This document specifies a generic test method to determine the abrasion wear characteristics of
hardmetals.
The test is appropriate for use in situations where test laboratories have a need to simulate abrasive
damage. The procedure includes information which enables the test to be used in a variety of different
conditions:
a) with counterface wheels of different stiffness (for example steel and rubber);
b) wet and dry;
c) different abrasive sizes;
d) different chemical environments.

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This document specifies a generic test method to determine the abrasion wear characteristics of hardmetals. The test is appropriate for use in situations where test laboratories have a need to simulate abrasive damage. The procedure includes information which enables the test to be used in a variety of different conditions: a) with counterface wheels of different stiffness (for example steel and rubber); b) wet and dry; c) different abrasive sizes; d) different chemical environments.

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This document gives guidelines for the measurement of hardmetal grain size by metallographic
techniques only using optical or electron microscopy. It is intended for WC/Co hardmetals (also called
cemented carbides or cermets) containing primarily tungsten carbide (WC1)) as the hard phase. It is
also intended for measuring the grain size and distribution by the linear-intercept technique.
This document essentially covers four main topics:
— calibration of microscopes, to underpin the accuracy of measurements;
— linear analysis techniques, to acquire sufficient statistically meaningful data;
— analysis methods, to calculate representative average values;
— reporting, to comply with modern quality requirements.
This document is supported by a measurement case study to illustrate the recommended techniques
(see Annex A).
This document is not intended for the following:
— measurements of size distribution;
— recommendations on shape measurements. Further research is needed before recommendations
for shape measurement can be given.
Measurements of coercivity are sometimes used for grain-size measurement, however, this document
is concerned only with a metallographic measurement method. It is also written for hardmetals and not
for characterizing powders. However, the method can, in principle, be used for measuring the average
size of powders that are suitably mounted and sectioned.

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This document specifies the methods of metallographic determination of the microstructure of
hardmetals using photomicrographs.

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This document gives guidelines for the measurement of hardmetal grain size by metallographic techniques only using optical or electron microscopy. It is intended for WC/Co hardmetals (also called cemented carbides or cermets) containing primarily tungsten carbide (WC[1]) as the hard phase. It is also intended for measuring the grain size and distribution by the linear-intercept technique. This document essentially covers four main topics: — calibration of microscopes, to underpin the accuracy of measurements; — linear analysis techniques, to acquire sufficient statistically meaningful data; — analysis methods, to calculate representative average values; — reporting, to comply with modern quality requirements. This document is supported by a measurement case study to illustrate the recommended techniques (see Annex A). This document is not intended for the following: — measurements of size distribution; — recommendations on shape measurements. Further research is needed before recommendations for shape measurement can be given. Measurements of coercivity are sometimes used for grain-size measurement, however, this document is concerned only with a metallographic measurement method. It is also written for hardmetals and not for characterizing powders. However, the method can, in principle, be used for measuring the average size of powders that are suitably mounted and sectioned. [1] DE: Wolframcarbid, EN: tungsten carbide.

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This document specifies the methods of metallographic determination of the microstructure of hardmetals using photomicrographs.

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EN-ISO 13517 specifies a method for determining the flow rate of metallic powders, including powders for hardmetals and mixes of metallic powders and organic additives such as lubricants, by means of a calibrated funnel (Gustavsson flowmeter).The method is applicable only to powders which flow freely through the specified test orifice.

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EN-ISO 4497 specifies a method of determining the particle size distribution of metallic powders by dry sieving into size fractions.The method is applicable to dry, unlubricated metallic powders, but not applicable to powders in which the morphology differs markedly from being equiaxial, for example flake-type powders.The method is not applicable to metallic powders having a particle size wholly or mostly under 45 μm.

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This document specifies a method for determining the flow rate of metallic powders, including powders for hardmetals and mixes of metallic powders and organic additives such as lubricants, by means of a calibrated funnel (Gustavsson flowmeter). The method is applicable only to powders which flow freely through the specified test orifice.

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This document specifies a method of determining the particle size distribution of metallic powders by dry sieving into size fractions. The method is applicable to dry, unlubricated metallic powders, but not applicable to powders in which the morphology differs markedly from being equiaxial, for example flake-type powders. The method is not applicable to metallic powders having a particle size wholly or mostly under 45 µm.

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This International Standard deals with technical specifications for metallic powders intended
to be used in additive manufacturing and covers the following aspects:
- Documentation and traceability
- Sampling
- Particle size distribution
- Chemical composition
- Characteristic densities
- Morphology
- Flowability
- Thermal characteristics
- Cleanliness
• Packaging and storage
This International Standard does not deal with safety aspects.
In addition, this International Standard gives specific requirements for reused metallic
powders in additive manufacturing.

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This document specifies a method of measuring the air permeability and the porosity of a packed bed of metal powder, and of deriving therefrom the value of the envelope-specific surface area. The permeability is determined under steady-state flow conditions, using a laminar flow of air at a pressure near atmospheric. This document does not include the measurement of permeability by a constant volume method. Several different methods have been proposed for this determination, and several test devices are available commercially. They give similar, reproducible results, provided that the general instructions given in this document are respected, and the test parameters are identical. This document does not specify a particular commercial test device and corresponding test procedure. However, for the convenience of the user, an informative annex has been included (see Annex A) which is intended to give some practical information on three specific methods: - the Lea and Nurse method, involving a test device which can be built in a laboratory (see A.1); - the Zhang Ruifu method, using a similar test device (see A.2); - the Gooden and Smith method, involving a test device which can be built in a laboratory but for which a commercial test device also exists. (Two types of commercial test device exist; one of these is no longer available for purchase, but is still being used, see A.3.) These methods are given as examples only. Other test devices available in various countries are acceptable within the scope of this document. This testing method is applicable to all metallic powders, including powders for hardmetals, up to 1 000 μm in diameter, but it is generally used for particles having diameters between 0,2 μm and 75,0 μm. It is not intended to be used for powders composed of particles whose shape is far from equiaxial, i.e. flakes or fibres, unless specifically agreed upon between the parties concerned. This testing method is not applicable to mixtures of different metallic powders or powders containing binders or lubricant. If the powder contains agglomerates, the measured surface area can be affected by the degree of agglomeration. If the powder is subjected to a de-agglomeration treatment (see Annex B), the method used is to be agreed upon between the parties concerned.

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This document specifies a method of measuring the air permeability and the porosity of a packed bed of metal powder, and of deriving therefrom the value of the envelope-specific surface area. The permeability is determined under steady-state flow conditions, using a laminar flow of air at a pressure near atmospheric. This document does not include the measurement of permeability by a constant volume method.
Several different methods have been proposed for this determination, and several test devices are available commercially. They give similar, reproducible results, provided that the general instructions given in this document are respected, and the test parameters are identical.
This document does not specify a particular commercial test device and corresponding test procedure. However, for the convenience of the user, an informative annex has been included (see Annex A) which is intended to give some practical information on three specific methods:
— the Lea and Nurse method, involving a test device which can be built in a laboratory (see A.1);
— the Zhang Ruifu method, using a similar test device (see A.2);
— the Gooden and Smith method, involving a test device which can be built in a laboratory but for which a commercial test device also exists. (Two types of commercial test device exist; one of these is no longer available for purchase, but is still being used, see A.3.)
These methods are given as examples only. Other test devices available in various countries are acceptable within the scope of this document.
This testing method is applicable to all metallic powders, including powders for hardmetals, up to 1 000 µm in diameter, but it is generally used for particles having diameters between 0,2 µm and 75,0 µm. It is not intended to be used for powders composed of particles whose shape is far from equiaxial, i.e. flakes or fibres, unless specifically agreed upon between the parties concerned.
This testing method is not applicable to mixtures of different metallic powders or powders containing binders or lubricant.
If the powder contains agglomerates, the measured surface area can be affected by the degree of agglomeration. If the powder is subjected to a de-agglomeration treatment (see Annex B), the method used is to be agreed upon between the parties concerned.

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This document specifies a method of measuring the air permeability and the porosity of a packed bed of metal powder, and of deriving therefrom the value of the envelope-specific surface area. The permeability is determined under steady-state flow conditions, using a laminar flow of air at a pressure near atmospheric. This document does not include the measurement of permeability by a constant volume method. Several different methods have been proposed for this determination, and several test devices are available commercially. They give similar, reproducible results, provided that the general instructions given in this document are respected, and the test parameters are identical. This document does not specify a particular commercial test device and corresponding test procedure. However, for the convenience of the user, an informative annex has been included (see Annex A) which is intended to give some practical information on three specific methods: — the Lea and Nurse method, involving a test device which can be built in a laboratory (see A.1); — the Zhang Ruifu method, using a similar test device (see A.2); — the Gooden and Smith method, involving a test device which can be built in a laboratory but for which a commercial test device also exists. (Two types of commercial test device exist; one of these is no longer available for purchase, but is still being used, see A.3.) These methods are given as examples only. Other test devices available in various countries are acceptable within the scope of this document. This testing method is applicable to all metallic powders, including powders for hardmetals, up to 1 000 µm in diameter, but it is generally used for particles having diameters between 0,2 µm and 75,0 µm. It is not intended to be used for powders composed of particles whose shape is far from equiaxial, i.e. flakes or fibres, unless specifically agreed upon between the parties concerned. This testing method is not applicable to mixtures of different metallic powders or powders containing binders or lubricant. If the powder contains agglomerates, the measured surface area can be affected by the degree of agglomeration. If the powder is subjected to a de-agglomeration treatment (see Annex B), the method used is to be agreed upon between the parties concerned.

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This document specifies procedures for the sampling and testing of powder mixtures for the manufacture of hardmetals, using sintered test pieces. It also covers the preparation of test pieces.

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This document specifies procedures for sampling and testing of hardmetals for the determination of their physical and mechanical characteristics.

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This document specifies procedures for sampling and testing of hardmetals for the determination of their physical and mechanical characteristics.

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This document specifies procedures for the sampling and testing of powder mixtures for the manufacture of hardmetals, using sintered test pieces. It also covers the preparation of test pieces.

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This document defines terms relating to powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which relates to the manufacture of metallic powders, or of articles made from such powders with or without the addition of non-metallic powders, by the application of forming and sintering processes.

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This document defines terms relating to powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which relates to the manufacture of metallic powders, or of articles made from such powders with or without the addition of non-metallic powders, by the application of forming and sintering processes.

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This document specifies procedures for the sampling and testing of powder mixtures for the manufacture of hardmetals, using sintered test pieces. It also covers the preparation of test pieces.

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This document specifies procedures for sampling and testing of hardmetals for the determination of their physical and mechanical characteristics.

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This document defines terms relating to powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which relates to the manufacture of metallic powders, or of articles made from such powders with or without the addition of non-metallic powders, by the application of forming and sintering processes.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the total oxygen content of metallic powders
by reduction-extraction at high temperature.
By agreement, this method is also applicable to the determination of the total oxygen content of sintered
metal materials.
The method is applicable to all powders of metals, alloys, carbides, and mixtures thereof which are nonvolatile
under the test conditions. The sample can be in powder or compact form.
The analysis is carried out on the powder as supplied, but the method is not applicable if the powder
contains a lubricant or binder. If such substances are present, the method may be used only if they can
first be completely removed by a method not affecting the oxygen content of the powder.
This document is to be read in conjunction with ISO 4491-1.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the total oxygen content of metallic powders by reduction-extraction at high temperature.
By agreement, this method is also applicable to the determination of the total oxygen content of sintered metal materials.
The method is applicable to all powders of metals, alloys, carbides, and mixtures thereof which are non-volatile under the test conditions. The sample can be in powder or compact form.
The analysis is carried out on the powder as supplied, but the method is not applicable if the powder contains a lubricant or binder. If such substances are present, the method may be used only if they can first be completely removed by a method not affecting the oxygen content of the powder.
This document is to be read in conjunction with ISO 4491-1.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the total oxygen content of metallic powders by reduction-extraction at high temperature. By agreement, this method is also applicable to the determination of the total oxygen content of sintered metal materials. The method is applicable to all powders of metals, alloys, carbides, and mixtures thereof which are non-volatile under the test conditions. The sample can be in powder or compact form. The analysis is carried out on the powder as supplied, but the method is not applicable if the powder contains a lubricant or binder. If such substances are present, the method may be used only if they can first be completely removed by a method not affecting the oxygen content of the powder. This document is to be read in conjunction with ISO 4491-1.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the fluid permeability of permeable sintered
metal materials in which the porosity is deliberately continuous or interconnecting, testing being
carried out under such conditions that the fluid permeability can be expressed in terms of viscous and
inertia permeability coefficients (see Annex A).
This document does not apply to very long hollow cylindrical test pieces of small diameter, in which the
pressure drop of the fluid in passing along the bore of the cylinder might not be negligible compared
with the pressure drop of the fluid passing through the wall thickness (see A.5).

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the fluid permeability of permeable sintered metal materials in which the porosity is deliberately continuous or interconnecting, testing being carried out under such conditions that the fluid permeability can be expressed in terms of viscous and inertia permeability coefficients (see Annex A).
This document does not apply to very long hollow cylindrical test pieces of small diameter, in which the pressure drop of the fluid in passing along the bore of the cylinder might not be negligible compared with the pressure drop of the fluid passing through the wall thickness (see A.5).

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the fluid permeability of permeable sintered metal materials in which the porosity is deliberately continuous or interconnecting, testing being carried out under such conditions that the fluid permeability can be expressed in terms of viscous and inertia permeability coefficients (see Annex A). This document does not apply to very long hollow cylindrical test pieces of small diameter, in which the pressure drop of the fluid in passing along the bore of the cylinder might not be negligible compared with the pressure drop of the fluid passing through the wall thickness (see A.5).

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This document specifies the funnel method for the determination of the apparent density of metallic
powders under standardized conditions.
The method is intended for metallic powders that flow freely through a 2,5 mm diameter orifice. It
can, however, be used for powders that flow with difficulty through a 2,5 mm diameter orifice but flow
through a 5 mm diameter orifice.
Methods for the determination of the apparent density of powders that will not flow through a 5 mm
diameter orifice are specified in ISO 3923-2[1].

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This document specifies the funnel method for the determination of the apparent density of metallic powders under standardized conditions.
The method is intended for metallic powders that flow freely through a 2,5 mm diameter orifice. It can, however, be used for powders that flow with difficulty through a 2,5 mm diameter orifice but flow through a 5 mm diameter orifice.
Methods for the determination of the apparent density of powders that will not flow through a 5 mm diameter orifice are specified in ISO 3923‑2[1].

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This document specifies a method for determining the flow rate of metallic powders, including powders
for hard metals, by means of a calibrated funnel (Hall flowmeter).
The method is applicable only to powders which flow freely through the specified test orifice.

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ISO 4490:2018 specifies a method for determining the flow rate of metallic powders, including powders for hard metals, by means of a calibrated funnel (Hall flowmeter).
The method is applicable only to powders which flow freely through the specified test orifice.

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This document specifies the funnel method for the determination of the apparent density of metallic powders under standardized conditions. The method is intended for metallic powders that flow freely through a 2,5 mm diameter orifice. It can, however, be used for powders that flow with difficulty through a 2,5 mm diameter orifice but flow through a 5 mm diameter orifice. Methods for the determination of the apparent density of powders that will not flow through a 5 mm diameter orifice are specified in ISO 3923‑2[1].

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This document specifies a method of determining the ultimate strength and proof stress of cemented
carbide under uniaxial compressive loads.

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ISO 4506:2018 specifies a method of determining the ultimate strength and proof stress of cemented carbide under uniaxial compressive loads.

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ISO 4490:2018 specifies a method for determining the flow rate of metallic powders, including powders for hard metals, by means of a calibrated funnel (Hall flowmeter). The method is applicable only to powders which flow freely through the specified test orifice.

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ISO 4506:2018 specifies a method of determining the ultimate strength and proof stress of cemented carbide under uniaxial compressive loads.

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This document specifies the dimensions of an unnotched impact test piece of sintered metal materials.
The test piece may be obtained directly by pressing and sintering or by machining a sintered part.
This document applies to all sintered metals and alloys, with the exception of hardmetals. However, for
certain materials (for example, materials with low porosity or materials with high ductility), it may be
more appropriate to use a notched test piece which, in this case, will give results with less scatter. (In
this case, refer to ISO 148-1.)
NOTE For porous sintered materials, the results obtained from impact tests are not necessarily very
accurate compared with results obtained from tests on solid metals.

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This document specifies a method by which the dimensional changes associated with compacting and
sintering of metallic powders are compared with those of a reference powder when processed under
similar conditions (see Clause 4).
The method applies to the determination of three types of dimensional changes involved with the
processing of metallic powders, excluding powders for hardmetals.

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ISO 5754 specifies the dimensions of an unnotched impact test piece of sintered metal materials. The test piece may be obtained directly by pressing and sintering or by machining a sintered part.
ISO 5754 applies to all sintered metals and alloys, with the exception of hardmetals. However, for certain materials (for example, materials with low porosity or materials with high ductility), it may be more appropriate to use a notched test piece which, in this case, will give results with less scatter. (In this case, refer to ISO 148‑1.)
NOTE For porous sintered materials, the results obtained from impact tests are not necessarily very accurate compared with results obtained from tests on solid metals.

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ISO 4492 specifies a method by which the dimensional changes associated with compacting and sintering of metallic powders are compared with those of a reference powder when processed under similar conditions (see Clause 4).
The method applies to the determination of three types of dimensional changes involved with the processing of metallic powders, excluding powders for hardmetals.

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This document specifies methods for measuring the extent to which a metallic powder is compacted
when subjected to uniaxial compressive loading in a confining die under specified conditions.
The method is not applicable to powders for hardmetals.

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ISO 4492 specifies a method by which the dimensional changes associated with compacting and sintering of metallic powders are compared with those of a reference powder when processed under similar conditions (see Clause 4). The method applies to the determination of three types of dimensional changes involved with the processing of metallic powders, excluding powders for hardmetals.

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ISO 5754 specifies the dimensions of an unnotched impact test piece of sintered metal materials. The test piece may be obtained directly by pressing and sintering or by machining a sintered part. ISO 5754 applies to all sintered metals and alloys, with the exception of hardmetals. However, for certain materials (for example, materials with low porosity or materials with high ductility), it may be more appropriate to use a notched test piece which, in this case, will give results with less scatter. (In this case, refer to ISO 148‑1.) NOTE For porous sintered materials, the results obtained from impact tests are not necessarily very accurate compared with results obtained from tests on solid metals.

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ISO 3927:2017 specifies methods for measuring the extent to which a metallic powder is compacted when subjected to uniaxial compressive loading in a confining die under specified conditions.
The method is not applicable to powders for hardmetals.

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ISO 3927:2017 specifies methods for measuring the extent to which a metallic powder is compacted when subjected to uniaxial compressive loading in a confining die under specified conditions. The method is not applicable to powders for hardmetals.

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This document specifies methods for determining, in iron, copper, tin and bronze powders, the
approximate content of non-metallic materials which are insoluble in the ordinary mineral acids.
The insoluble matter referred to is generally considered to be acid-insoluble silica and silicates,
carbides, alumina, clays or other refractory oxides which are either present in the raw material from
which the powders are manufactured or introduced during the manufacturing process.

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ISO 4496:2017 specifies methods for determining, in iron, copper, tin and bronze powders, the approximate content of non-metallic materials which are insoluble in the ordinary mineral acids.
The insoluble matter referred to is generally considered to be acid-insoluble silica and silicates, carbides, alumina, clays or other refractory oxides which are either present in the raw material from which the powders are manufactured or introduced during the manufacturing process.

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ISO 4496:2017 specifies methods for determining, in iron, copper, tin and bronze powders, the approximate content of non-metallic materials which are insoluble in the ordinary mineral acids. The insoluble matter referred to is generally considered to be acid-insoluble silica and silicates, carbides, alumina, clays or other refractory oxides which are either present in the raw material from which the powders are manufactured or introduced during the manufacturing process.

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