This document specifies an analytical test method for the determination of anthraquinone (see Table 1) in water and 95 % ethanol extracts of pulp, paper and board materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Moreover, acetone extracts of modified polyphenylene oxide (MPPO) that, according to EN 14338, can be used as a simulant to assess the possible transfer/migration of substances from paper and board into dry, non-fatty foodstuffs can be analysed with the method presented here.
This method can be applied to determine anthraquinone in concentrations ranging from 2 µg/l to 40 µg/l in the water and solvent extracts, corresponding to 0,05 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg pulp, paper and board or, respectively, 0,1 μg/dm2 to 2 μg/dm2 in the case of migration tests with MPPO. The measurement range can be lowered by enriching anthraquinone from the water and solvent extracts.
Table 1 - Anthraquinone
...

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This document specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the dry matter content in paper, board, pulp and cellulosic nanomaterials in solid form, which all can be produced from virgin and /or recycled materials. It is also applicable to the determination of the dry matter content of paper and board for recycling. The procedure is applicable to paper, board, and pulp and cellulosic nanomaterials which do not contain any appreciable quantities of materials other than water that are volatile at the temperature of 105 °C ± 2 °C. It is used, for example, in the case of pulp, paper, and board and cellulosic nanomaterial samples taken for chemical and physical tests in the laboratory, when a concurrent determination of dry matter content is required. This method is not applicable to the determination of the dry matter content of slush pulp or to the determination of the saleable mass of pulp lots. NOTE 1: ISO 638-2[1] specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the dry matter content of suspensions of cellulosic nanomaterials, ISO 287[2] specifies the determination of the moisture content of a lot of paper and board; ISO 4119[3] specifies the determination of stock concentration of pulps; ISO 801 (all parts)[4] specifies the determination of the saleable mass in lots. NOTE 2: This document determines the total dry matter content of the sample, including any dissolved solids. If only the cellulosic material content free of dissolved solids is desired, dissolved solids are removed prior to measuring the dry matter content e.g. by washing or dialysis, taking care to retain all cellulosic material; in cases where the sample is filterable without loss of cellulosic solids, ISO 4119[3] can be used to determine the stock consistency (content of cellulosic material in solid form)

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This document specifies an oven-drying method for the determination of the dry matter content in suspensions of cellulosic nanomaterials. The procedure is applicable to cellulosic nanomaterial suspensions which do not contain any appreciable quantities of materials other than water that are volatile at the temperature of 105 °C ± 2 °C. It is used, for example, in the case of cellulosic nanomaterial suspensions samples taken for chemical and physical tests in the laboratory, when a concurrent determination of dry matter content is required. NOTE 1: ISO 638-1[1] specifies the dry matter content in paper, board, pulp and cellulosic nanomaterials in solid form, which all can be produced from virgin and/or recycled materials; ISO 287[2] specifies the determination of moisture content of a lot of paper and board; ISO 4119[3] specifies the determination of stock concentration of aqueous pulp suspensions; ISO 801 (all parts)[4] specifies the determination of saleable mass in lots. NOTE 2: This document determines the total dry matter content of the sample, including any dissolved solids. If only the cellulosic material content free of dissolved solids is desired, dissolved solids are removed prior to measuring the dry matter content e.g. by washing or dialysis, taking care to retain all cellulosic material.

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The method is applicable to unbleached, bleached and semi-bleached wood pulp with a lignin content above 1 %. It is not generally intended for fully bleached chemical pulp, because the lignin content in these pulps is too low to be determined accurately.

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This method describes the determination of the carbohydrate composition in wood pulp samples. This method makes it possible to determine concentrations of individual anhydrous monosaccharides down to 1 mg/g oven-dry pulp.

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This document provides guidance for representatives of the paper value chain for the design of printed paper products, with a view to deinkability contributing to recyclability in support of the circular economy. It describes relevant deinking processes, and the deinking performance of printed paper products produced with different printing, finishing and converting technologies in those deinking processes. It provides a list of relevant quality characteristics of industrial deinked pulps and a list of their possible usages based on those characteristics. This document does not include guidance for paper-based products which are not intended to be deinked.

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This document specifies the procedure for the determination of acid-soluble magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, sodium and potassium by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP/ES). The acid-soluble element comprises the acid-soluble part of the incineration residue, i.e. that part of the ignition residue obtained after incineration which is soluble in hydrochloric acid or nitric acid. In cases where the residue is completely soluble, the result obtained by the procedure specified in this document is a measure of the total amount of each element in the sample.
This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials.
The limit of determination depends on the element and on the instrument used.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pH-value defined by the electrolytes extractable by cold water from a sample of paper, board or pulp.
This document is applicable to all types of paper, board and pulp.
As the quantity of extractable ionic material approaches zero, as in the case of highly purified pulps, the precision of the method becomes poor because of the difficulties encountered in making pH measurements on water containing little electrolytic material.  
Since the extraction in this document is performed with distilled or deionised water, the pH-value measured will sometimes be different (e.g. for fully bleached pulp) from the pH-value measured under mill process conditions in which various types of process waters, e.g. chemically treated river water containing electrolytes, are used. In such cases, ISO 29681 should be used instead, as it is specifically applicable to bleached pulps from virgin fibres and to pulp samples having a low ionic strength for which the pH value will give more realistic results related to mill conditions than those obtained with this document.
For cellulosic papers used for electrical purposes, the method used should be that given in IEC 60554‑2[4].

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pH-value defined by the electrolytes extractable by hot water from a sample of paper, board or pulp.
This document is applicable to all kinds of paper, board and pulp.
As the quantity of extractable ionic material approaches zero, as in the case of highly purified pulps, the precision of the method becomes poor because of the difficulties encountered in making pH measurements on water containing little electrolytic material.
Since the extraction in this document is performed with distilled or deionised water, the pH-value measured will sometimes be different (e.g. fully bleached pulp) from the pH-value measured under mill process conditions in which various types of process waters, e.g. chemically treated river water containing electrolytes, are used. In such cases, ISO 29681 can be used instead, as it is specifically applicable to bleached pulps from virgin fibres and to pulp samples having a low ionic strength for which the pH value will give more realistic results related to mill conditions than those obtained with this document. For cellulosic papers used for electrical purposes, the method used can be that given in IEC 60554-2[4].

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This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and cellulose nanomaterial. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C.
In the context of this document, the term "cellulose nanomaterial" refers specifically to cellulose nano-object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper, board and pulps.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of water-soluble sulfates in all types of pulp, paper and board. The lower limit of the determination is 20 mg of sulfate ion per kilogram of dry sample.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pH-value defined by the electrolytes extractable by hot water from a sample of paper, board or pulp. This document is applicable to all kinds of paper, board and pulp. As the quantity of extractable ionic material approaches zero, as in the case of highly purified pulps, the precision of the method becomes poor because of the difficulties encountered in making pH measurements on water containing little electrolytic material. Since the extraction in this document is performed with distilled or deionised water, the pH-value measured will sometimes be different (e.g. fully bleached pulp) from the pH-value measured under mill process conditions in which various types of process waters, e.g. chemically treated river water containing electrolytes, are used. In such cases, ISO 29681 can be used instead, as it is specifically applicable to bleached pulps from virgin fibres and to pulp samples having a low ionic strength for which the pH value will give more realistic results related to mill conditions than those obtained with this document. For cellulosic papers used for electrical purposes, the method used can be that given in IEC 60554-2[4].

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pH-value defined by the electrolytes extractable by cold water from a sample of paper, board or pulp. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board and pulp. As the quantity of extractable ionic material approaches zero, as in the case of highly purified pulps, the precision of the method becomes poor because of the difficulties encountered in making pH measurements on water containing little electrolytic material. Since the extraction in this document is performed with distilled or deionised water, the pH-value measured will sometimes be different (e.g. for fully bleached pulp) from the pH-value measured under mill process conditions in which various types of process waters, e.g. chemically treated river water containing electrolytes, are used. In such cases, ISO 29681 should be used instead, as it is specifically applicable to bleached pulps from virgin fibres and to pulp samples having a low ionic strength for which the pH value will give more realistic results related to mill conditions than those obtained with this document. For cellulosic papers used for electrical purposes, the method used should be that given in IEC 60554‑2[4].

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This document specifies a basic laboratory test method for deinkability, applicable to any kind of printed paper product, under alkaline conditions by means of single stage flotation deinking and fatty acid-based collector chemistry.

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This document specifies the procedure for the determination of acid-soluble magnesium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, sodium and potassium by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP/ES). The acid-soluble element comprises the acid-soluble part of the incineration residue, i.e. that part of the ignition residue obtained after incineration which is soluble in hydrochloric acid or nitric acid. In cases where the residue is completely soluble, the result obtained by the procedure specified in this document is a measure of the total amount of each element in the sample. This document is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials. The limit of determination depends on the element and on the instrument used.

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This document describes the determination of the residue (ash content) on ignition of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials at 525 °C. It is applicable to all types of paper, board, pulp and cellulose nanomaterial samples. This document provides measurement procedures to obtain a measurement precision of 0,01 % or better for residue (ash content) on ignition at 525 °C. Determination of residue (ash content) on ignition at 900 °C of paper, board, pulps and cellulose nanomaterials is described in ISO 2144. In the context of this document, the term "cellulose nanomaterial" refers specifically to cellulose nano-object (see 3.2 to 3.4). Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, these cellulose nano-objects can have intrinsic properties, behaviours or functionalities that are distinct from those associated with paper, board and pulps.

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This European standard describes two representative methods for the determination of the extractable amount of specific
primary aromatic amines (PAA) in a water extract of paper, board and pulp samples by means of HPLC with MS/MS
detection which basically differ concerning the choice of the mobile and stationary phases. Deviating from this standard
further methods may be applicable if it can be shown that comparable results can be achieved. A validation must be carried
out by each laboratory.
It is applicable for the determination of the 22 primary aromatic amines (PAA) mentioned in the annex of directive
2002/61/EC of 19th July 2002 amending Council Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the market and use of
certain dangerous substances and preparations (azocolourants) which are classified as carcinogenic categories 1A and 1B
according to the CLP regulation and aniline.
The method described by this standard also shall be applicable for the determination of further primary aromatic amines
(PAA). A validation for every further analyte has to be done by the laboratory using this method.
The extractable amount of a primary aromatic amine (PAA) is expressed in mg PAA per litre water extract. This method is
suitable for the determination of PAA with a working range of about 0,001 – 0,020 mg/l water extract.
NOTE: Deviating from this standard further methods may be applicable, if it can be shown that comparable results can be
achieved. A validation must be carried out by each laboratory.

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This document presents guidelines for a methodology for the estimation of the uncertainty of methods for testing pulps, paper, board, cellulosic nanomaterials, and lignins, as well as products thereof containing any portion of recycled material or material intended for recycling.

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This document specifies procedures for the laboratory determination of the total elemental sulfur and the sulfate half-ester content of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and conductometric titration, respectively, including sample preparation, measurement methods and data analysis. This document is applicable to the characterization of CNCs: a) with all monovalent counterions (particularly hydronium and sodium cations); b) which are either in the never-dried state in aqueous suspension, or have been redispersed from a dried form; and c) which have been extracted from any naturally occurring cellulose source using a range of sulfuric acid hydrolysis conditions, or have been sulfated post-hydrolysis using sulfuric acid.

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ISO 4094:2017 provides both general requirements and specific requirements (Annex A) for laboratories seeking to become "Authorized Laboratories (ALs)" and to maintain their Authorized Laboratory status for the issue of optical reference transfer standards of level 3. This document follows the requirements and adopts the format of ISO/IEC 17025, with the aims of: a) establishing and maintaining international optical reference transfer standards of level 2 (IR2) traceable to an international optical reference primary standard of level 1 (IR1) maintained by a standardizing laboratory; b) distributing traceability required to achieve inter-laboratory agreement in the results of test methods specified in International Standards for optical properties of paper, board or pulp; c) participating in the design and development of new methods and international harmonization of procedures. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as sampling and the design/development of new methods, the requirements of those clauses do not apply. ISO 4094:2017 is for use by specified laboratories authorized to issue optical reference transfer standards in developing their management system for quality, administrative and technical operations. Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies can also use it in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories. NOTE It might be necessary to explain or interpret certain requirements in this document to ensure that the requirements are applied in a consistent manner. Guidance for consistent application can be obtained from Technical Committee ISO/TC 6.

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ISO 9416:2017 specifies a method for the calculation of light-scattering and light-absorption coefficients based upon diffuse reflectance measurements made under the conditions specified in ISO 2469 using the colour matching function ȳ(λ) and CIE illuminant C. It is emphasized that the strict evaluation of the light-scattering and light-absorption coefficients requires conditions which cannot be achieved with the instrumentation specified here. The values obtained by application of this document are dependent on the application of the Kubelka-Munk equations, not to full reflectance data but to reflectance factor data obtained using the specified d/0° geometry and a gloss trap. The use of the method is restricted to white and near-white uncoated papers with an opacity less than about 95 %. Paper that has been treated with a fluorescent dyestuff or that exhibits significant fluorescence can only be dealt with if a filter with a cut-off wavelength of 420 nm is used to eliminate all the fluorescence effect in the UVex(420) mode.

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ISO 11480:2017 specifies two alternative procedures for the determination of total and organically bound chlorine in pulp, paper and board. It is applicable to all types of pulp, paper and board. The lower limit of the determination is about 20 mg/kg.

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This part of ISO 2470 specifies a method for measuring the diffuse blue reflectance factor (ISO
brightness) of pulps, papers and boards.
This part of ISO 2470 is limited in its scope to white and near-white pulps, papers and boards. The
measurement can only be made in an instrument in which the ultraviolet energy level of the illumination
has been adjusted to correspond to the CIE illuminant C[6] using a fluorescent reference standard.
The CIE illuminant C is taken to be representative of indoor daylight conditions because it contains a
suitable proportion of UV radiation.[9]
NOTE The property called D65 brightness is measured with an instrument adjusted to correspond with CIE
standard illuminant D65,[4] which has a much higher UV content than that specified in this part of ISO 2470. The
measurement of D65 brightness is described in ISO 2470-2.[2]

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ISO 2470-1:2016 specifies a method for measuring the diffuse blue reflectance factor (ISO brightness) of pulps, papers and boards. ISO 2470-1:2016 is limited in its scope to white and near-white pulps, papers and boards. The measurement can only be made in an instrument in which the ultraviolet energy level of the illumination has been adjusted to correspond to the CIE illuminant C[6] using a fluorescent reference standard. The CIE illuminant C is taken to be representative of indoor daylight conditions because it contains a suitable proportion of UV radiation.[9]

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ISO 9197:2016 specifies a method for the determination of water-soluble chlorides in all types of paper, board and pulp. The lower limit of the determination is 20 mg of chloride ion per kilogram of dry sample.

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This part of ISO 4046 defines terms related to
properties of pulp, paper and board, in both English
and French.

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This part of ISO 4046 is an alphabetical index of
English and French terms which are defined in the
ISO 4046 series of standards, which document the
terminology of paper, board, pulp and related terms.

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This part of ISO 4046 defines terms related to pulping,
in both English and French.

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This International Standard describes the determination of the residue (ash) on ignition of paper, board
and pulp at 525 °C. It is applicable to all types of paper, board, and pulp samples. The ash may consist of
a) mineral matter in the pulp and various residues from chemicals used in its manufacture,
b) metallic matter from piping and machinery, and
c) fillers, pigments, coatings, or residues from various additives.
In samples containing calcium carbonate, there is practically no decomposition of carbonate by ashing
at 525 °C. Other fillers and pigments such as clay and titanium dioxide are also unaffected by ashing
at 525 °C. Accordingly, the residue on ignition as determined by this International Standard provides
a good estimate of the total inorganic matter in the sample, provided that the sample does not contain
other minerals which decompose at or below this temperature. For example, magnesium carbonate and
calcium sulfate may, at least partly, decompose at temperatures below 525 °C.

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This part of ISO 4046 defines terms related to paper
and board grades and converted products, in both
English and French.

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This International Standard describes the general procedure for measuring the diffuse radiance factor of
all types of pulp, paper and board. More particularly, it specifies in detail in Annex A the characteristics
of the equipment to be used for such measurements, and in Annex B the procedures to be used for
calibrating that equipment.
This International Standard may be used to measure the diffuse radiance factors and related properties
of materials containing fluorescent whitening agents, provided that the UV-content of the instrument
illumination has been adjusted to give the same level of fluorescence as a fluorescent reference standard
for a selected CIE illuminant, in accordance with the specific International Standard describing the
measurement of the property in question.
This International Standard describes in Annex C the preparation of fluorescent reference standards,
although the procedures for using these standards are not included, since their use is described in
detail in the specific International Standards describing the measurement of the properties of materials
containing fluorescent whitening agents.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the alkali-insoluble fraction of
pulps using sodium hydroxide solution of fixed concentration. The sodium hydroxide concentrations
most frequently used are 18, 10, and 5 % (m/m).
The method is applicable to all kinds of pulp.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the Kappa number of pulp. The
Kappa number is an indication of the lignin content or bleachability of pulp.
This International Standard is applicable to all kinds of chemical pulps and semi-chemical pulps within
the Kappa number range 1 to 100. For pulps with a Kappa number exceeding 100, use the chlorineconsumption
procedure (ISO 3260) to describe the degree of delignification.
To achieve the greatest precision and accuracy, the sample size has to be adjusted so that the
consumption of permanganate falls between 20 % and 60 % of the amount added.
NOTE There is no general and unambiguous relationship between the Kappa number and the lignin content
of pulp. The relationship varies according to the wood species and delignification procedure. All compounds
oxidized by KMnO4, not only lignin, will increase the consumption of KMnO4, and thereby increase the Kappa
number.[8] If the Kappa number is to be used to derive an index of pulp lignin content, specific relationships will
have to be developed for each pulp type.

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ISO 4046-2.2016 defines terms related to pulping, in both English and French.

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ISO 4046-1:2016 is an alphabetical index of English and French terms which are defined in the ISO 4046 series of standards, which document the terminology of paper, board, pulp and related terms.

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ISO 4046-5:2016 defines terms related to properties of pulp, paper and board, in both English and French.

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ISO/TR 10688:2015 provides a summary of the formulae used for determining the optical properties of pulp, paper and board. This Technical Report is to be used in conjunction with the particular International Standards for the determination of the desired optical properties. ISO/TR 10688:2015 provides the information necessary for those involved in development of software for computation of optical properties in accordance with current ISO standards.

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ISO 15360-2:2015 specifies a method to estimate Stickies and Plastics in all grades of recycled pulp. It applies the principles for the separation of Stickies and Plastics described in ISO 15360‑1. The visualization and counting techniques described in ISO 15360‑1 are replaced here by image analysis. ISO 15360-2:2015 permits the use of different laboratory screening devices as well as screens of different sizes when applying the specified method. It is impracticable to define more closely the equipment or screen sizes to be used, because of the wide range of Stickies and Plastics found in recycled pulps, and the various screening devices which are being successfully used for their measurement. NOTE This method will only estimate those Stickies and Plastics which are tacky and which are retained on the screen of a given slit size under the temperature and pressure conditions of this test method. It is important to note that this will probably not be the total amount of Stickies and Plastics that are actually present in a given pulp sample.

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ISO 302:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the Kappa number of pulp. The Kappa number is an indication of the lignin content or bleachability of pulp. ISO 302:2015 is applicable to all kinds of chemical pulps and semi-chemical pulps within the Kappa number range 1 to 100. For pulps with a Kappa number exceeding 100, use the chlorine-consumption procedure (ISO 3260) to describe the degree of delignification. To achieve the greatest precision and accuracy, the sample size has to be adjusted so that the consumption of permanganate falls between 20 % and 60 % of the amount added. NOTE There is no general and unambiguous relationship between the Kappa number and the lignin content of pulp. The relationship varies according to the wood species and delignification procedure. All compounds oxidized by KMnO4, not only lignin, will increase the consumption of KMnO4, and thereby increase the Kappa number.[8] If the Kappa number is to be used to derive an index of pulp lignin content, specific relationships will have to be developed for each pulp type.

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ISO 3260:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the degree of delignification of pulp by measuring its chlorine consumption. This method is applicable to all kinds of pulp.

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ISO 699:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the alkali-insoluble fraction of pulps using sodium hydroxide solution of fixed concentration. The sodium hydroxide concentrations most frequently used are 18, 10, and 5 % (m/m). The method is applicable to all kinds of pulp.

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ISO 8784-1:2014 specifies a method for determining the total number of colony-forming units of bacteria and bacterial spores in dry market pulp, paper, and paperboard after disintegration. The enumeration relates to specific media.

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EN ISO 14453 describes the determination of acetone-soluble matter in pulp. It is applicable to all types of pulp. The lower limit of the determination is about 0,05 %. This limit can be lowered by increasing the amount of sample analysed.

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ISO 2469:2014 describes the general procedure for measuring the diffuse radiance factor of all types of pulp, paper and board. More particularly, it specifies in detail the characteristics of the equipment to be used for such measurements, and the procedures to be used for calibrating that equipment. ISO 2469:2014 may be used to measure the diffuse radiance factors and related properties of materials containing fluorescent whitening agents, provided that the UV-content of the instrument illumination has been adjusted to give the same level of fluorescence as a fluorescent reference standard for a selected CIE illuminant, in accordance with the specific International Standard describing the measurement of the property in question. ISO 2469:2014 describes the preparation of fluorescent reference standards, although the procedures for using these standards are not included, since their use is described in detail in the specific International Standards describing the measurement of the properties of materials containing fluorescent whitening agents.

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ISO 14453:2014 describes the determination of acetone-soluble matter in pulp.
It is applicable to all types of pulp. The lower limit of the determination is about 0,05 %. This limit can be lowered by increasing the amount of sample analysed.

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ISO 16065-1:2014 specifies a method for determining fibre length using polarized light. ISO 16065-1:2014 is applicable to all kinds of pulp. However, fibrous particles shorter than 0,2 mm are not regarded as fibres for the purposes of ISO 16065-1:2014 and, therefore, are not to be included in the results.

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ISO 14453:2014 describes the determination of acetone-soluble matter in pulp. It is applicable to all types of pulp. The lower limit of the determination is about 0,05 %. This limit can be lowered by increasing the amount of sample analysed.

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ISO 16065-2:2014 specifies a method for determining fibre length by automated optical analysis using unpolarized light. The method is applicable to all kinds of pulp. However, fibrous particles shorter than 0,2 mm are not regarded as fibres for the purposes of ISO 16065-2:2014 and, therefore, are not included in the results.

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