formula and adult nutritional formula, containing milk fat and/or vegetable oils, supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). This also includes groups of fatty acids often labelled [i.e. trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids] and/or individual fatty acids [i.e. linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)].
The determination is performed by direct transesterification in food matrices, without prior fat extraction, and consequently it is applicable to liquid samples or reconstituted powder samples with water having total fat ≥ 1,5 % m/m.
The fat extracted from products containing less than 1,5 % m/m fat can be analysed with the same method after a preliminary fat extraction using methods referenced in Clause 2. Dairy products, like soft or hard cheeses with acidity level ≤ 1 mmol/100 g of fat, can be analysed after a preliminary fat extraction using methods referenced in Clause 2. For products supplemented or enriched with PUFA with fish oil or algae origins, the evaporation of solvents should be performed at the lowest possible temperature (e.g. max. 40 °C) to recover these sensitive fatty acids.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron
(Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na) and zinc (Zn)
using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The method is applicable
for milk, dried milk, butter, cheese, whey, dried whey, infant formula and adult nutritional formula in
the ranges given in Table 1.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of biotin and/or biocytin in fortified milk powders, infant formula and adult nutritionals in solid (i.e. powders) or liquid (i.e. ready-to-feed liquids and liquid concentrates) forms using liquid chromatography coupled with immunoaffinity column clean-up extraction. Precision data from an interlaboratory study is given in Annex B. A comparison between data obtained with the method in this document and EN 15607 is given in Annex C.

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This document specifies a protocol for the evaluation of instrumental alternative methods for total bacterial count in raw milk from animals of different species.

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This document specifies a protocol for the evaluation of instrumental alternative methods for total bacterial count in raw milk from animals of different species.
NOTE The document is complementary to ISO 16140-2 and ISO 8196 | IDF 128 (all parts).

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This document gives guidelines for using infrared spectrometry in in-line and on-line applications for dairy processing. These applications are distinct to those covered in ISO 21543 | IDF 201. It is applicable, but not limited, to: — the determination of protein, fat and total solids in liquid milk and milk products using mid and near infrared spectrometry; — the determination of protein, fat and moisture in solid or semi-solid products, such as milk powder, and butter and liquid dairy streams using near infrared spectrometry.

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This document specifies a protocol for the evaluation of instrumental alternative methods for total bacterial count in raw milk from animals of different species. NOTE The document is complementary to ISO 16140-2 and ISO 8196 | IDF 128 (all parts).

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of milk fat purity using gas
chromatographic analysis of triglycerides. The method utilizes the differences in triglyceride
fingerprint of milk fat from the individual triglyceride fingerprints of other fats and oils to determine
samples which are outside the range normally observed for milk fat. This is achieved by using the
defined triglyceride formulae based on the normalized weighted sum of individual triglyceride peaks
which are sensitive to the integrity of the milk[6][7]. The integrity of the milk fat can be determined
by comparing the result of these formulae with those previously observed for a range of pure milk fat
samples[12]. Both vegetable fats and animal fats such as beef tallow and lard can be detected.
The method is applicable to bulk milk, or products made thereof, irrespective of the variation in
common feeding practices, breed or lactation conditions. In particular, the method is applicable to fat
extracted from milk products purporting to contain pure milk fat with unchanged composition, such as
butter, cream, milk and milk powder.
Because a false-positive result can occur, the method does not apply to milk fat related to these
circumstances:
a) obtained from bovine milk other than cow’s milk;
b) obtained from single cows;
c) obtained from cows whose diet contained a particularly high proportion of vegetable oils such as
rapeseed, cotton or palm oil, etc.;
d) obtained from cows suffering from serious underfeeding (strong energy deficit);
e) obtained from colostrum;
f) subjected to technological treatment such as removal of cholesterol or fractionation;
g) obtained from skim milk, buttermilk or whey;
h) obtained from cheeses showing increased lipolysis;
i) extracted using the Gerber, Weibull–Berntrop or Schmid–Bondzynski–Ratzlaff methods, or that
has been isolated using detergents (e.g. the Bureau of Dairy Industries method).
With the extraction methods specified in i), substantial quantities of partial glycerides or phospholipids
can pass into the fat phase.
NOTE 1 In nature, butyric (n-butanoic) acid (C4) occurs exclusively in milk fat and enables quantitative
estimations of low to moderate amounts of milk fat in vegetable and animal fats to be made. Due to the large
variation of C4, for which the approximate content ranges from 3,1 % fat mass fraction to 3,8 % fat mass fraction,
it is difficult to provide qualitative and quantitative information for foreign fat to pure milk fat ratios of up to
20 % mass fraction[11].
NOTE 2 In practice, quantitative results cannot be derived from the sterol content of vegetable fats, because
they depend on production and processing conditions. Furthermore, the qualitative determination of foreign fat
using sterols is ambiguous.
NOTE 3 Due to special feeding practices such as those related to c) and d), false-positive results have
sometimes been reported for milk from certain Asian regions[15]. Moreover, grass-only diets such as mountain
and, in particular, highland pasture feeding sometimes cause false-positive results, which can be substantiated
by a content of conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 c9t11) of ≥ 1,3 % fatty acid mass fraction[16][17]. Nevertheless,
results conforming to the criteria of milk fat purity specified in this document are accepted, even if samples were
undoubtedly produced under conditions reported in this note, including those described in h).
NOTE 4 In cases where a positive result is suspected to be caused by circumstances related to c) or d), another
analytical method, such as fatty acid or sterol analysis, can be applied to confirm the finding. Due to similar or
increased limitations (e.g. as described in NOTE 1 and NOTE 2), a negative result obtained by another method is
not appropriate to contrastingly confirm milk fat purity.

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of milk fat purity using gas chromatographic analysis of triglycerides. The method utilizes the differences in triglyceride fingerprint of milk fat from the individual triglyceride fingerprints of other fats and oils to determine samples which are outside the range normally observed for milk fat. This is achieved by using the defined triglyceride formulae based on the normalized weighted sum of individual triglyceride peaks which are sensitive to the integrity of the milk[6][7]. The integrity of the milk fat can be determined by comparing the result of these formulae with those previously observed for a range of pure milk fat samples[12]. Both vegetable fats and animal fats such as beef tallow and lard can be detected.
The method is applicable to bulk milk, or products made thereof, irrespective of the variation in common feeding practices, breed or lactation conditions. In particular, the method is applicable to fat extracted from milk products purporting to contain pure milk fat with unchanged composition, such as butter, cream, milk and milk powder.
Because a false-positive result can occur, the method does not apply to milk fat related to these circumstances:
a) obtained from bovine milk other than cow's milk;
b) obtained from single cows;
c) obtained from cows whose diet contained a particularly high proportion of vegetable oils such as rapeseed, cotton or palm oil, etc.;
d) obtained from cows suffering from serious underfeeding (strong energy deficit);
e) obtained from colostrum;
f) subjected to technological treatment such as removal of cholesterol or fractionation;
g) obtained from skim milk, buttermilk or whey;
h) obtained from cheeses showing increased lipolysis;
i) extracted using the Gerber, Weibull?Berntrop or Schmid?Bondzynski?Ratzlaff methods, or that has been isolated using detergents (e.g. the Bureau of Dairy Industries method).
With the extraction methods specified in i), substantial quantities of partial glycerides or phospholipids can pass into the fat phase.
NOTE 1 In nature, butyric (n-butanoic) acid (C4) occurs exclusively in milk fat and enables quantitative estimations of low to moderate amounts of milk fat in vegetable and animal fats to be made. Due to the large variation of C4, for which the approximate content ranges from 3,1 % fat mass fraction to 3,8 % fat mass fraction, it is difficult to provide qualitative and quantitative information for foreign fat to pure milk fat ratios of up to 20 % mass fraction[11].
NOTE 2 In practice, quantitative results cannot be derived from the sterol content of vegetable fats, because they depend on production and processing conditions. Furthermore, the qualitative determination of foreign fat using sterols is ambiguous.
NOTE 3 Due to special feeding practices such as those related to c) and d), false-positive results have sometimes been reported for milk from certain Asian regions[15]. Moreover, grass-only diets such as mountain and, in particular, highland pasture feeding sometimes cause false-positive results, which can be substantiated by a content of conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 c9t11) of ≥ 1,3 % fatty acid mass fraction[16][17]. Nevertheless, results conforming to the criteria of milk fat purity specified in this document are accepted, even if samples were undoubtedly produced under conditions reported in this note, including those described in h).
NOTE 4 In cases where a positive resu

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of milk fat purity using gas chromatographic analysis of triglycerides. The method utilizes the differences in triglyceride fingerprint of milk fat from the individual triglyceride fingerprints of other fats and oils to determine samples which are outside the range normally observed for milk fat. This is achieved by using the defined triglyceride formulae based on the normalized weighted sum of individual triglyceride peaks which are sensitive to the integrity of the milk[6][7]. The integrity of the milk fat can be determined by comparing the result of these formulae with those previously observed for a range of pure milk fat samples[12]. Both vegetable fats and animal fats such as beef tallow and lard can be detected. The method is applicable to bulk milk, or products made thereof, irrespective of the variation in common feeding practices, breed or lactation conditions. In particular, the method is applicable to fat extracted from milk products purporting to contain pure milk fat with unchanged composition, such as butter, cream, milk and milk powder. Because a false-positive result can occur, the method does not apply to milk fat related to these circumstances: a) obtained from bovine milk other than cow's milk; b) obtained from single cows; c) obtained from cows whose diet contained a particularly high proportion of vegetable oils such as rapeseed, cotton or palm oil, etc.; d) obtained from cows suffering from serious underfeeding (strong energy deficit); e) obtained from colostrum; f) subjected to technological treatment such as removal of cholesterol or fractionation; g) obtained from skim milk, buttermilk or whey; h) obtained from cheeses showing increased lipolysis; i) extracted using the Gerber, Weibull?Berntrop or Schmid?Bondzynski?Ratzlaff methods, or that has been isolated using detergents (e.g. the Bureau of Dairy Industries method). With the extraction methods specified in i), substantial quantities of partial glycerides or phospholipids can pass into the fat phase. NOTE 1 In nature, butyric (n-butanoic) acid (C4) occurs exclusively in milk fat and enables quantitative estimations of low to moderate amounts of milk fat in vegetable and animal fats to be made. Due to the large variation of C4, for which the approximate content ranges from 3,1 % fat mass fraction to 3,8 % fat mass fraction, it is difficult to provide qualitative and quantitative information for foreign fat to pure milk fat ratios of up to 20 % mass fraction[11]. NOTE 2 In practice, quantitative results cannot be derived from the sterol content of vegetable fats, because they depend on production and processing conditions. Furthermore, the qualitative determination of foreign fat using sterols is ambiguous. NOTE 3 Due to special feeding practices such as those related to c) and d), false-positive results have sometimes been reported for milk from certain Asian regions[15]. Moreover, grass-only diets such as mountain and, in particular, highland pasture feeding sometimes cause false-positive results, which can be substantiated by a content of conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 c9t11) of ≥ 1,3 % fatty acid mass fraction[16][17]. Nevertheless, results conforming to the criteria of milk fat purity specified in this document are accepted, even if samples were undoubtedly produced under conditions reported in this note, including those described in h). NOTE 4 In cases where a positive result is suspected to be caused by circumstances related to c) or d), another analytical method, such as fatty acid or sterol analysis, can be applied to confirm the finding. Due to similar or increased limitations (e.g. as described in NOTE 1 and NOTE 2), a negative result obtained by another method is not appropriate to contrastingly confirm milk fat purity.

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Le présent document spécifie une méthode de détermination quantitative de la teneur en calcium (Ca), cuivre (Cu), fer (Fe), magnésium (Mg), mangančse (Mn), phosphore (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na) et zinc (Zn) par spectrométrie d'émission atomique avec plasma induit par haute fréquence (ICP-AES). La méthode est applicable au lait, au lait en poudre, au beurre, au fromage, au lactosérum, au lactosérum en poudre, aux formules infantiles et aux produits nutritionnels pour adultes dans les plages données dans le Tableau 1.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se) using inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is applicable for the determination of all 12 elements in infant formula and adult nutritional products. The method is also applicable for milk, milk powder, whey powder, butter and cheese excluding the determination of Cr, because all Cr results were below the quantification limit and reproducibility could not be determined in these matrices[1]. The present method is an extension of ISO 20649 | IDF 235 (AOAC 2011.19[2]) which was validated only for Cr, Mo and Se in infant formula and adult nutritional products.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of chloride in milk, milk products, infant formula and adult nutritionals by potentiometry[1][2][3][4] with an analytical range of 0,35 mg chloride/100 g to 711,6 mg chloride/100 g product, or ready-to-feed products.

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This part of ISO 8968|IDF 20 specifies a method for the direct and indirect determination of the protein
nitrogen content of liquid, whole or skimmed milk.

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ISO 8968-4|IDF 20-4:2016 specifies a method for the direct and indirect determination of the protein nitrogen content of liquid, whole or skimmed milk.

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ISO 8968-4|IDF 20-4:2016 specifies a method for the direct and indirect determination of the protein nitrogen content of liquid, whole or skimmed milk.

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ISO 19344:2015 specifies a standardized method for the quantification of active and/or total lactic acid bacteria and probiotic strains in starter cultures used in dairy products by means of flow cytometry. The method is also applicable to probiotics used in dairy products and to fermented milk products such as yogurts containing primarily lactic acid bacteria. This International Standard does not apply to taxonomical differentiation of bacteria. Due to its non-specificity, the method may quantify other bacteria than those within the scope of this International Standard, when present in the sample. This may lead to overestimation of the counts. The minimum bacterial cell concentration in the sample before applying this standardized method depends on the dilution rates used in the individual protocols. Typically 106 cells per gram or ml are considered within the minimum range.

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ISO 16958:2015 specifies a method for the quantification of individual and/or all fatty acids in the profile of milk, milk products, infant formula and adult nutritional formula, containing milk fat and/or vegetable oils, supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). This also includes groups of fatty acids often labelled [i.e. trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids] and/or individual fatty acids [i.e. linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. The determination is performed by direct transesterification in food matrices, without prior fat extraction, and consequently it is applicable to liquid samples or reconstituted powder samples with water having total fat ≥ 1,5 % m/m. The fat extracted from products containing less than 1,5 % m/m fat can be analysed with the same method after a preliminary fat extraction using methods referenced in Clause 2. Dairy products, like soft or hard cheeses with acidity level ≤ 1 mmol/100 g of fat, can be analysed after a preliminary fat extraction using methods referenced in Clause 2. For products supplemented or enriched with PUFA with fish oil or algae origins, the evaporation of solvents should be performed at the lowest possible temperature (e.g. max. 40 °C) to recover these sensitive fatty acids.

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ISO/TS 17758|IDF/RM 87:2014 specifies a method for the determination of the dispersibility in water of instant dried milk. The method is applicable to instant dried skimmed milk manufactured by either the "straight-through" or the "re-wet" process and also to instant dried whole milk.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the nitrogen content and crude protein calculation of milk and milk products by the Kjeldahl principle, using traditional and block digestion methods. The methods are applicable to:
— liquid cow’s (whole, partially skimmed or skimmed milk), goat’s and sheep’s whole milk;
— hard, semi-hard and processed cheese;
— dried milk and dried milk products (including milk-based infant formulae, milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, casein and caseinate).
The methods are not applicable to samples containing ammonium caseinate.

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ISO 8968-1|IDF 20-1:2014 specifies a method for the determination of the nitrogen content and crude protein calculation of milk and milk products by the Kjeldahl principle, using traditional and block digestion methods. The methods are applicable to: liquid cow's (whole, partially skimmed or skimmed milk), goat's and sheep's whole milk; hard, semi-hard and processed cheese; dried milk and dried milk products (including milk-based infant formulae, milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, casein and caseinate). The methods are not applicable to samples containing ammonium caseinate.

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ISO 8968-1|IDF 20-1:2014 specifies a method for the determination of the nitrogen content and crude protein calculation of milk and milk products by the Kjeldahl principle, using traditional and block digestion methods. The methods are applicable to: liquid cow's (whole, partially skimmed or skimmed milk), goat's and sheep's whole milk; hard, semi-hard and processed cheese; dried milk and dried milk products (including milk-based infant formulae, milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, casein and caseinate). The methods are not applicable to samples containing ammonium caseinate.

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This part of ISO 11816|IDF 155 specifies a fluorimetric method for the determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, EC 3.1.3.1) activity in raw and heat-treated whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, skimmed milk and flavoured milks. This method is applicable to milk and milk-based drinks from cows, sheep and goats. It is also applicable to milk powder after reconstitution. The instrument can read activities up to 7 000 milliunits per litre (mU/l). If the activity is higher than 7 000 mU/l, it is diluted with alkaline phosphatase-free milk (7.1) so as to obtain a measurement not higher than 7 000 mU/l.

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ISO 11816-1|IDF 155-1:2013 specifies a fluorimetric method for the determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, EC 3.1.3.1) activity in raw and heat-treated whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, skimmed milk and flavoured milks. This method is applicable to milk and milk-based drinks from cows, sheep and goats. It is also applicable to milk powder after reconstitution.
The instrument can read activities up to 7 000 milliunits per litre (mU/l). If the activity is higher than 7 000 mU/l, it is diluted with alkaline phosphatase-free milk so as to obtain a measurement not higher than 7 000 mU/l.

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ISO 11816-1|IDF 155-1:2013 specifies a fluorimetric method for the determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, EC 3.1.3.1) activity in raw and heat-treated whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, skimmed milk and flavoured milks. This method is applicable to milk and milk-based drinks from cows, sheep and goats. It is also applicable to milk powder after reconstitution. The instrument can read activities up to 7 000 milliunits per litre (mU/l). If the activity is higher than 7 000 mU/l, it is diluted with alkaline phosphatase-free milk so as to obtain a measurement not higher than 7 000 mU/l.

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ISO 9622|IDF 141:2013 gives guidelines for the quantitative compositional analysis of milk and liquid milk products, such as raw milk, processed milk, cream and whey, by measurement of the absorption of mid-infrared radiation. Additional built-in instrument features, such as a conductivity sensor, can improve the performance in the determination of compositional parameters and allow for the estimation of other parameters. The guidelines specified are applicable to the analysis of cow's milk. The guidelines are also applicable to the analysis of milk of other species (goat, ewe, buffalo, etc.) and derived liquid milk products, provided adequate calibrations are generated for each application and adequate control procedures are in place.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the water content of milk fat products by the Karl Fischer (KF) method. The method is applicable to butteroil (anhydrous butteroil, anhydrous butterfat, anhydrous milk fat) with a water content not exceeding 1,0 % mass fraction.

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ISO 5536|IDF 23:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the water content of milk fat products by the Karl Fischer method.
The method is applicable to butteroil (anhydrous butteroil, anhydrous butterfat, anhydrous milk fat) with a water content not exceeding 1,0 % mass fraction.

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ISO/TS 22113|IDF/RM 204:2012 specifies a routine method for determining the titratable acidity of milk fat. The method is applicable to milk fat obtained from: a) raw milk; b) heat-treated milk; c) milk reconstituted from milk powder; d) cream with any fat content, provided the product is diluted so as to obtain a mass fraction of between 4 % and 6 % fat. The method is not applicable to fermented milk or milk that has undergone bacterial or enzymatic damage.

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ISO 15174:2012 specifies a method for comparison of the total milk-clotting activity of a microbial coagulant sample with the milk-clotting activity of an international microbial coagulant reference standard on a standard milk substrate prepared with a calcium chloride solution of concentration 0,5 g/l (pH ~6,5).

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This part of ISO 8968 IDF 20 specifies a method for the determination of the nitrogen content of liquid, whole or skimmed milk. It concerns a semi-micro rapid routine method following the block-digestion principle.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in milk.
The method applies to alkaline phosphatase activities not less than 1 µg of phenol per millilitre. The method is also suitable for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in milk powder, buttermilk and buttermilk powder, whey and whey powder.

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ISO 6731|IDF 21:2010 specifies the reference method for the determination of the total solids content of milk, cream and evaporated milk.

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ISO 6734|IDF 15:2010 specifies the reference method for the determination of the total solids content of sweetened condensed milk.

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This International Standard specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of milk of good physicochemical quality. The method is applicable to raw cow milk, raw sheep milk, raw goat milk, reduced fat milk, skimmed milk, chemically preserved milk, and processed liquid milk. It is not applicable when greater accuracy is required for skimmed milk, e.g. to establish the operating efficiency of cream separators.

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ISO 1211|IDF 1:2010 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of milk of good physicochemical quality.
The method is applicable to raw cow milk, raw sheep milk, raw goat milk, reduced fat milk, skimmed milk, chemically preserved milk, and processed liquid milk.
It is not applicable when greater accuracy is required for skimmed milk, e.g. to establish the operating efficiency of cream separators.

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ISO 26462|IDF 214:2010 specifies an enzymatic method for the determination of the lactose content of milk and reconstituted milk by measurement of the difference in pH (differential pH measurement).

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    12 pages
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ISO 12081|IDF 36:2010 specifies a titrimetric method for the determination of the calcium content of milk and of milk reconstituted from evaporated, condensed or dried milk.

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ISO 1211|IDF 1:2010 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of milk of good physicochemical quality. The method is applicable to raw cow milk, raw sheep milk, raw goat milk, reduced fat milk, skimmed milk, chemically preserved milk, and processed liquid milk. It is not applicable when greater accuracy is required for skimmed milk, e.g. to establish the operating efficiency of cream separators.

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    18 pages
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    19 pages
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ISO 6091|IDF 86:2010 specifies a reference method for the determination of the titratable acidity of all types of dried milk.

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    4 pages
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    4 pages
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ISO 27205¦IDF 149:2010 specifies characteristics of industrial bacterial starter cultures, which are principally lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but which also include bifidobacteria and propionibacteria used for the manufacture of fermented milk products such as yoghurt, sour cream, cultured butter and cheese. ISO 27205¦IDF 149:2010 does not apply to bacterial cultures which are added as an ingredient to foods only because of their probiotic properties.

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ISO 5536|IDF 23:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the water content of milk fat products by the Karl Fischer method. The method is applicable to butteroil (anhydrous butteroil, anhydrous butterfat, anhydrous milk fat) with a water content not exceeding 1,0 % mass fraction.

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    8 pages
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ISO 8196-1|IDF 128-1:2009 specifies various performance characteristics that constitute and serve to characterize the overall accuracy of an analytical method. It furthermore establishes general principles for the design of experiments and gives guidelines for the procedures to be used to evaluate these characteristics quantitatively.

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    13 pages
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    13 pages
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ISO 8196-3¦IDF 128-3:2009 specifies a protocol for the evaluation and validation of alternative quantitative methods of milk analysis. The protocol is applicable to all milk components including somatic cells. For microbiological parameters other standards, such as ISO 16140, apply. ISO 8196-3¦IDF 128-3:2009 is also applicable to the validation of new alternative methods where a limited number of analysts does not allow the organization of an interlaboratory study and ISO 8196-1¦IDF 128-1, therefore, does not apply. ISO 8196-3¦IDF 128-3:2009 also establishes general principles of a procedure for granting international approvals of these alternative methods. These principles are based on the validation protocol defined in ISO 8196-3¦IDF 128-3:2009.

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ISO 8196-2|IDF 128-2:2009 gives guidelines for the calibration of instruments and quality control procedures for milk analysis in dairy laboratories.

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    25 pages
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