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This document specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic testing of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for highly stressed components, and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse-echo technique. Purchasers determine if components are highly stressed based on the need for performance or safety. This document applies to the ultrasonic testing of steel castings which have usually received a grain-refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to the test procedure and the acceptance levels. This document does not apply to austenitic steels and to joint welds.

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This document specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic testing of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for general purposes, and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse-echo technique. This document applies to the ultrasonic testing of steel castings which have usually received a grain-refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to the test procedure and the acceptance levels. This document does not apply to austenitic steels and to joint welds.

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This document specifies a method for the magnetic particle testing of ferro-magnetic steel and iron castings. It also gives acceptance criteria through severity levels defined by the nature, the area and the dimensions of the discontinuities present. This document is applicable to all ferro-magnetic castings, independent of the moulding method. A steel and iron casting is considered to be ferro-magnetic if the magnetic induction is greater than 1 T (Tesla) for a magnetic field strength of 2,4 kA/m. This document only applies to those areas of the castings specified for testing, as well as the percentage of castings to be tested.

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This document specifies a method for the liquid penetrant testing of steel castings.

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1.1 This document covers the acceptance criteria for the visual testing of the surface of steel and iron castings. 1.2 Acceptance levels utilize Bureau de Normalisation des Industries de la Fonderie (BNIF) and Steel Castings Research and Trade Association (SCRATA) or Casting Technology International (CTI) reference comparators for the visual determination of surface roughness and surface discontinuities described as follows: — surface roughness; — thermal dressing; — mechanical dressing; — non-metallic inclusions; — gas porosity; — fusion discontinuities; — expansion discontinuities; — metal inserts.

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This part of ISO 10893 specifies requirements for automated full peripheral magnetic flux leakage testing of seamless and welded ferromagnetic steel tubes, with the exception of submerged arc-welded (SAW) tubes, for the detection of imperfections. Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, this part of ISO 10893 is applicable to the detection of predominantly longitudinal imperfections. This part of ISO 10893 is applicable to the inspection of tubes with an outside diameter equal to or greater than 10 mm. This part of ISO 10893 can also be applicable to the testing of hollow sections.

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This part of ISO 10893 specifies requirements for automated full peripheral magnetic flux leakage testing of seamless and welded ferromagnetic steel tubes, with the exception of submerged arc-welded (SAW) tubes, for the detection of imperfections. Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, this part of ISO 10893 is applicable to the detection of predominantly longitudinal imperfections. This part of ISO 10893 is applicable to the inspection of tubes with an outside diameter equal to or greater than 10 mm. This part of ISO 10893 can also be applicable to the testing of hollow sections.

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This document specifies a visual method for assessing the porosity of the machined surface of aluminium alloy castings. The method does not apply to assessing porosity shown on radiograms.

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This document specifies an employer's qualification system for non-destructive testing (NDT) personnel performing the testing of the following steel products under the employer's responsibility: a) tubes/pipes (seamless or welded); b) flat products, long products, rails, bars, sections, rods and wires. This document specifies qualification requirements for the competence of Level 1 and Level 2 NDT personnel to execute specific tasks in the NDT of steel products. The qualification is issued by the employer for a specific steel product and a specific test method. This document is applicable to NDT personnel performing predominantly the automated testing of steel products, using any of the following NDT methods: a) eddy current testing (ET); b) leak testing (LT); c) liquid penetrant testing (PT); d) magnetic testing (MT); e) radiographic testing (RT); f) ultrasonic testing (UT); g) visual testing (VT).

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This document specifies the requirements for digital radiographic X-ray testing by either computed
radiography (CR) or radiography with digital detector arrays (DDAs) of the longitudinal or helical weld
seams of automatic fusion arc-welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections. This document
specifies acceptance levels and calibration procedures.
It can also be applicable to the testing of circular hollow sections.
NOTE As an alternative, see ISO 10893-6 for film-based radiographic X-ray testing.

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This document specifies requirements for film-based radiographic X-ray testing of the longitudinal or
helical weld seams of automated fusion arc-welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections.
It can also be applicable to the testing of circular hollow sections.
NOTE As an alternative, see ISO 10893-7 for digital radiographic testing.

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This document specifies requirements for film-based radiographic X-ray testing of the longitudinal or helical weld seams of automated fusion arc-welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections.
It can also be applicable to the testing of circular hollow sections.
NOTE As an alternative, see ISO 10893-7 for digital radiographic testing.

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This document specifies the requirements for digital radiographic X-ray testing by either computed radiography (CR) or radiography with digital detector arrays (DDAs) of the longitudinal or helical weld seams of automatic fusion arc-welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections. This document specifies acceptance levels and calibration procedures.
It can also be applicable to the testing of circular hollow sections.
NOTE As an alternative, see ISO 10893-6 for film-based radiographic X-ray testing.

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This document specifies the requirements for digital radiographic X-ray testing by either computed radiography (CR) or radiography with digital detector arrays (DDAs) of the longitudinal or helical weld seams of automatic fusion arc-welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections. This document specifies acceptance levels and calibration procedures. It can also be applicable to the testing of circular hollow sections. NOTE As an alternative, see ISO 10893-6 for film-based radiographic X-ray testing.

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This document specifies requirements for film-based radiographic X-ray testing of the longitudinal or helical weld seams of automated fusion arc-welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections. It can also be applicable to the testing of circular hollow sections. NOTE As an alternative, see ISO 10893-7 for digital radiographic testing.

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This document specifies the test conditions and the acceptance levels for ultrasonic acceptance tests for the railway rolling stock material, such as tyres, axles and wheels. Unless otherwise agreed, this document is applied when the product standards require mandatory ultrasonic tests or when the ordered optional tests are made mandatory (see ISO 1005-1, ISO 1005-3 and ISO 1005-6).

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This European Standard gives specific procedures for industrial X-ray and gamma radiography for discontinuity detection purposes, using NDT (Non-destructive testing) digital X-ray image detectors. This part of EN 12681 specifies the requirements for digital radiographic testing by either computed radiography (CR) or radiography with digital detector arrays (DDA) of castings.
Digital detectors provide a digital grey value image which can be viewed and evaluated using a computer.
NOTE   This part of EN 12681 complies with EN 14784-2 for CR. Some clauses and annexes are taken from EN ISO 17636-2.
This part of EN 12681 describes the recommended procedure for detector selection and radiographic practice. Selection of computer, software, monitor, printer and viewing conditions are important but are not the main focus of this standard. The procedure specified in this standard provides the minimum requirements for radiographic practice which permit exposure and acquisition of digital radiographs with equivalent sensitivity for detection of imperfections as film radiography, as specified in Part 1 of this standard.
The requirements on image quality in class A and B testing of Annex A consider the good workmanship quality for general casting applications as also required in Part 1 of this standard for film radiography.
The classes AA and BA reflect the quality requirements of current automated and semi-automated radiographic inspection systems with DDAs (computer based flaw recognition or visual inspection) and mini or micro focus tubes (spot size ≤ 1 mm) with reduced requirements to the unsharpness.
The described procedures are applicable to castings produced by any casting process, especially for steel, cast iron, aluminium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, zinc and any alloys of them.
This part of this European Standard does not apply to:
- the testing of welded joints (see EN ISO 17636-2);
-   film radiography;
- real time testing with radioscopy.

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This European Standard gives specific procedures for industrial X ray and gamma radiography for discontinuity detection purposes, using NDT (Non-destructive testing) film techniques. This part of EN 12681 specifies the requirements for film radiographic testing of castings.
Films after exposure and processing become radiographs with different area of optical density. Radiographs are viewed and evaluated using industrial radiographic illuminators.
This part of EN 12681 describes the recommended procedure for the choice of operating condition selection and radiographic practice.
These procedures are applicable to castings produced by any casting process, especially for steel, cast iron, aluminium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, zinc and any alloys of them.
NOTE   This European Standard complies with EN ISO 5579.
This part of this European Standard does not apply to:
-   radiographic testing of castings for aerospace applications (see prEN 2002-21);
-   radiographic testing of welded joints (see EN ISO 17636-1);
-   digital radiography (see prEN 12681-2);
-   radioscopy (see EN 13068, all parts).

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This European Standard gives specific procedures for industrial X-ray and gamma radiography for discontinuity detection purposes, using NDT (Non-destructive testing) film techniques. This part of EN 12681 specifies the requirements for film radiographic testing of castings.
Films after exposure and processing become radiographs with different area of optical density. Radiographs are viewed and evaluated using industrial radiographic illuminators.
This part of EN 12681 specifies the recommended procedure for the choice of operating conditions and radiographic practice.
These procedures are applicable to castings produced by any casting process, especially for steel, cast iron, aluminium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, zinc and any alloys of them.
NOTE   This European Standard considers EN ISO 5579.
This part of this European Standard does not apply to:
-   radiographic testing of castings for aerospace applications (see prEN 2002-21);
-   radiographic testing of welded joints (see EN ISO 17636-1);
-   radiography with digital detectors (see EN 12681-2);
-   radioscopic testing (see EN 13068, all parts).

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This European Standard gives specific procedures for industrial X-ray and gamma radiography for discontinuity detection purposes, using NDT (Non-destructive testing) digital X-ray image detectors. This part of EN 12681 specifies the requirements for digital radiographic testing by either computed radiography (CR) or radiography with digital detector arrays (DDA) of castings.
Digital detectors provide a digital grey value image which can be viewed and evaluated using a computer.
NOTE   This part of EN 12681 complies with EN 14784-2 for CR. Some clauses and annexes are taken from EN ISO 17636-2.
This part of EN 12681 describes the recommended procedure for detector selection and radiographic practice. Selection of computer, software, monitor, printer and viewing conditions are important but are not the main focus of this standard. The procedure specified in this standard provides the minimum requirements for radiographic practice which permit exposure and acquisition of digital radiographs with equivalent sensitivity for detection of imperfections as film radiography, as specified in Part 1 of this standard.
The requirements on image quality in class A and B testing of Annex A consider the good workmanship quality for general casting applications as also required in Part 1 of this standard for film radiography.
The classes AA and BA reflect the quality requirements of current automated and semi-automated radiographic inspection systems with DDAs (computer based flaw recognition or visual inspection) and mini or micro focus tubes (spot size ≤ 1 mm) with reduced requirements to the unsharpness.
The described procedures are applicable to castings produced by any casting process, especially for steel, cast iron, aluminium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, zinc and any alloys of them.
This part of this European Standard does not apply to:
- the testing of welded joints (see EN ISO 17636-2);
-   film radiography;
- real time testing with radioscopy.

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This Part of EN 10228 specifies methods for the manual, pulse-echo, ultrasonic testing of forgings manufactured from austenitic and ferritic-austenitic stainless steels. Mechanised scanning techniques, such as immersion testing, may be used but should be agreed between the purchaser and supplier.
This Part of EN 10228 applies to four types of forgings, classified according to their shape and method of production. Types 1, 2 and 3 are essentially simple shapes. Type 4 covers complex shapes.
This Part of EN 10228 does not apply to
-  rolled bars,
-  turbine rotor and generator forgings.
Ultrasonic testing of ferritic and martensitic steel forgings is the subject of Part 3 of EN 10228.

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This Part of EN 10228 describes the techniques to be used for the manual, pulse-echo, ultrasonic testing of forgings manufactured from ferritic and martensitic steel. Mechanised scanning techniques, such as immersion testing, may be used but should be agreed between the purchaser and supplier (see Clause 4).
This Part of EN 10228 applies to four types of forgings, classified according to their shape and method of production. Types 1, 2 and 3 are essentially simple shapes. Type 4 covers complex shapes.
This Part of EN 10228 does not apply to
- closed die forgings,
- turbine rotor and generator forgings.
Ultrasonic testing of austenitic and ferritic-austenitic stainless steel forgings is the subject of Part 4 of EN 10228.

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This Part of EN 10228 describes the method and acceptance criteria to be used for the magnetic particle testing of forgings manufactured from ferromagnetic materials. The method described is used for the detection of surface discontinuities. It can also detect discontinuities just below the surface but the sensitivity to such discontinuities decreases rapidly with depth.

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This Part of EN 10228 describes the method and acceptance criteria to be used for the penetrant testing of steel forgings. The method described is used for the detection of surface discontinuities.

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This European Standard describes techniques and acceptance criteria to be used for the penetrant testing of steel forgings. The method described is used for the detection of surface discontinuities.

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This European Standard describes techniques to be used for the manual, pulse-echo, ultrasonic testing of forgings manufactured from ferritic and martensitic steel. Mechanized scanning techniques, such as immersion testing, may be used but should be agreed between the purchaser and supplier (see Clause 4).
This part of EN 10228 applies to four types of forgings, classified according to their shape and method of production. Types 1, 2 and 3 are essentially simple shapes. Type 4 covers complex shapes.
This part of EN 10228 does not apply to:
-   closed die forgings;
-   turbine rotor and generator forgings.
Ultrasonic testing of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic stainless steel forgings is the subject of EN 10228-4.

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This European Standard describes techniques and acceptance criteria to be used for the magnetic particle testing of forgings manufactured from ferromagnetic materials. The method described is used for the detection of surface discontinuities. It can also detect discontinuities just below the surface but the sensitivity to such discontinuities decreases rapidly with depth.
NOTE   A steel forging is considered to be ferromagnetic if the magnetic flux density is greater than 1 T for a tangential magnetic field strength of 2,4 kA/m.

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This European Standard describes techniques for the manual, pulse-echo, ultrasonic testing of forgings manufactured from austenitic and austenitic-ferritic stainless steels. Mechanized scanning techniques, such as immersion testing, may be used but should be agreed between the purchaser and supplier (see Clause 4).
This part of EN 10228 applies to four types of forgings, classified according to their shape and method of production. Types 1, 2 and 3 are essentially simple shapes. Type 4 covers complex shapes.
This part of EN 10228 does not apply to:
-   closed die forgings;
-   turbine rotor and generator forgings.
Ultrasonic testing of ferritic and martensitic steel forgings is the subject of Part 3 of this European Standard.

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ISO 17577:2016 specifies a method for the automated and/or manual ultrasonic testing of uncoated steel flat products for internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique. It is applicable to non-alloyed or alloyed steel flat products, in a nominal thickness range of 6 mm to 200 mm. However, this International Standard may be applied to austenitic and austenitic-ferritic steels, provided that the difference between the amplitude of the noise signal and that of the echo detection threshold is sufficient for the limit fixed. Unless otherwise agreed, for testing of steel flat products for welded steel tubes, ISO 10893‑9 applies. Other techniques of testing (e.g. by transmission) or other test equipment may be used at the manufacturer's discretion, provided that they give identical results to those obtained under the conditions of this International Standard. In the event of a dispute, only the method defined in this International Standard will prevail. Testing of flat products, of thickness less than 6 mm and over 200 mm, may be the subject of special agreements between the parties concerned. Testing is normally carried out in the place of production or on the premises of the supplier.

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ISO 4993:2015 specifies the general requirements for the radiography of steel and iron castings by means of X-rays or gamma-rays, in accordance with procedures given in ISO 5579 and ISO 19232.

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This European Standard provides guidance on the concepts and procedures for the calibration and analysis of copper and copper alloys by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

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This international standard outlines the general rules for industrial X- and gamma-radiography for flaw detection purposes, using film techniques, applicable to the inspection of metallic products and materials. The examination shall be carried out by competent personnel qualified and certified according to ISO 9712 where applicable. It does not lay down acceptance criteria of the imperfections.

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ISO 5579:2013 outlines the general rules for industrial X- and gamma-radiography for flaw-detection purposes, using film techniques, applicable to the inspection of metallic products and materials.
It does not lay down acceptance criteria of the imperfections.

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