This European Standard specifies a method for determining the total acidity, calculated as acetic acid, of ethanol to be used in petrol blends. It is applicable to ethanol having total acid contents of between 0,003 % (m/m) to 0,015 % (m/m).

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This European standard specifies a method for the direct determination of water in ethanol to be used in gasoline blends. It is applicable in the range 0,05 % (m/m) to 0,54 % (m/m).
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction.

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This Technical Report explains the requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered ethanol (E85) automotive fuel according to EN 15293. It provides background information to judge the text of the standard and gives guidance and explanations to the producers, blenders, marketers and users of ethanol (E85) automotive fuel.
It also includes a summary of the investigations and interlaboratory studies executed and the discussions entertained by CEN that have led to the effective fuel specification.
NOTE 1   This document is directly related to the pending revision of CEN/TS 15293
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, respectively.

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This Technical Report explains the requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered ethanol (E85) automotive fuel according to EN 15293. It provides background information on the final text of the draft European standard and gives guidance and explanations to the producers, blenders, marketers and users of ethanol (E85) automotive fuel.
It is applicable to ethanol (E85) for use in spark ignition engine vehicles designed to run on ethanol (E85). Ethanol (E85) is a mixture of nominally 85 % ethanol and 15 % petrol, but it also includes the possibility of having different 'seasonal grades' containing 50 % or more ethanol.
NOTE 1   This document is directly related to prEN 15293:2017 and will be updated if further revisions to the standard take place.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, respectively.

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ISO 16861:2015 specifies the characteristics of DME used as fuel of which the main component is the dimethyl ether synthesized from any organic raw materials. ISO 16861:2015 is applicable for DME used as heating fuel, industrial fuel, and to replace diesel fuel or gas oil. It does not deal with the possible additives necessary for specific end-use applications, for example, odorant typically added to heating fuel and lubricity improvers for DME used as replacement of diesel. Such additives are typically specified for the different end-use applications, at an appropriate level ? national, regional, or international.

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ISO 17786:2015 specifies a procedure of test for high temperature (105 °C) evaporation residue in DME used as fuel by the mass analysis method. This procedure is applicable to determine the amount of high temperature (105 °C) evaporation residue up to the value specified in ISO 16861. Several tests can be applied to determine amount of evaporation residue in liquefied products. Among them, this International Standard specifies the method that has detection limit sufficient for a DME specification in ISO 16861, using less resource compared to other methods. When more precise quantitative test is required, use of ISO 13757 instead of this International Standard is recommended. Because of the procedure applied, the evaporation residue which has a boiling point lower than 105 °C will not be determined. NOTE The precision of this method has been studied for a limited set of samples and content levels by a limited amount of labs. It allows establishment of a quality specification of DME but cannot be considered as a full precision determination in line with the usual statistical methodology as in ISO 4259.

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This European Standard specifies a method based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) for the determination of manganese content from about 0,5 mg/l to about 7,5 mg/l and of iron content from about 1,4 mg/l to about 6,0 mg/l in unleaded petrol containing up to 3,7 % (m/m) oxygen.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this European Standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
NOTE 1   Manganese as MMT and iron as ferrocene are added to petrol to increase anti-knock properties.
NOTE 2   Solutions of MMT in petrol are unstable when exposed to light. Low and erratic results are expected if petrol samples are exposed to light prior the analysis.
Iron and manganese contents higher than 6,0 mg/l and 7,5 mg/l respectively may be measured after preliminary dilution of the sample with a suitable solvent. However, the precision has not been established for such a procedure. Further work regarding automotive ethanol (E85) fuel is on-going in CEN.
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ) and the volume fraction (φ) of a material respectively.

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ISO 17198:2014 specifies a procedure of test for the sulfur content in dimethyl ether (DME) used as fuel by the ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence method. This procedure is applicable to determine the amount of total sulfur up to the value specified in ISO 16861. This test method will not measure sulfur that is not volatile under the practical conditions of the test, namely room temperature and atmospheric pressure. NOTE The precision of this method has been studied for a limited set of samples and content levels by a limited amount of labs. It allows establishment of a quality specification of DME but cannot be considered as a full precision determination in line with the usual statistical methodology as in ISO 4259.

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ISO 17196:2014 specifies a procedure of test for methanol, CO, CO2, methyl formate, ethyl methyl ether, and hydrocarbons up to C4, in DME used as fuel by the gas chromatography method. This procedure is applicable to determine the amount of methanol, CO, CO2, methyl formate, ethyl methyl ether, and hydrocarbons up to C4, up to the value specified in ISO 16861. NOTE The precision of this method has been studied for a limited set of samples and content levels by a limited number of labs. It allows establishment of a quality specification of DME but cannot be considered as a full precision determination in line with the usual statistical methodology as in ISO 4259.

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ISO 17197:2014 specifies a procedure of test for the amount of water content in DME used as fuel by the Karl Fischer titration method. This procedure is applicable to determine the amount of water up to the value specified in ISO 16861. This test method is intended for use with commercially available coulometric (or volumetric) Karl Fischer reagents and for the determination of water in DME additives, lube oils, base oils, automatic transmission fluids, hydrocarbon solvents, and other petroleum products. By proper choice of the sample size, this test method can be used to determine water from mg/kg (ppm) to percent level concentrations. NOTE The precision of this method has been studied for a limited set of samples and content levels by a limited amount of labs. It allows establishment of a quality specification of DME but cannot be considered as a full precision determination in line with the usual statistical methodology as in ISO 4259.

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It specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered ethanol to be used as an extender for automotive fuel for petrol engine vehicles in accordance with the requirements of EN 228. It is applicable to ethanol used for blending at all levels up to and including 85 % (V/V).

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered ethanol to be used as an extender for automotive fuel for petrol engine vehicles in accordance with the requirements of EN 228 [5]. It is applicable to ethanol used for blending at all levels up to and including 85 % (V/V).
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the term “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, respectively.

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This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for ethanol, in which higher alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol (isobutanol), 2-methylbutan-1-ol, and 3-methylbutan-1-ol) from 0,1 % up to 2,5 % (m/m), methanol from 0,1 % up to 3 % (m/m) and other impurities, in the range from 0,1 % up to 2 % (m/m) are determined. Impurities are all the compounds not attributed to the groups of higher alcohols or methanol. Due to possible interferences, the method is not applicable to denatured ethanol samples. Water, if present in the sample, is not included in this analysis, because a signal for water is not visible in the chromatogram. Therefore, if "alcohol content" is called up in a specification, water needs to be considered separately in the calculations.

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Revision of EN 15492:2008 to extend the range for chloride determination to 1,0 mg/kg or below

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This European Standard specifies an ion chromatographic (IC) method for the determination of inorganic chloride content in ethanol from about 1 mg/kg to about 30 mg/kg and of sulfate content in ethanol from about 1 mg/kg to about 20 mg/kg.
NOTE   Sulfate content can be determined from 0,5 mg/kg to 1,0 mg/kg. However, the precision was not established as no samples with sulfate content in this range were included in the interlaboratory test.
WARNING - Use of this method may involve hazardous equipment, materials and operations. This method does not purport to address to all of the safety problems associated with its use, but it is the responsibility of the user to search and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the electrical conductivity in ethanol and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel in the range from approximately (0,3 to 5) μS/cm at a temperature of 25 °C. The electrical conductivity is determined from the measured electrical conductance. The electrical conductivity is an important analytical criterion for the ascertainment and control of anionic and cationic components in ethanol and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel. Some of these components can exhibit corrosive properties.

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This European Standard specifies an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) method for the direct determination of elements content in ethanol, namely phosphorus in the range (0,13 to 1,90) mg/kg, copper in the range (0,050 to 0,300) mg/kg, and sulfur in the range (2,0 to 15,0) mg/kg.

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This standard specifies a procedure for the determination of phosphorus content measured as orthophosphate, in ethanol from 0,15 mg/l to 1,50 mg/l by ammonium molybdate spectrometric method. The phosphorus content is determined in aqueous solution after dissolution of the evaporation residue of the ethanol sample.
WARNING - Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence test method for the determination of the sulfur content of ethanol from 5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg. Other products may be analysed and higher sulfur contents may be determined according to this test method, however, no precision data for products other than ethanol and for results outside the specified range have been established for this document. Halogens interfere with this detection technique at concentrations above approximately 3 500 mg/kg.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent the mass fraction and the volume fraction of a material respectively.
WARNING — The use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This standard specifies a procedure for the determination of copper content in ethanol from 0,07 mg/kg to 0,20 mg/kg using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.
NOTE   For the purpose of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, respectively the volume fraction of a material.
WARNING - Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) test method for the determination of the sulfur content of ethanol from 7 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent the mass fraction of a material.

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This standard specifies a potentiometric method for the determination of inorganic chloride content in ethanol from 4 mg/l to 30 mg/l. The chloride content is determined in aqueous solution after dissolution of the evaporation residue of the ethanol sample.
WARNING — Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the direct determination of water in ethanol to be used in gasoline blends. It is applicable to ethanol having water contents in the range 0,039 % (m/m) to 0,5 % (m/m).
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction.
WARNING — Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard describes a procedure for the determination of acid strength, as a pHe value, of ethanol to be used as a blend component for gasoline.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction.

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This standard specifies a potentiometric method for the determination of inorganic chloride content in ethanol from 4 mg/l to 30 mg/l. The chloride content is determined in aqueous solution after dissolution of the evaporation residue of the ethanol sample.
WARNING — Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This document specifies an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence test method for the determination of the sulfur content of ethanol from 5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg. Other products may be analysed and higher sulfur contents may be determined according to this test method, however, no precision data for products other than ethanol and for results outside the specified range have been established for this document. Halogens interfere with this detection technique at concentrations above approximately 3 500 mg/kg.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent the mass fraction and the volume fraction of a material respectively.
WARNING — The use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the direct determination of water in ethanol to be used in gasoline blends. It is applicable to ethanol having water contents in the range 0,039 % (m/m) to 0,500 % (m/m).
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction.
WARNING — Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) test method for the determination of the sulfur content of ethanol from 7 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent the mass fraction of a material.

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This European Standard describes a procedure for the determination of acid strength, as a pHe value, of ethanol to be used as a blend component for gasoline.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction.

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This standard specifies a procedure for the determination of phosphorus content measured as orthophosphate, in ethanol from 0,15 mg/l to 1,50 mg/l by ammonium molybdate spectrometric method. The phosphorus content is determined in aqueous solution after dissolution of the evaporation residue of the ethanol sample.
WARNING — Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This standard specifies a procedure for the determination of copper content in ethanol from 0,07 mg/kg to 0,20 mg/kg using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.
NOTE   For the purpose of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, respectively the volume fraction of a material.
WARNING — Use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of appearance of ethanol by visual method. The method enables determination of the colour and/or clarity and/or limpidity (brightness) of ethanol.

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of dry residue in ethanol by desiccation method in the range 0,1 to 1 % m/V. The total dry residue or total dry matter includes all matter that is non-volatile under specified physical conditions.

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This document specifies a method for determining the total acidity, calculated as acetic acid, of ethanol to be used in petrol blends. It is applicable to ethanol having total acid contents of between 0,003 % (m/m) and 0,015 % (m/m).
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction and the volume fraction, respectively.
WARNING - Use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the document, and to fulfil statutory and regulatory restrictions for this purpose.

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The method is applicable to products having esters contents in the range 0.005 % (m/m) to 0.15 % (m/m). The principle consists in the saponification of esters present in a test portion by boiling with excess standard volumetric sodium hydroxide solution; determination of the residual sodium hydroxide, and hence the amount used for saponification, by titration with standard volumetric hydrochloric acid solution in the presence of phenolphthalein as indicator. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The principle is based on the addition of a test portion, under specified conditions, of potassium permanganate solution. Determination of the time taken for the colour of this test solution to match that of a cobalt(II) chloride and uranyl nitrate colour standard. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The method is applicable to products having aldehyde contents in the range 0.00025 % (m/m) to 0.00125 % (m/m). The principle is based on the reaction of the aldehydes present in a test portion with Schiff reagent. Visual comparison of the colour obtained with the colours of standard colorimetric solutions containing known quantities of acetaldehyde. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The method is applicable to products having carbonyl compounds contents between 0.00025 % (m/m) and 0.01 % (m/m). The principle is based on reaction in acid medium of the carbonyl compounds in a test portion with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Formation of the corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones which, after making the solution alkaline, take on a red coloration. Photometric measurement of this red coloration at a wavelength of about 445 nm. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to 1388/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The principle consists in the treatment of a test portion with aniline and acetic acid, the presence of furfural leading to the formation of a characteristic red colour. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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Gives general intructions and specifies the methods for the determination of density at 20 °C, for the determination of boiling range, for the determination of dry residue after evaporation on a water bath, for the measurement of colour, for the determination of water content and of aldehydes and ketones content. International Standards ISO 756/1, ISO 756/2 and ISO 756/3 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 756-1968 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The method is applicable to products having carbonyl compounds contents equal to or greater than 0.01 % (m/m). The method only allows determination of those carbonyl compounds which react under the specified conditions. The principle is based on the reaction of hydroxylammonium chloride with the carbonyl compounds in a test portion and titration of the hydrochloric acid formed with standard volumetric sodium hydroxide solution, in the presence of bromophenol blue as indicator. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The document also specifies the methods to be used for the determination of density at 20 °C, for the determination of dry residue after evaporation on a water bath, for the determination of water content, and for the measurement of colour. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to 1388/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The principle is based on the conversion of methanol present in a test portion to formaldehyde by oxidation. The oxidation is carried out with a solution of potassium permanganate in phosphoric acid. Reaction of the formaldehyde formed with chromotropic acid (4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid). Photometric measurement of the violet coloration obtained at a wavelength of about 570 nm. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The principle is based on the conversion of the methanol present in a test portion to formaldehyde by oxidation with a solution of potassium permanganate in phosphoric acid. Reaction of the formaldehyde formed with Schiff reagent. Visual comparison of the colour obtained with the colours of standard colorimetric solutions containing known quantities of formaldehyde. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The principle is based on distillation of a test portion in the presence of water, addition to the distillate of a saturated sodium chloride solution and measurement of the volume of insoluble hydrocarbons. A Hempel fractionating column with Liebig condenser is used for the distillation. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The method is applicable to products having acidities equal to or greater than 0.0008 % (m/m). The principle consists in the dilution of a test portion with carbon dioxide-free water, checking whether the test solution is alkaline or acid to phenolphthalein, and, if appropriate, determination of the acidity by titration with standard volumetric sodium hydroxide solution. The acidity is expressed as a percentage by mass of acetic acid. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to 1388/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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The principle of the procedure consists in addition of water to a test portion, under specified conditions, and examination for opalescence against a black background with side illumination, using a second Nessler cylinder containing water as the standard. - International Standards ISO 1388/1 to ISO 1377/12 cancel and replace ISO Recommendation R 1388-1970 of which they constitute a technical revision.

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  • Standard
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The hydroxy groups present in a test portion are esterified with phthalic anhydride. The excess phthalic anhydrids is hydrolyzed and the phthalic acid formed is neutralized with standard volumetric sodium hydroxide solution. If the sample contains free acidity or alkalinity a corresponding correction is made. From the corrected hydroxyl number, the apparat relative molecular mass may be calculated by a formula given.

  • Standard
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  • Standard
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  • Standard
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The procedures are applicable to crude or refined products in the course of filling, or to products already contained in drums or in transportable or fixed tanks. Owing to the heterogeneity of the lots it is recommended to adopt the sampling during filling. Specifies particular precautions in view of the very hygroscopic nature of the product. The principle consists in samplings, at regular intervals, of equal quantities throughout filling. Mixing of these successive samples, homogenization and then taking the laboratory samples.

  • Standard
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  • Standard
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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of dry residue in ethanol by gravimetric (desiccation) method in the range (10 to 25) mg/100 ml.
NOTE   In an interlaboratory study [2] the method described has been tested at levels down to 3,5 mg/100 ml, but the precision appeared to be insufficient at such low levels.
WARNING - Use of this document may involve hazardous equipment, materials and operations. This method does not purport to address to all of the safety problems associated with its use, but it is the responsibility of the user to search and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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