This document specifies a test method for determining the compressive strength of refractory products at elevated temperature. This test method could also be used for materials development, quality control, characterization, design and data generation purposes. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â This document also could be used for determining the compressive strength of carbon containing refractory products at elevated temperature in an airtight furnace with reducing atmosphere.

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This document describes the method for determining the permanent change in dimensions on heating (drying and/or firing) of refractory mortars.

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This document specifies three methods for the determination of the bulk density of granular refractory materials (grain density) having a grain size larger than 2 mm: —   Method 1: mercury method with vacuum; —   Method 2: arrested water absorption method; —   Method 3: vacuum method with spin dryer option according to ISO 5017. Method 1 is intended as the reference method. NOTE      Depending on the nature of the material tested, the three methods can give different results. Any statement of the value of a bulk density can therefore be accompanied by an indication of the method used or to be used in case of dispute. The same method can be used for the determination of the volume of the sample, for selecting and preparing the sample, for calculating the bulk density and for presenting the test report.

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This document describes methods for the determination of mineralogical phases often present as additives or reaction products in carbon containing or graphitic refractory products by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) using a Bragg-Brentano diffractometer. It includes details of sample preparation and general principles for qualitative and quantitative analysis of mineralogical phase composition. Quantitative determination of α-Si3N4, β-Si3N4, AlN, aluminium metal, Al4C3, silicon metal, boron carbide and BN are described. The problems encountered with some determinations are highlighted. Additional reduced species present in some refractories could include Al2O3⋅AlN solid solutions (so called Alons), Si3N4⋅SiO2 solid solutions and Si3N4⋅Al2O3 solid solutions (Sialons). The presence of some of these solid solution components will cause problems with both identification and quantification as they are not well-defined structures. NOTE     For rationalisation of nitrogen containing phases, the total nitrogen content, analysed in accordance with EN 12698-1 is used.

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This European standard describes three methods for the determination of the permanent change in dimensions on heating of dense shaped refractory products.

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This document specifies the principle, equipment, test pieces, procedures, result expression and test report of test methods for thermal shock resistance of refractories. Three test methods are included in this document. Each one is applicable to a different product type and their test results are not comparable. The test method, the test temperature and the test condition are intended to be negotiated by corresponding parties. This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for determining the dynamic Young's modulus of rectangular cross-section bars and circular cross-section specimens of refractories by impulse excitation of vibration at elevated temperature. The dynamic Young's modulus is determined using the resonant frequency of the specimen in its flexural mode of vibration. This document does not address the safety issues associated with its use. It is responsibility of the users of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices.

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This Part of EN 993 specifies a method of determination of the cold crushing strength of dense shaped refractory products.

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This Part of EN 993 specifies a method for the determination of the bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity of dense shaped refractory products.
NOTE   For shaped insulating refractory products, the bulk density and true porosity are determined in accordance with EN 1094-4.

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This Part of EN 993 specifies a method for the determination of the modulus of rupture of dense and insulating shaped refractory products at ambient temperature, under conditions of a constant rate of increase of stress.

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This document specifies a method of determination of the cold crushing strength of dense shaped refractory products.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity of dense shaped refractory products.
NOTE   For shaped insulating refractory products, the bulk density and true porosity are determined in accordance with EN 1094-4.

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This Part of EN 993 specifies a method for the determination of the modulus of rupture of dense and insulating shaped refractory products at ambient temperature, under conditions of a constant rate of increase of stress.

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This document specifies requirements for the preparation of fused beads for the chemical analysis of silicon carbide containing samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The test methods described in this document are for silicon carbide and silicon carbide materials; however, the principles described can be applied to other reduced materials such as boron carbide, boron nitride, ferroalloys, sialons and silicon nitride using the modifications given in Annex A. Fused cast beads of the samples prepared in accordance with this document are analysed in accordance with ISO 12677.

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ISO 18886:2016 specifies the procedures for the preparation of test pieces from refractory materials by wet gunning at ambient temperatures. The test pieces are for the determination of properties on wet-gunned products prepared under either "standard conditions" (as required for quality assurance or product development) or "site conditions". In the case of "site conditions", the purpose of the testing is to establish the properties pertaining to a given installation or a given set of installation conditions. In this case, the gunned panel is obtained during the on-site installation. Such parameters as activator addition (type, amount, method of addition), conveying pressure and curing conditions (temperature, orientation of the panel) applying during the preparation of the panel are as near as possible to the same parameters pertaining to the site installation. This procedure applies to refractory materials that can be transported through a gunning hose after having been mixed with the total water requirement for material placement. The consistency of these materials (see 7.5) is typically such that they would be suitable for placement by casting were they not to be transported through the gunning hose and applied by spraying. Refractory materials that are pneumatically conveyed in the "dry" state through a gunning hose, even after mixing with a portion of the total water requirement (the bulk of the water being added at the nozzle) are dealt with in ISO 20182. ISO 18886:2016 does not apply to the gunning of plastic refractory materials (refer to ISO 1927‑1).

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ISO 22016:2015 specifies methods for the wet chemical analysis of refractory products and their raw materials with below 5 % (mass percentage) sulfur.

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ISO 16349:2015 specifies a method for determination of abrasion resistance of shaped and unshaped refractory materials at elevated temperature. The test temperature is not intended to exceed 1 300 °C.

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EN ISO 10081-4 specifies the classification and designation of dense shaped refractory products of special composition including a) oxide products, b) oxide and non-oxide products, c) non-oxide silicon carbide or carbon-based products, and d) further special products which are only designated but not classified, for example, non-oxide products, such as boride, nitride or further combinations of the series listed above.

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ISO 10081-4:2014 specifies the classification and designation of dense shaped refractory products of special composition including oxide products, oxide and non-oxide products, non-oxide silicon carbide or carbon-based products, and further special products which are only designated but not classified, for example non-oxide products, such as boride, nitride or further combinations of the series given above.

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ISO 10081-4:2014 specifies the classification and designation of dense shaped refractory products of special composition including oxide products, oxide and non-oxide products, non-oxide silicon carbide or carbon-based products, and further special products which are only designated but not classified, for example non-oxide products, such as boride, nitride or further combinations of the series given above.

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ISO 16835:2014 specifies test methods for the thermal expansion of refractory products. It describes a method for determining the linear thermal expansion percentage, the linear thermal expansion curve, and the linear thermal expansion coefficient. ISO 16835:2014 includes the following three test methods for the thermal expansion of refractory products: a) a contact method with a cylindrical test piece; b) a contact method with a rod test piece; c) a non-contact method.

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This part of ISO 1927 specifies the methods for the characterization of monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials as received and for checking the homogeneity of a delivery of a product. It is applicable to castables (dense and insulating), gunning materials tap hole clay, injection mixes, dry vibrating mixes, and ramming materials, as defined in ISO 1927-1.

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This part of ISO 1927 describes methods for the determination and measurement of the consistency of dense and insulating castables as defined in ISO 1927-1. It is applicable to all types of dense regular castables, dense deflocculated castables and insulating castables to determine the liquid addition necessary for preparing test pieces according to ISO 1927-5.

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This part of this International Standard gives guidance on the sampling of unshaped refractory materials for the purpose of inspection and testing for quality and general information on the reduction and treatment of samples prior to testing. It covers all materials formulated as unshaped refractory materials.

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ISO 16334:2013 specifies a method for determining the resistance to explosive spalling of monolithic refractories.

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This part of ISO 1927 specifies methods for the determination of the properties of unshaped refractory materials from test pieces prepared and stored in accordance with ISO 1927-5. The methods complement those described in ISO 1927-6. The methods have been adapted from standards for shaped refractory products to make them applicable to dense and insulating castables, and ramming materials as defined in ISO 1927-1, before and after firing.

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This part of ISO 1927 specifies methods for the testing of as-delivered pre-formed shapes. It applies to shapes fabricated from dense and insulating castables and ramming materials as defined in ISO 1927-1. NOTE Acceptance values for the individual test methods described should be agreed between the parties involved.

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This part of ISO 1927 specifies methods for the preparation and treatment(curing, drying and firing) of test pieces from monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials. The methods are applicable to dense and insulating castables and to ramming materials with the four types of chemical composition defined in ISO 1927-1. The dimensions of the test pieces are specified and the preparation of the mixture, compaction methods, storage and post-treatment of the test pieces are described.

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This part of ISO 1927 specifies methods for the determination of properties of unshaped materials from test pieces prepared and stored according to ISO 1927-5. The methods are applicable to dense and insulating castables and to ramming materials (including plastics) as defined in ISO 1927-1 before and after firing.

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ISO 5017:2013 specifies a method for the determination of the bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity of dense shaped refractory products.

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ISO 1927-7:2012 specifies methods for the testing of as-delivered pre-formed shapes. It applies to shapes fabricated from dense and insulating castables and ramming materials as defined in ISO 1927-1.

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ISO 1927-6:2012 specifies methods for the determination of properties of unshaped materials from test pieces prepared and stored according to ISO 1927-5:2012. The methods are applicable to dense and insulating castables and to ramming materials (including plastics) as defined in ISO 1927-1:2012 before and after firing.

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ISO 1927-8:2012 specifies methods for the determination of the properties of unshaped refractory materials from test pieces prepared and stored in accordance with ISO 1927-5. The methods complement those described in ISO 1927-6. The methods have been adapted from standards for shaped refractory products to make them applicable to dense and insulating castables, and ramming materials as defined in ISO 1927-1, before and after firing.

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ISO 1927-5:2012 specifies methods for the preparation and treatment (curing, drying and firing) of test pieces from monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials. The methods are applicable to dense and insulating castables and to ramming materials with the four types of chemical composition defined in ISO 1927-1:2012. The dimensions of the test pieces are specified and the preparation of the mixture, compaction methods, storage and post-treatment of the test pieces are described.

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ISO 1927-4:2012 describes methods for the determination and measurement of the consistency of dense and insulating castables as defined in ISO 1927-1:2012. It is applicable to all types of dense regular castables, dense deflocculated castables and insulating castables to determine the liquid addition necessary for preparing test pieces according to ISO 1927-5:2012.

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ISO 1927-3:2012 specifies the methods for the characterization of monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials as received and for checking the homogeneity of a delivery of a product. It is applicable to castables (dense and insulating), gunning materials tap hole clay, injection mixes, dry vibrating mixes, and ramming materials, as defined in ISO 1927-1.

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ISO 1927-2:2012 gives guidance on the sampling of monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials for the purpose of inspection and testing for quality and general information on the reduction and treatment of samples prior to testing. It covers all materials formulated as monolithic refractory materials.

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ISO 1927-7:2012 specifies methods for the testing of as-delivered pre-formed shapes. It applies to shapes fabricated from dense and insulating castables and ramming materials as defined in ISO 1927-1.

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ISO 1927-6:2012 specifies methods for the determination of properties of unshaped materials from test pieces prepared and stored according to ISO 1927-5:2012.
The methods are applicable to dense and insulating castables and to ramming materials (including plastics) as defined in ISO 1927-1:2012 before and after firing.

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ISO 1927-2:2012 gives guidance on the sampling of monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials for the purpose of inspection and testing for quality and general information on the reduction and treatment of samples prior to testing. It covers all materials formulated as monolithic refractory materials.

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ISO 1927-4:2012 describes methods for the determination and measurement of the consistency of dense and insulating castables as defined in ISO 1927-1:2012. It is applicable to all types of dense regular castables, dense deflocculated castables and insulating castables to determine the liquid addition necessary for preparing test pieces according to ISO 1927-5:2012.

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ISO 1927-3:2012 specifies the methods for the characterization of monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials as received and for checking the homogeneity of a delivery of a product. It is applicable to castables (dense and insulating), gunning materials tap hole clay, injection mixes, dry vibrating mixes, and ramming materials, as defined in ISO 1927-1.

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ISO 1927-8:2012 specifies methods for the determination of the properties of unshaped refractory materials from test pieces prepared and stored in accordance with ISO 1927-5. The methods complement those described in ISO 1927-6.
The methods have been adapted from standards for shaped refractory products to make them applicable to dense and insulating castables, and ramming materials as defined in ISO 1927-1, before and after firing.

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ISO 1927-5:2012 specifies methods for the preparation and treatment (curing, drying and firing) of test pieces from monolithic (unshaped) refractory materials.
The methods are applicable to dense and insulating castables and to ramming materials with the four types of chemical composition defined in ISO 1927-1:2012.
The dimensions of the test pieces are specified and the preparation of the mixture, compaction methods, storage and post-treatment of the test pieces are described.

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This part of ISO 1927 defines terms relating to monolithic (unshaped) refractory products and establishes a classification for the various types of product. Raw materials and crushed or granulated refractory materials, which do not contain any binder, are excluded.

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ISO 1927-1:2012 defines terms relating to monolithic (unshaped) refractory products and establishes a classification for the various types of product.
Raw materials and crushed or granulated refractory materials, which do not contain any binder, are excluded.

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ISO 1927-1:2012 defines terms relating to monolithic (unshaped) refractory products and establishes a classification for the various types of product. Raw materials and crushed or granulated refractory materials, which do not contain any binder, are excluded.

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This standard specifies a method for the quantitative determination of Iron2+ and Iron3+ in oxidic raw and basic materials for ceramics, glass and glazes, e. g. felspar, kaolines, clay, limestone, quartz, by solution spectrophotometry.
The concentration ranges for both iron species are within 10 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg and can be determined in parallel.

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ISO 14719:2011 specifies a spectral photometric method with 1,10-phenanthroline for the quantitative determination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in oxidic raw and basic materials for ceramics, glass and glazes, e.g. feldspar, kaolinites, clay, limestone, quartz refractory materials. ISO 14719:2011 could be extended to other aluminosilicate materials, providing that uncertainty data is produced to support it. However, there might be problems in the decomposition of high-purity alumina and chrome ore samples.
The method is not suitable for reduced materials, such as silicon carbide, graphite-magnesia, etc.

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ISO 14719:2011 specifies a spectral photometric method with 1,10-phenanthroline for the quantitative determination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in oxidic raw and basic materials for ceramics, glass and glazes, e.g. feldspar, kaolinites, clay, limestone, quartz refractory materials. ISO 14719:2011 could be extended to other aluminosilicate materials, providing that uncertainty data is produced to support it. However, there might be problems in the decomposition of high-purity alumina and chrome ore samples. The method is not suitable for reduced materials, such as silicon carbide, graphite-magnesia, etc.

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