This document provides guidance for calculating the CO2 intensity at steel plants with all types of process routes, by defining the boundary, CO2 emission factors and the intermediate products for which upstream emissions are considered for all types of process routes. In particular, this document provides guidance applicable to the ISO 14404 series to the types of steel plants listed below. This document also includes the Universal Calculation Sheet, which covers all relevant emission sources from ISO 14404-1, ISO 14404-2 and ISO 14404-3 to assist the calculation of CO2 emissions. i. Steel plants with different process routes from ISO 14404-1, ISO 14404-2 and ISO 14404-3 (7.2.1) ii. Steel plants with more than one process route (7.2.2) iii. Steel plants purchasing pig iron from the outside (7.2.3) iv. Steel plants and rerollers purchasing part or all of crude steel from outside (7.2.4) Moreover, this document provides additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 series for the following topics. a) Evaluation of exported slags b) Evaluation of by-product gas c) Evaluation of stock d) Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel Conversion to energy consumption and to consumption efficiency can be obtained using Annex A. While the use of the calculation result is outside the scope of this document, appropriate applications and inappropriate application are recommended in Annex B.

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This document specifies a potentiometric titration method for the determination of vanadium in steel
and cast iron.
The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,04 % (mass fraction) and 2 % (mass fraction).

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This document specifies a potentiometric titration method for the determination of vanadium in steel and cast iron. The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,04 % (mass fraction) and 2 % (mass fraction).

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EN-ISO 439 specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the silicon content in steels and cast irons. The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,10 % (mass fraction) and 5, 0 % {mass fraction).

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This document specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the silicon content in steel and cast iron.
The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,10 % (mass fraction) and 5,0 % {mass fraction).
NOTE For samples containing molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten, zirconium or high levels of chromium, the results are less accurate than for unalloyed matrixes.

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This document specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method (FAAS) for the determination of the vanadium content in steel. The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,01 % (mass fraction) and 0,80 % (mass fraction), provided that the tungsten content in a 1,0 g test portion is not higher than 1,0 % and/or the titanium content is not higher than 0,5 %.

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This document specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the silicon content in steel and cast iron. The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,10 % (mass fraction) and 5,0 % {mass fraction). NOTE For samples containing molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten, zirconium or high levels of chromium, the results are less accurate than for unalloyed matrixes.

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This document gives guidelines for the determination of the chemical composition of steel and iron by reference to published International Standards, including their range of application and principles of the methods. Graphical representation of the precision data precision data for the methods is given in Annex A. The list of International Standards is summarized in Annex B.

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The present Technical Report gives guidance regarding the chemical composition controls of steels (except chrome plated products) and cast irons in respect of the European legislation, namely Directives 2011/65/EU (RoHS) [1], repealing 2002/95/EU, the Commission Delegated Directive EU 2015/863 amending Annex II to Directive 2011/65/EU [10] and 2000/53/EC (ELV) [2].
These Directives require the characterization of these materials for Cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and the four phthalates DEHP, BBP DBP and DIBP. Nevertheless, the Directives do not reflect the correspondence between these elements/compounds and the normal composition of each material concerned. In other words, for every material there is an obligation to determine all the compounds listed, independently of the relevance of such controls.

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The present Technical Report gives guidance regarding the chemical composition controls of steels (except chrome plated products) and cast irons in respect of the European legislation, namely Directives 2011/65/EU (RoHS) [1], repealing 2002/95/EU, the Commission Delegated Directive EU 2015/863 amending Annex II to Directive 2011/65/EU [10] and 2000/53/EC (ELV) [2].
These Directives require the characterization of these materials for Cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and the four phthalates DEHP, BBP DBP and DIBP. Nevertheless, the Directives do not reflect the correspondence between these elements/compounds and the normal composition of each material concerned. In other words, for every material there is an obligation to determine all the compounds listed, independently of the relevance of such controls.

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This document lists, under Clause 3, the European Standards which are currently available for the determination of the chemical composition of steels and cast irons.
In Clause 4, this Technical Report provides details on the range of application and gives the principle of the method for each standard.
Annex A gives a list of other European Standards and CEN Technical Reports applicable for the determination of the chemical composition of steels and cast irons.
Annex B gives a list of withdrawn Euronorms, together with the corresponding replacement European Standards, if any.
Annex C shows graphical representations of the content ranges of the methods available in this Technical Report. Figure C.1 gives the content ranges of the referee methods, Figure C.2 gives the content ranges of the routine methods and Figure C.3 represents the fields of application of all the methods available.
Annex D provides a trilingual key of the abbreviations used in the Figures given in Annex C.
NOTE Three methods applicable for the analysis of some ferro-alloys are listed in Annex A.

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This document specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steel and
cast iron using reduced molybdosilicate.
The method is applicable to the determination of silicon mass fraction between 0,05 % and 1,0 %.

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ISO 4829-1:2018 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steel and cast iron using reduced molybdosilicate.
The method is applicable to the determination of silicon mass fraction between 0,05 % and 1,0 %.

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This document defines important terms used in the heat treatment of ferrous materials.
NOTE The term ferrous materials include products and workpieces of steel and cast iron.
Annex A provides an alphabetical list of terms defined in this document, as well as their equivalents in
French, German, Chinese and Japanese.
Table 1 shows the various iron-carbon (Fe-C) phases.

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ISO 4829-1:2018 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steel and cast iron using reduced molybdosilicate. The method is applicable to the determination of silicon mass fraction between 0,05 % and 1,0 %.

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ISO 14404-3:2017 specifies calculation methods applicable to those companies using an electric arc furnace (EAF) to produce steel and having direct reduced iron (DRI) facilities within their premises. It can be used to evaluate the total annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the emission factor of CO2 per unit of steel production of the entire steel production process. This document is applicable to plants producing mainly carbon steel. It includes boundary definition, material and energy flow definition and emission factor of CO2. Besides direct source import to the boundary, upstream and credit concept is applied to exhibit the plant CO2 intensity. ISO 14404-3:2017 supports the steel producer to establish CO2 emissions attributable to a site. This document cannot be used to calculate benchmarks or to compare CO2 intensities of production processes that are operated inside the site. Conversion to energy consumption and to consumption efficiency can be obtained using Annex A.

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ISO/TR 21074:2016 describes how to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of precision tests performed within standardization work using the chemical analysis method. Specifically, this document explains the procedure for calculating precision, using precision test data of ISO 5725‑3:1994, Table D.2 for the precision test in ISO 9647:1989 as an example. The procedure of the international test for determining precision is described in ISO 5725‑2 and ISO 5725‑3.

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ISO 4942:2016 specifies an N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine (N-BPHA) spectrophotometric method for the determination of vanadium in steels and cast irons. It is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,005 % and 0,50 % (mass fraction).

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of nickel in steel and iron by
gravimetry or titrimetry.
The method is applicable to nickel contents from 1 % to 30 % (mass fraction).

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This International Standard specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper in
steel and cast iron by 2,2’-biquinoline.
The method is applicable to the determination of copper mass fraction in the range of 0,02 % and 5 %.

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This part of ISO 4829 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in
steels using reduced molybdosilicate.
The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,01 % and 0,05 % (mass fraction) in steels.

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ISO 4829-2:2016 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steels using reduced molybdosilicate.
The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,01 % and 0,05 % (mass fraction) in steels.

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ISO 4938:2016 specifies a method for the determination of nickel in steel and iron by gravimetry or titrimetry.
The method is applicable to nickel contents from 1 % to 30 % (mass fraction).

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ISO 4946:2016 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper in steel and cast iron by 2,2'-biquinoline.
The method is applicable to the determination of copper mass fraction in the range of 0,02 % and 5 %.

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ISO 4829-2:2016 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steels using reduced molybdosilicate. The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,01 % and 0,05 % (mass fraction) in steels.

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  • Standard
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ISO 4946:2016 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper in steel and cast iron by 2,2'-biquinoline. The method is applicable to the determination of copper mass fraction in the range of 0,02 % and 5 %.

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  • Standard
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ISO 4938:2016 specifies a method for the determination of nickel in steel and iron by gravimetry or titrimetry. The method is applicable to nickel contents from 1 % to 30 % (mass fraction).

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ISO 4939:2016 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of nickel in steel using dimethylglyoxime. The method is applicable to the determination of nickel mass fractions in the range of 0,10 % and 2,0 %. Cobalt, copper and manganese can cause interferences (see 7.3.2).

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ISO 13933:2014 specifies a method for determination of calcium and magnesium contents in iron, cast iron, steel, and alloyed steel by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry. The method is applicable to the determination of calcium and magnesium contents (mass fraction) in the range of 0,000 5 % to 0,006 % and 0,000 5 % to 0,20 %, respectively.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of titanium in steels and cast irons. The method is applicable to non-alloyed and alloyed steels and cast irons with titanium contents of 0,01 % to 1,0 % (m/m).

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CEN/TR 10345 is a guideline to carry out the statistical evaluation of data from an inter laboratory test for method validation. Its purpose is to detail the methodology of ISO 5725-1:1994, ISO 5725-2:1994 and ISO 5725-3:1994 for the treatment of the data collected under the conditions used within the ECISS/TC 102 working groups.

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This part of ISO 19232 specifies the minimum image quality values to ensure a uniform radiographic quality. It applies to the two types of image quality indicator as detailed in ISO 19232-1 for wire-type IQI and ISO 19232-2 for step/hole-type IQI and for the two techniques described in ISO 5579. Values are specified for the two classes of radiographic technique specified in ISO 5579.

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The present statistical procedure describes how to check results for absence of bias by comparison of these analytical results with those obtained during the certification of CRMs. If the resulting data confirm the absence of bias, the method may be considered accurate when applied to all steels and irons whose composition ranges are adequately covered or bounded by the CRMs used. The resulting data give also an estimate of the repeatability and/or the intermediate precision ("intralaboratory reproducibility") for the CRMs used. The comparison of these analytical data with the repeatability data obtained during the certification may also be performed depending on the strict purpose of the method under consideration. For the purpose of this Technical Report, the use of existing CRMs is essential for the assessment of the trueness, but it may be only indicative for the other statistical data.

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ISO 14404-2:2013 specifies calculation methods which companies using EAF to manufacture steel can use to evaluate the total annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the emission factor of CO2 per unit of steel production of the entire steel production process. ISO 14404-2:2013 is applied to the plants that produce mainly carbon steel. It includes boundary definition, material and energy flow definition, and emission factor of CO2. Besides direct source import to the boundary, upstream and credit concept is applied to exhibit the plant CO2 intensity. ISO 14404-2:2013 supports the steel producer to establish CO2 emissions attributable to a site. ISO 14404-2:2013 cannot be used to calculate benchmarks or to compare CO2 intensities of production processes that are operated inside the site.

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ISO 14404-1:2013 specifies calculation methods for the carbon dioxide (CO2) intensity of plant where steel is produced through a blast furnace. It includes boundary definition, material and energy flow definition and emission factor of CO2. Besides direct source import to the boundary, upstream and credit concept is applied to exhibit the plant CO2 intensity. ISO 14404-1:2013 supports the steel producer to establish CO2 emissions attributable to a site. ISO 14404-1:2013 cannot be used to calculate benchmarks or to compare CO2 intensities of production processes that are operated inside the site.

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This European Standard specifies an electrometric titration method for the determination of manganese in steels and irons. The method is applicable to unalloyed, low alloy or alloyed steels and to irons with manganese contents greater than or equal to 0,5 % (m/m).

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This European Standard specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of boron in steel. The method is applicable to non-alloyed and alloyed steels with boron contents of 0,000 4 to 0,0120 % (m/m).

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This International Standard specifies an infrared absorption method, after combustion in an induction furnace, for the determination of the total carbon and sulfur content in steel and iron. The method is applicable to carbon contents of mass fraction between 0,005 % and 4,3 % and to sulfur contents of mass fraction between 0,000 5 % and 0,33 %. This method is intended to be used in normal production operations and is intended to meet all generally accepted, good laboratory practices of the type expected by recognized laboratory accreditation agencies. It uses commercially available equipment, is calibrated and calibration verified using steel and iron certified reference materials, and its performance is controlled using normal statistical process control (SPC) practices. This method can be used in the single element mode, i.e., determination of carbon and sulfur independently or in the simultaneous mode, i.e., determination of carbon and sulfur concurrently.

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This International Standard specifies a thermal conductimetric method after fusion under inert gas for the determination of nitrogen in steel and iron. The method is applicable to nitrogen contents between 0,002 % (m/m) and 0,6 % (m/m).

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This International Standard specifies a thermal conductimetric method after fusion under inert gas for the determination of nitrogen in steel and iron.
The method is applicable to nitrogen contents between 0,002 % (m/m) and 0,6 % (m/m).

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This International Standard specifies an infrared absorption method, after combustion in an induction furnace, for the determination of the total carbon and sulfur content in steel and iron.
The method is applicable to carbon contents of mass fraction between 0,005 % and 4,3 % and to sulfur contents of mass fraction between 0,000 5 % and 0,33 %.
This method is intended to be used in normal production operations and is intended to meet all generally accepted, good laboratory practices of the type expected by recognized laboratory accreditation agencies. It uses commercially available equipment, is calibrated and calibration verified using steel and iron certified reference materials, and its performance is controlled using normal statistical process control (SPC) practices.
This method can be used in the single element mode, i.e., determination of carbon and sulfur independently or in the simultaneous mode, i.e., determination of carbon and sulfur concurrently.

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ISO 16918-1:2009 specifies a method for analysing steel and iron for the trace element determinations of Sn, Sb, Ce, Pb and Bi using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is applicable for trace elements in the mass fraction ranges (µg/g) as follows: Sn: 5 µg/g to 200 µg/g; Sb: 1 µg/g to 200 µg/g; Ce: 10 µg/g to 1 000 µg/g; Pb: 0,5 µg/g to 100 µg/g; Bi: from 0,3 µg/g to 30 µg/g. Interferences in the determination of trace elements using ICP-MS are listed in Annex B.

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Method for determination of nitrogen content between 0,0008 % and 0,5 % in steel and iron.The method is applicable to nitrogen contents between 0,0008 % (m/m) and 0,5 % (m/m).

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Method for determination of nitrogen content between 0,0008 % and 0,5 % in steel and iron.

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This document specifies a potentiometric titration method for the determination of vanadium in steel and cast iron.
The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,04 % (mass fraction) and 2 % (mass fraction).

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ISO 17053:2005 specifies an infrared method after fusion under inert gas for the determination of oxygen in steel and iron. The method is applicable to mass fractions of oxygen between 0,000 75 % and 0,01 %.

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ISO 4934:2003 specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the sulfur content in steels and iron, excluding steels containing selenium. The method is particularly suitable as a reference method for the standardization of samples on which certified standard values are to be established.
The method is applicable to a sulfur content between 0,003 % (mass fraction) and 0,35 %(mass fraction).

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ISO 17058:2004 specifies a method for the determination of the arsenic content in steel and iron using a spectrophotometric method after distillation. The method is applicable to an arsenic content between 0,000 5 % (mass fraction) and 0,10 % (mass fraction).

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ISO 4934:2003 specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the sulfur content in steels and iron, excluding steels containing selenium. The method is particularly suitable as a reference method for the standardization of samples on which certified standard values are to be established. The method is applicable to a sulfur content between 0,003 % (mass fraction) and 0,35 %(mass fraction).

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Method for sampling and sample preparation for the determination of chemical composition of pig iron, cast iron and steel.

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