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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded hog fuel and wood chips for industrial use. It covers only hog fuel and wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1, Table 1): —   1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; —   1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; —   1.3 Used wood; —   1.4 Blends and mixtures. This document covers hog fuel that has pieces of varying size and shape, produced by crushing with blunt tools such as rollers, hammers, or flails, and wood chips which are defined as chipped woody biomass with a sub-rectangular shape and a typical length of 5 mm to 50 mm typically in the form of pieces with a defined particle size produced by mechanical treatment with sharp tools such as knives. See 1.1.2 in ISO 17225-1, Table 1 for by-products and residues from wood processing industry, which can include chemically treated material (e.g. glued, painted, laminated), are not allowed to contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values or higher than typical values of the country of origin (see Annex B in ISO 17225-1). NOTE      If 1.4 Blends and mixtures includes 1.3.2 Chemically treated used wood, it can be only used in the installations permitted to use 1.3.2.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody pellets. This document covers only non-woody pellets produced from the following raw material (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   2 Herbaceous biomass —   3 Fruit biomass —   4 Aquatic biomass —   5 Biomass blends and mixtures NOTE 1   Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their by-products such as cereals. NOTE 2   Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1. If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated. NOTE 3   Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded firewood. This document covers only firewood produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17725‑1:2021, Table 1): —   1.1.1 Whole trees without roots; —   1.1.3 Stem wood; —   1.1.4 Logging residues (thick branches, tops etc.); —   1.2.1 Chemically untreated by-products and residues from wood processing industry.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded non-woody briquettes. This document covers only non-woody briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   2 Herbaceous biomass —   3 Fruit biomass —   4 Aquatic biomass —   5 Biomass blends and mixtures NOTE 1   Herbaceous biomass originates from plants that have a non-woody stem and which die back at the end of the growing season. It includes grains or seeds crops from food production or processing industry and their by-products such as cereals. NOTE 2   Blends and mixtures include blends and mixtures from the main origin-based solid biofuel groups woody biomass, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass and aquatic biomass. Blends are intentionally mixed biofuels, whereas mixtures are unintentionally mixed biofuels. The origin of the blend and mixture is to be described using ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1. If solid biofuel blend or mixture contains chemically treated material it shall be stated. NOTE 3             Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this document

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This document describes a method for determination of sorption of graded thermally treated and densified biomass fuels such as classified in ISO/TS 17225-8.
Apart from pelletized materials as described in ISO/TS 17225-8, the method can also be applied to non-compressed or non-densified thermally treated biomass as specified in ISO 17225-1 Table 14 and Table 15.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications for solid biofuels of raw and processed materials originating from a) forestry and arboriculture; b) agriculture and horticulture; c) aquaculture. Chemically treated material may not include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see Annex B) or higher than typical values of the country of origin. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit, aquatic biomass and biodegradable waste originating from above sectors.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood pellets for non-industrial and industrial use. This document covers only wood pellets produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1:2021, Table 1): —   1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; —   1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; —   1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood. Thermally treated biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of water sorption in a laboratory setting and provides a measure for how the durability is impacted as a result of immersion in water. Post-immersion durability reduction is calculated as the difference between the durability of the as-received sample and the durability of the wetted product.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood chips. This
document covers only wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1:2021,
Table 1):
• 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood;
• 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry;
• 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood.
This document covers only wood chips, which are produced with sharp tools, and does not cover hog
fuel, which is produced with blunt tools.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood briquettes.
This document covers only wood briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see
ISO 17225-1: 2021, Table 1):
— 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood
— 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry
— 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood
NOTE Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this
document.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood briquettes. This document covers only wood briquettes produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225‑1: 2021, Table 1): 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood NOTE Thermally treated biomass briquettes (e.g. torrefied briquettes) are not included in the scope of this document.

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This document determines the fuel quality classes and specifications of graded wood chips. This document covers only wood chips produced from the following raw materials (see ISO 17225-1:2021, Table 1): 1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood; 1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry; 1.3.1 Chemically untreated used wood. This document covers only wood chips, which are produced with sharp tools, and does not cover hog fuel, which is produced with blunt tools.

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This document specifies basket heating tests for the characterization of self-heating properties of solid biofuel pellets. This document includes: a) a compilation of basket heating test methods; b) guidance on the applicability and use of basket heating tests for solid biofuel pellets; c) information on the application of basket heating test data for calculations of critical conditions in storages. Data on spontaneous heat generation determined using this document is only associated with the specific quality and age of the sample material. The information derived using this document is for use in quality control and in hazard and risk assessments related to the procedures given in ISO 20024. The described methods can be used for other substances than solid biofuel pellets (e.g. wood chips).

  • Technical specification
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This document specifies the requirements and test methods for bamboo charcoal. It is applicable to the bamboo charcoal briquette.

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This document specifies the requirements and test methods of bamboo charcoal for air-purification applications.

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This document specifies the requirements and test methods of the raw and moulded bamboo charcoal for fuel applications.

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This document summarizes current knowledge concerning a test method and its technical implementation, and existing knowledge about the bridging performance of biofuels. The document consists of three parts, as follows: — Part I: Method for direct determination of bridging behaviour, to make it available for research and development purposes (see Clause 4). — Part II: Implementing the measurement principle, to assist in the construction of test apparatus and to illustrate the performance of a bridging test (see Clause 5). — Part III: Experience and results from bridging tests, to provide typical results on bridging for a wide range of biofuels already tested (see Clause 6).

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This International Standard presents analytical methods for determination of the self-heating of solid biofuel pellets. The
standard specifies the applicability and use of the analytical methods. It further establishes special procedures for sampling
and sample handling of biofuels pellets prior to the analysis of self-heating. Guidance on the applicability and use of the
data on self-heating from the analytical methods is given.

  • Standard
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This document: a) specifies a general test procedure for quantification of the spontaneous heat generation from solid biofuel pellets using isothermal calorimetry; b) specifies a screening test procedure for wood pellets using an instrument temperature of 60 °C; c) establishes procedures for sampling and sample handling of solid biofuel pellets prior to the analysis of spontaneous heat generation; and d) gives guidance on the applicability and use of isothermal calorimetry for calculation of the net reaction rate of the heat producing reactions of solid biofuel pellets. The test procedure given in this document quantifies the thermal power (heat flow) of the sample during the test, it does not identify the source of self-heating in the test portion analysed. Data on spontaneous heat generation determined using this document is only associated with the specific quality and age of the sample material. The results are product specific. This document is applicable to solid biofuel pellets only. The information derived using this document is for use in quality control and in hazard and risk assessments related to the procedures given in ISO 20024:2020.

  • Standard
    27 pages
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This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications.
The standard covers the entire handling and storage process of pellets, (i) at a pellets production plant, from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation and (ii) at a power plant from the receiving station until fed into a pulverizer or furnace.
The process of production of pellets and safety issues related to production are not covered by this standard, nor is the pulverizing or combustion process. Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included, the safety issues during the transport itself are not.

  • Standard
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This International Standard describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small
scale applications and stores including preparation of sampling plans and certificates. Usually the focus
is on stores with a size of 100 t. The standard is applicable to the following solid biofuels:
- fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be
sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
- coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials (up to 200 mm nominal top size) that can be
sampled using a fork or shovel, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel and nut shells;
- large pieces (above 200 mm nominal top size) which are picked manually (e.g. firewood and
briquettes);
It may be possible to use this standard on other solid biofuels. The methods described in this
International Standard may be used, for example, when a sample is to be tested for moisture content,
ash content, calorific value, bulk density, mechanical durability, particle size distribution, ash melting
behaviour and chemical composition.
This International Standard can be used also for applications and stores > 100 t if the involved parties,
e.g. provider and consumer of a biofuel, agree with.
For sampling in general, if higher precision of analytical results are needed or in doubt if this standard
is applicable ISO 18135 should be used.

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This document defines a method for determination of off-gassing (permanent gases) and oxygen depletion from woody as well as non-woody biomass, including densified materials such as pellets and briquettes, as well as non-densified materials such as chips. The method is also applicable for thermally treated materials, including torrefied and carbonized materials. The emission and depletion factor and emission and depletion rate for various gas species emitted from sample within a closed test container is determined by means of gas chromatography. The emission and depletion factor and emission and depletion rate provide guidance for ventilation requirements to keep gas concentrations below Permissible Exposure Levels (PEL) in spaces where workers can be exposed to the enclosed atmosphere.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications. This document is using a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures should be considered.
Facilities with a storage capacity <100 t are covered by ISO 20023. Generally, for end-user facilities with a storage capacity of <1 000 t, ISO 20023 could also be applicable if storage principle and facility complexity is in-line with the objectives of ISO 20023.
This document covers the handling and storage process of pellets in the following applications:
— at a pellet production plant from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation;
— at a commercial distributor from the receiving station until loaded for transportation; and
— at an industrial end-user from the receiving station until fed into the fuel preparation or combustion process.
Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included in the operational envelops defined above, the safety aspect of the transportation itself is beyond the scope of this document.
This document also gives specific guidance on detection and suppression systems and preparatory measures to enable safe and efficient firefighting operations. Guidance on the management of fire and explosion incidents is also specified.

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This document specifies a method tor the determination of the characteristic
temperatures for the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels.

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This document describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small scale applications and storages including preparation of sampling plans and reports. The main focus is on storages with a size of ≤100 t. This document is applicable to the following solid biofuels:
1) fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
2) coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials (up to 200 mm nominal top size) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel and nut shells;
3) large pieces (above 200 mm nominal top size) which are picked manually (e.g. firewood and briquettes).
This document can also be used for other solid biofuels not listed above if the procedures described in this document are applicable. This document specifies methods to be used, for example, when a sample is to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, mechanical durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.
Additionally, it describes a method for the reduction of sample size and defines requirements on handling and storage of samples.
NOTE 1 If higher precision of analytical results is needed or when in doubt if this document is applicable ISO 18135 can be used. Using the number of increments given in this document the resulting precision for analytical results can be estimated with the formulas given in ISO 18135.
NOTE 2 Pellets can generate CO and CO2 off gasses by nature. If pellets are sampled, check for CO and CO2 and O2 levels prior and during the sample taking process in a confined space like a container, silo or shed and have another person standby at the entrance.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications. This document is using a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures should be considered. Facilities with a storage capacity This document covers the handling and storage process of pellets in the following applications: — at a pellet production plant from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation; — at a commercial distributor from the receiving station until loaded for transportation; and — at an industrial end-user from the receiving station until fed into the fuel preparation or combustion process. Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included in the operational envelops defined above, the safety aspect of the transportation itself is beyond the scope of this document. This document also gives specific guidance on detection and suppression systems and preparatory measures to enable safe and efficient firefighting operations. Guidance on the management of fire and explosion incidents is also specified.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic temperatures for the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels.

  • Standard
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This document describes simplified methods for taking samples of solid biofuels in small scale applications and storages including preparation of sampling plans and reports. The main focus is on storages with a size of ≤100 t. This document is applicable to the following solid biofuels: 1) fine (up to about 10 mm nominal top size) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, e.g. sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets; 2) coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials (up to 200 mm nominal top size) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, e.g. wood chips, hog fuel and nut shells; 3) large pieces (above 200 mm nominal top size) which are picked manually (e.g. firewood and briquettes). This document can also be used for other solid biofuels not listed above if the procedures described in this document are applicable. This document specifies methods to be used, for example, when a sample is to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, mechanical durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition. Additionally, it describes a method for the reduction of sample size and defines requirements on handling and storage of samples. NOTE 1 If higher precision of analytical results is needed or when in doubt if this document is applicable ISO 18135 can be used. Using the number of increments given in this document the resulting precision for analytical results can be estimated with the formulas given in ISO 18135. NOTE 2 Pellets can generate CO and CO2 off gasses by nature. If pellets are sampled, check for CO and CO2 and O2 levels prior and during the sample taking process in a confined space like a container, silo or shed and have another person standby at the entrance.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic temperatures for the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels.

  • Standard
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  • Standard
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This European Standard defines the terminology to be used in the field of sustainability criteria for the production of biofuels and bioliquids for energy applications. This European Standard specifically considers some relevant terms and definitions used in the European Commission Directive 2009/28/EC [1], referred to as Renewable Energy Directive (RED), and in the European Commission Directive 2009/30/EC [2] referred to as Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), or in other European regulations.

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This document specifies a test method for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the detection of the sulfur content from 2 mg/kg to 21 mg/kg in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). NOTE 1 For the purposes of this document, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent the mass fraction (µ) of the material. NOTE 2 The method can also be used for the determination of concentrations outside the given limits. The precision statement, however, is only valid for the concentration range given in the scope. NOTE 3 The method described in the document was tested with FAME derived from soybean oil and beef tallow. FAME derived from other feedstock, in particular aged oils, may behave different due to the different nature of sulfur compounds.

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This European Standard specifies a detailed methodology that will allow any economic operator in a biofuel or bioliquid chain to calculate the actual GHG emissions associated with its operations in a standardised and transparent manner, taking all materially relevant aspects into account. It includes all steps of the chain from biomass production to the end transport and distribution operations.
The methodology strictly follows the principles and rules stipulated in the RED and particularly its Annex V, the EC decision dated 10 June 2010 "Guideline for calculation of land carbon stocks" for the purpose of Annex V to Directive 2009/28/EC (2010/335/EU) [5] as well as any additional interpretation of the legislative text published by the EU Commission. Where appropriate these rules are clarified, explained and further elaborated. In the context of accounting for heat and electricity consumption and surpluses reference is also made to Directive 2004/8/EC [6] on "the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market" and the associated EU Commission decision of 21/12/2006 "establishing harmonised efficiency reference values for separate production of electricity and heat" [7].
The main purpose of this standard is to specify a methodology to estimate GHG emissions at each step of the biofuel/bioliquid production and transport chain. The specific way in which these emissions have to be combined to establish the overall GHG balance of a biofuel or bioliquid depends on the chain of custody system in use and is not per se within the scope of this part 4 of the EN 16214 standard. Part 2 of the standard, addresses these issues in detail also in accordance with the stipulations of the RED. Nevertheless, Clause 6 of this part of the standard includes general indications and guidelines on how to integrate the different parts of the chain.

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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be
applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be
applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (hereafter known as FAME) to be used either as fuel for diesel engines and for heating applications at 100 % concentration, or as an extender for distillate fuel for diesel engines in accordance with the requirements of EN 590 and for heating fuel. At 100 % concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engines and in heating applications designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100 % FAME.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction.

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  • Standard – translation
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This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from the final loading point of the bulk transport to the end-user storage and specific requirements for the bulk transport. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This standard addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets in accordance with ISO 17225-2.

  • Standard
    58 pages
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This document provides principles and requirements for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from loading of the delivery truck, requirements of delivery trucks, connections to the end-user's store and the delivery process. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This document addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing, oxygen depletion, damage to appliances and buildings through swelling of pellets and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets according to ISO 17225-2.

  • Standard
    58 pages
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This document provides principles and requirements for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from loading of the delivery truck, requirements of delivery trucks, connections to the end-user's store and the delivery process. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This document addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing, oxygen depletion, damage to appliances and buildings through swelling of pellets and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets according to ISO 17225-2.

  • Standard
    49 pages
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  • Standard
    52 pages
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This document provides an overview of existing oxidation stability methods, with an emphasis on differences between the Rancimat (EN 14112/EN 15751) and PetroOxy (EN 16091) tests.

  • Technical report
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This document specifies the quality for marketed and delivered stationary engine fuel derived from fast pyrolysis oil processes. It is applicable to fast pyrolysis oils for use in stationary internal combustion engines and related power generating equipment. It is intended as an alternative to or blending component in fuel oil for stationary applications.

  • Technical report
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This European Standard describes a procedure for the determination of steryl glycosides (SG) contents in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in a range between 20 mg/kg and 38 mg/kg.
NOTE   Steryl glycosides (SG) are mainly present in vegetable oils.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel
at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of
certified benzoic acid.
The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of
the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, biofuels are burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure
and the water is either not condensed (removed as vapour with the flue gases) or condensed. Under both
conditions, the operative heat of combustion to be used is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant
pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume may also be used; formulas are given for calculating both
values.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of stone content of solid biofuels by the use of sink-and-float separation combined with elutriation. This International Standard is applicable to uncompressed solid biofuels, especially woody biomass (according to EN ISO 17225-1, Table 1), like wood chips and hog fuel.

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This International Standard describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates and taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either:
⎯ fine (particle size up to about 10 mm) and regularly-shaped particulate materials that can be sampled
using a scoop or pipe, for example: sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
⎯ coarse or irregularly-shaped particulate materials, particle sizes up to about 200 mm that can be sampled
using a fork or shovel, for example: wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw;
⎯ baled materials for example: baled straw or grass;
⎯ large pieces (particles sizes above 200 mm) which are either picked manually or automatically;
⎯ vegetable waste, fibrous waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp that
has been dewatered;
⎯ round wood.
It may be possible to use this standard on other solid biofuels. The methods described in this
Standard may be used, for example, when the samples are to be tested for moisture content, ash content,
calorific value, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical
composition. The methods are not intended for obtaining the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be
applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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This Technical Report describes the key properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their importance to the fuel quality for use in stationary internal combustion engines.
Internal combustion engine (ICE) in the scope of this document means a type of engine in which heat energy and mechanical energy is produced inside the engine. ICE include compression ignition engines (diesel engines) and gas turbines.
Attention is drawn to differences especially in those properties, which can have an effect on the required engine performance, such as ash, acidity, viscosity, combustion properties, and sulfur content.
In addition to the quality requirements and related test methods for FPBO, further instructions on storage (Annex A), sampling (Clause 4), and materials compatibility (Annex B) are given.
NOTE   For the purposes of this Technical Report, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ) and the volume fraction (φ) of a material, respectively.

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ISO 18125:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.
The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, biofuels are burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is either not condensed (removed as vapour with the flue gases) or condensed. Under both conditions, the operative heat of combustion to be used is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume may also be used; formulae are given for calculating both values.
General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the biofuel experiments are presented in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in Annexes A to C. Annex D contains checklists for performing calibration and fuel experiments using specified types of calorimeters. Annex E gives examples to illustrate some of the calculations.

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ISO 14780:2017 defines methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods defined in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.

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