This document describes a method for determination of grindability of graded thermally treated and densified biomass fuels such as classified in ISO/TS 17225-8, for the purposes of preparing fuels with a defined particle size distribution for effective combustion in pulverized fuel boilers.
The grindability characteristics determined by the test method provide guidance as to the pulverizing mill performance when utilizing such fuels.
Apart from pelletized materials as described in ISO/TS 17225-8, the method can also be applied to non-compressed or non-densified thermally treated biomass as specified in ISO 17225-1 Table 14 and Table 15.
The results created with this method are not relevant for large wood chips, since limitations apply for large pulverizing coal mills, which are typically not used for grinding materials such as chips.

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This document specifies methods for a) determining the true relative density of coke, crushed to NOTE        “True relative density” varies according to the displacement liquid used. b) determining the apparent relative density of coke, i.e. the ratio of the mass of a volume of dry coke to the mass of an equal volume of water; c) calculating the porosity of the coke.

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This document describes a method for determination of grindability of graded thermally treated and densified biomass fuels such as classified in ISO/TS 17225-8, for the purpose of preparing fuels with a defined particle size distribution for effective combustion in pulverized fuel boilers. The grindability characteristics determined by the test method provide guidance as to the pulverizing mill performance when utilizing such fuels. Apart from pelletized materials as described in ISO/TS 17225-8, the method can also be applied to non-compressed or non-densified thermally treated biomass as specified in ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 14 and Table 15. The results created with this method are not relevant for large wood chips, since limitations apply for large pulverizing coal mills, which are typically not used for grinding materials such as chips.

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This document specifies a method for determining the strength of coke by the shatter test.

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This document specifies the procedure for a determination of major and minor element concentrations in solid recovered fuel material by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry or wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry using a calibration with solid recovered fuel reference materials or solid recovered fuel samples with known content. A semiquantitative determination may be carried out using matrix independent standards.
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry can be used as a fast method for a qualitative overview of elements and impurities and after suitable calibration it is very useful for determining major elements or even minor elements (except Hg) in order to quickly identify increased concentrations of minor elements in solid recovered fuels (e.g. during SRF-production).
This document is applicable for the following elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb. Concentrations from approximately 0,000 1 % and above can be determined depending on the element, the calibration materials used and the instrument used.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody pellets.
This document covers only non-woody pellets produced from the following raw material (see
ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1):
— 2 Herbaceous biomass
— 3 Fruit biomass
— 4 Aquatic biomass
— 5 Biomass blends and mixtures
NOTE 1 Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end
of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their
by-products such as cereals.
NOTE 2 Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups
woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass.
Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The
origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1.
If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated.
NOTE 3 Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this
document.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded hog fuel and wood chips for industrial use. It covers only hog fuel and wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1:—, Table 1):
— 1.1 forest, plantation and other virgin wood;
— 1.2 by-products and residues from wood processing industry;
— 1.3.1 chemically untreated used wood;
— 1.4 blends and mixtures.
This document covers hog fuel, which is produced with blunt tools, and wood chips, which are produced with sharp tools.
NOTE 1 1.2.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry, which can include chemically treated material (e.g. glued, painted, laminated) are not allowed include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B in ISO 17225-1) or higher than typical values of the country of origin.
NOTE 2 If class I4 includes chemically treated used wood (1.3.2), it can be only used in the installations permitted to use 1.3.2.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded firewood. This document
covers only firewood produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17725-1:2021, Table 1):
— 1.1.1 Whole trees without roots;
— 1.1.3 Stem wood;
— 1.1.4 Logging residues (thick branches, tops etc.);
— 1.2.1 Chemically untreated by-products and residues from wood processing industry.

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This Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross calorific value of solid recovered fuels
at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by
combustion of certified benzoic acid.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody briquettes. This document covers only non-woody briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1):
— 2 Herbaceous biomass
— 3 Fruit biomass
— 4 Aquatic biomass
— 5 Biomass blends and mixtures
NOTE 1 Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their by-products such as cereals.
NOTE 2 Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass.
Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1.
If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated.
NOTE 3 Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a reference method for determining the total sulfur content of hard coal, brown coals and lignites, and coke by the Eschka method.

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This document specifies the gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of saturated,
olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive motor gasoline and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel.
Additionally, the benzene and toluene content, oxygenated compounds and the total oxygen content can
be determined.
NOTE 1 For the purposes of this document, the terms % (m/m) and % (V/V) are used to represent respectively
the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to automotive motor gasoline with total aromatics of 19,32 % (V/V) up to
46,29 % (V/V); total olefins from 0,40 % (V/V) up to 26,85 % (V/V); oxygenates from 0,61 % (V/V) up to
9,85 % (V/V); oxygen content from 1,50 % (m/m) to 12,32 % (m/m); benzene content from 0,38 % (V/V)
up to 1,98 % (V/V) and toluene content from 5,85 % (V/V) up to 31,65 % (V/V).
The method has also been tested for individual oxygenates. A precision has been determined for
a total volume of methanol from 1,05 % (V/V) up to 16,96 % (V/V); a total volume of ethanol from
0,50 % (V/V) up to 17,86 % (V/V); a total volume of MTBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,70 % (V/V), a total
volume of ETBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,49 % (V/V), a total volume of TAME from 0,99 % (V/V) up to
5,92 % (V/V), and a total volume of TAEE from 0,98 % (V/V) up to 15,59 % (V/V).
Although this test method can be used to determine higher-olefin contents of up to 50 % (V/V), the
precision for olefins was tested only in the range from 0,40 % (V/V) to 26,85 % (V/V).
Although specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates,
this test method can also be applied to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such
as naphthas and reformates.
NOTE 2 For Procedure A, applicability of this document has also been verified for the determination of
n-propanol, acetone, and di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). However, no precision data have been determined for these
compounds.
Procedure B describes the analysis of oxygenated groups (ethanol, methanol, ethers, C3 – C5 alcohols)
in ethanol (E85) automotive fuel containing ethanol between 50 % (V/V) and 85 % (V/V). The gasoline
is diluted with an oxygenate-free component to lower the ethanol content to a value below 20 % (V/V)
before the analysis by GC.
The sample can be fully analysed including hydrocarbons. Precision data for the diluted sample are
only available for the oxygenated groups.
NOTE 3 For Procedure B, the precision can be used for an ethanol fraction from about 50 % up to 85 % (V/V).
For the ether fraction, the precision as specified in Table 6 can be used for samples containing at least 11 % (V/V)
of ethers. For the higher alcohol fraction, too few data were obtained to derive a full precision statement and the
data presented in Table 6 are therefore only indicative.
NOTE 4 An overlap between C9 and C10 aromatics can occur. However, the total is accurate. Isopropyl benzene
is resolved from the C8 aromatics and is included with the other C9 aromatics.

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This European standard specifies a method for the direct determination of water in ethanol to be used in gasoline blends. It is applicable in the range 0,05 % (m/m) to 0,54 % (m/m).
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the bulk density of coke in a cubical or cylindrical container of small capacity (0,2Â m3). It is applicable to coke with a nominal top size not greater than 125Â mm.

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This document specifies the procedure for a determination of major and minor element concentrations in solid recovered fuel material by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry or wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry using a calibration with solid recovered fuel reference materials or solid recovered fuel samples with known content. A semiquantitative determination can be carried out using matrix independent standards. This document is applicable to the following elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, Tl and Pb. Concentration levels between approximately 0,000Â 1Â % and 100Â % can be determined depending on the element, the calibration materials used and the instrument used. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â X-ray fluorescence spectrometry can be used as a fast method for a qualitative overview of elements and impurities and after suitable calibration it is very useful for determining major elements or even minor elements (except Hg) in order to quickly identify increased concentrations of minor elements in solid recovered fuels (SRF), for example during SRF-production.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw and
processed materials originating from
a) forestry and arboriculture;
b) agriculture and horticulture;
c) aquaculture.
Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels
higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the
country of origin.
NOTE Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit, aquatic biomass and biodegradable
waste originating from above sectors.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood pellets for nonindustrial
and industrial use. This document covers only wood pellets produced from the following raw
materials (see ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1):
— 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood;
— 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry;
— 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood.
Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This International Standard specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF)
and a template for the specification of their properties.
SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste.
Excluded:
— untreated municipal solid waste
— Solid Biofuels included in the scope of ISO TC238

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded hog fuel and wood chips for industrial use. It covers only hog fuel and wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): —   1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; —   1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; —   1.3 Used wood; —   1.4 Blends and mixtures. This document covers hog fuel that has pieces of varying size and shape, produced by crushing with blunt tools such as rollers, hammers, or flails, and wood chips which are defined as chipped woody biomass with a sub-rectangular shape and a typical length of 5 mm to 50 mm typically in the form of pieces with a defined particle size produced by mechanical treatment with sharp tools such as knives. See 1.1.2 in ISO 17225-1, Table 1 for by-products and residues from wood processing industry, which can include chemically treated material (e.g. glued, painted, laminated), are not allowed to contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values or higher than typical values of the country of origin (see Annex B in ISO 17225-1). NOTE      If 1.4 Blends and mixtures includes 1.3.2 Chemically treated used wood, it can be only used in the installations permitted to use 1.3.2.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody pellets. This document covers only non-woody pellets produced from the following raw material (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   2 Herbaceous biomass —   3 Fruit biomass —   4 Aquatic biomass —   5 Biomass blends and mixtures NOTE 1   Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their by-products such as cereals. NOTE 2   Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1. If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated. NOTE 3   Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded firewood. This document covers only firewood produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17725‑1:2021, Table 1): —   1.1.1 Whole trees without roots; —   1.1.3 Stem wood; —   1.1.4 Logging residues (thick branches, tops etc.); —   1.2.1 Chemically untreated by-products and residues from wood processing industry.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody briquettes. This document covers only non-woody briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   2 Herbaceous biomass —   3 Fruit biomass —   4 Aquatic biomass —   5 Biomass blends and mixtures NOTE 1   Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their by-products such as cereals. NOTE 2   Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1. If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated. NOTE 3             Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this document

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This document addresses the provision of background references that are helpful in defining a more detailed specification for SRF according to its specific end use for energy conversion (EfW plants) and to support the SRF market. The aim is to enable all the interested stakeholders – producers, end users, legislators, local authority bodies and standardization bodies – to guarantee that the SRF complies fully with technical, environmental and economic requirements and to facilitate its social acceptability when utilized for energy conversion. This document is intended to provide references for the specification of SRF produced from non-hazardous waste streams and traded to EfW plants as waste. The quality of such SRF is specified through values for relevant fuel properties, appropriate to the subsequent end uses that have an expected growth or an established/well consolidated role in heat and power generation in waste-to-energy systems: —   coal co-combustion in cement kilns, —   gasification, —   coal co-combustion in power plants. The SRF can also be used in other end-use applications but these are not addressed in this document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of gross calorific value of solid recovered fuels at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a combustion vessel calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.

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This document describes a method for determination of sorption of graded thermally treated and densified biomass fuels such as classified in ISO/TS 17225-8.
Apart from pelletized materials as described in ISO/TS 17225-8, the method can also be applied to non-compressed or non-densified thermally treated biomass as specified in ISO 17225-1 Table 14 and Table 15.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw and processed materials originating from a) forestry and arboriculture; b) agriculture and horticulture; c) aquaculture. Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the country of origin. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit, aquatic biomass and biodegradable waste originating from above sectors.

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This document specifies procedures for the size analysis of coke by manual and/or low impact mechanical sieving, using square or round holed sieves of aperture sizes between 125 mm and 0,5 mm. Guidance on handling the sampling and sizing of coke products greater than 125 mm is given in Annex A.

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This document specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF), and a template containing a list of characteristics for the specification of their properties, enabling trade and use of SRF supporting the protection of the environment. SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste. NOTEÂ 1Â Â Â Untreated municipal solid waste as such cannot be considered SRF. Untreated municipal solid waste can however be feedstock to plants producing SRF. NOTEÂ 2Â Â Â Chemically treated solid biofuels that do not contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material, can be defined as solid biofuels and thus be part of the standard series ISOÂ 17225[1].

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood pellets for non-industrial and industrial use. This document covers only wood pellets produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; —   1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; —   1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood. Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this document.

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The method should be useable for all SRF and will make it possible to obtain a representative sample from a large stock of SRF

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This document specifies a method for the determination of water sorption in a laboratory setting and provides a measure for how the durability is impacted as a result of immersion in water. Post-immersion durability reduction is calculated as the difference between the durability of the as-received sample and the durability of the wetted product.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of moisture in an analysis sample
by drying the sample in an oven. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels.

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This Standard specifies the requirements and a method for the determination of volatile matter of solid
recovered fuels.

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This Standard specifies a method for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

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This European Standard lays down harmonized identifiers for marketed liquid and gaseous fuels. The requirements in this standard are set to complement information needs of users regarding the fuel- and vehicle-compatibility that are placed on the market. The development of this standard focused on vehicles placed on the market for the first time, which does not preclude the application of this standard also to vehicles already in circulation. The identifier is intended to be visualized at dispensers and refuelling points, on vehicles, in motor vehicle dealerships and in consumer manuals as described in this document.
Marketed fuels include for example petroleum-derived fuels, synthetic fuels, biofuels, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen and biogas and blends of the aforementioned delivered to non-stationary applications.

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This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and
storage of solid recovered fuels (SRF).
The International Standard covers the handling, transportation and storage of SRF
throughout the supply chain, from the point of reception of non-hazardous waste.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood chips. This
document covers only wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1:2021,
Table 1):
• 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood;
• 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry;
• 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood.
This document covers only wood chips, which are produced with sharp tools, and does not cover hog
fuel, which is produced with blunt tools.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood briquettes.
This document covers only wood briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see
ISO 17225-1: 2021, Table 1):
— 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood
— 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry
— 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood
NOTE Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this
document.

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This document specifies a procedure for rating the tendencies of gas turbine fuels to deposit decomposition products within the fuel system. It is applicable to middle distillate and wide-cut fuels and is particularly specified for the performance of aviation gas turbine fuels. The test results are indicative of fuel thermal oxidation stability during gas turbine operation and can be used to assess the level of deposits that form when liquid fuel contacts a heated surface at a specified temperature. This method is also applicable to aviation turbine fuel that consists of conventional and synthetic blending components as defined in the scope of for instance ASTM D7566[1] and Def Stan 91-091[2]. NOTE      For the benefit of those using older instruments, non-SI-units and recalculated numbers are given in between brackets where they are more suitable.

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This document specifies methods for taking samples of solid recovered fuels for example from production plants, from deliveries or from stock. It includes manual and mechanical methods. It is not applicable to solid recovered fuels that are formed by liquid or sludge, but it includes dewatered sludge.

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This document specifies the requirements and a method for the determination of volatile matter of solid recovered fuels.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of moisture in a general analysis sample by drying the sample in an oven. This method is suitable for use for general analysis samples in accordance with CEN/TS 15414‑1[3][1]. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels. If solid recovered fuels contain large amounts of oil-fractions the Karl-Fischer-Method (for example ISO 760) is advisable. Otherwise, a lower temperature is recommended (e.g. 50 °C ± 10 °C) and a longer drying time until constant mass is achieved. NOTE The term moisture content, when used with recovered materials, can be misleading since solid recovered materials, e. g. biomass, frequently contain varying amounts of volatile compounds (extractives) which can evaporate when determining the moisture content of the general analyses sample by oven drying. [1] The adoption of the standard series EN 15414 as standard series ISO 21660 is planned. ISO 21660‑3 is published in parallel at CEN level as EN 21660-3.

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This document specifies methods for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling, treatment and storage of solid recovered fuels (SRF), prepared from non-hazardous waste, to be used for energy purposes. This document covers process stages from point of acceptance of material to point of delivery of SRF. This document excludes fuels that are included in the scope of ISO/TC 238 Solid biofuels and ISO/TC 28 Petroleum products and related products of synthetic or biological origin. It uses a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures are to be considered. Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included, the safety issues following the loading and transport itself are not.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood briquettes. This document covers only wood briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1: 2021, Table 1): 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood NOTE Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood chips. This document covers only wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1): 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood. This document covers only wood chips, which are produced with sharp tools, and does not cover hog fuel, which is produced with blunt tools.

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This International Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the biomass content in solid
recovered fuels: the selective dissolution and the 14C content method. The standard provides the
criteria for choosing the more appropriate method and some examples of application.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature, and which have a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to materials with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) above 750 °C, for example, heavy distillate fuels and residuals. The method is not applicable to bituminous samples.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphthas, reformates, gasolines, diesel). Components containing hetero atoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue are not to be analyzed by this test method.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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