This document sets out a method for describing the performance of houses. It covers user needs, provides performance descriptions, and outlines evaluation processes. It includes the description of relevant parameters necessary to ensure accessibility and usability in houses. It also includes features to ensure safety during daily use, i.e., reasonable consideration to prevent accident like tripping, falls, or collision. This document is intended for use in the evaluation of the design and construction of houses, in the international trading of houses or their sub-systems, and in developing risk-management tools for the protection of houses. It does not specify a level of performance and it is not intended to provide design method and/or criteria. NOTE 1   Structural safety, fire safety, and other performance attributes of a house are covered in other parts of the ISO 15928 series. NOTE 2   Exporting a house (as a complete set, “kit house” for example) does mean that the site is not necessarily predetermined. Therefore, surrounding conditions cannot be known in advance. Even the interface between the entrance door and the ground cannot be predetermined (including how flat entry can be achieved). It is up to the builder and the client to decide how to design the interface. However, design examples for accessibility can be given. NOTE 3   The way to describe performance of buildings is given in ISO 19208.

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This document establishes the common vocabulary of the principal terms used in the field of reliability of structures and design actions used within ISO TC98 documents on bases for design of structures.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the ability of a horizontal protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance of standard horizontal structural building members as defined in 6.4.2.
Test of horizontal protective membrane installed under a specific non-standard floor should be tested according to EN 1365-2.
This document contains the fire test which specifies the tests which are carried out whereby the horizontal protective membrane, together with the structural member to be protected, is exposed to a fire test according to the procedures defined herein. The fire exposure, to the temperature/time curve given in EN 1363-1, is applied from below the membrane itself.
The test method makes provision, through specified optional additional procedures, for the collection of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance according to the processes given within EN 1992-1-2, EN 1993-1-2, EN 1994-1-2 and EN 1995-1-2.
This document also contains the assessment which provides information relative to the analysis of the test data and gives guidance for the interpretation of the results of the fire test, in terms of loadbearing capacity criteria of the protected horizontal structural member.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject the protection material to a smouldering curve. The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in Annex C.
The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with permitted direct application of the results to different structures, membranes and fittings.
This documentapplies only where there is a gap and a cavity between the horizontal protective membrane and the structural building member. Otherwise, the test methods in EN 13381-3, EN 13381 4 or EN 13381-5, as appropriate, apply.
Tests are intended to be carried out without additional combustible materials in the cavity.
Annex A gives details of assessing the performance of the ceiling when exposed to a semi-natural fire.

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This document specifies general principles of risk assessment for systems involving structures. The focus is on strategic and operational decision-making related to design, assessment, maintenance and decommissioning of structures. This also includes formulation and calibration of related codes and standards. Systems involving structures can expose stakeholders at various levels in society to significant risks. The aim of this document is to facilitate and enhance decision-making with regard to monitoring, reducing and managing risks, and preparing for emergency in an efficient, cost-effective and transparent manner. Within the broader context of risk management, risk assessment provides decision-makers with procedures to determine whether or not, and in what manner, it is appropriate to treat risks. This document provides a general framework as well as a procedure for identifying hazards and estimating, evaluating and treating risks of structures and systems involving structures. This document also provides a basis for code writers as well as designers to set reasonable target-reliability levels, such as stated in ISO 2394, based on the result of risk considerations. For existing structures, it is intended that assessment of the risks associated with the events that were not considered in the original design or with changes in use be implemented according to the principles stated in this document. This document can also be used for risk assessment of exceptional structures upon specific adaptation and detailing, the design of which is not usually within the scope of existing codes.

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Accidental actions can be subdivided into accidental actions with a natural cause and accidental actions due to human activities. This document applies to reliability based and risk informed decision making for the design and assessment of structures subject to accidental actions due to human activities. However, fires and human-made earthquakes are not included. The information presented in this document is intended for buildings and civil engineering works, regardless of the nature of their application and the use or combination of materials. The application of this document can require additional elements or elaboration in special cases. This document is intended to serve as a basis for those committees that are responsible for the task of preparing International Standards, national standards or codes of practice in accordance with given objectives and context in a particular country. Where relevant, it can also be applied directly to specific cases. This document describes how the principles of risk and reliability can be utilized to support decisions related to the design and assessment of structures subject to accidental actions and systems involving structures during all the phases of their service life. For the general principles of risk informed design and assessment, it is intended that ISO 2394 be considered. The application of this document necessitates knowledge beyond that which it contains. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that this knowledge is available and applied.

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This document provides the requirements for structural design and procedures following a semi-probabilistic approach that conform to the general principles for structural reliability as stipulated by ISO 2394. The scope of requirements and procedures are accordingly limited to the design of structures for which sufficient knowledge and experience are commonly available on design and construction practice to ensure that target levels of reliability account for the nature and consequences of structural failure. Situations outside these limitations are covered by ISO 2394. The methods that are included in this document are the semi-probabilistic limit states approaches that are proven to achieve sufficient and consistent levels of structural reliability. This document relies on standardized procedures for the characterization of the load bearing performance of the structures within its scope. Sufficient information is needed on uncertainties of design variables and models to be able to derive semi-probabilistic design measures for verification of structural reliability within the scope of this and the related design standards.

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ISO 15928-4:2017 sets out a method for describing the fire safety performance of houses. It covers user needs, provides performance descriptions, and outlines evaluation processes. It includes the description of relevant parameters for early warning, fire suppression, fire containment, means of escape, control of structural behaviour, and emission and spread of fire effluent. ISO 15928-4:2017 is intended for use in the evaluation of the design and construction of houses, in the international trading of houses or their sub-systems, and in developing risk-management tools for the protection of houses. It does not specify a level of performance and it is not intended to provide a design method and/or criteria. ISO 15928-4:2017 does not cover the performance of houses exposed to wild fire. NOTE 1 Structural safety and other performance attributes of a house are covered in other parts of the ISO 15928 series. NOTE 2 The emission of smoke and hot gases from contents in the house when ignited can impact the fire safety performance of a house, but the type or nature of such contents brought into the house is not the subject of the evaluation process. NOTE 3 The term "wild fire" is used to mean the concept of wild land fire, bush fire and unplanned burning in vegetative fuels, etc.

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ISO 3010:2017 (including both the super structure and foundation) and other structures. ISO 3010:2017 is not applicable to certain structures, such as bridges, dams, geotechnical works and tunnels, although some of the principles can be referred to for the seismic design of those structures. ISO 3010:2017 is not applicable to nuclear power plants, since these are dealt with separately in other International Standards. In regions where the seismic hazard is low, methods of design for structural integrity can be used in lieu of methods based on a consideration of seismic actions. ISO 3010:2017 is not a legally binding and enforceable code. It can be viewed as a source document that is utilized in the development of codes of practice by the competent authority responsible for issuing structural design regulations. NOTE 1 This document has been prepared mainly for new engineered structures. The principles are, however, applicable to developing appropriate prescriptive rules for non-engineered structures (see Annex N). The principles could also be applied to evaluating seismic actions on existing structures. NOTE 2 Other structures include self-supporting structures other than buildings that carry gravity loads and are required to resist seismic actions. These structures include seismic force-resisting systems similar to those in buildings, such as a trussed tower or a pipe rack, or systems very different from those in buildings, such as a liquid storage tank or a chimney. Additional examples include structures found at chemical plants, mines, power plants, harbours, amusement parks and civil infrastructure facilities. NOTE 3 The level of seismic hazard that would be considered low depends not only on the seismicity of the region but also on other factors, including types of construction, traditional practices, etc. Methods of design for structural integrity include nominal design horizontal forces (such as an equivalent static loading determined from a simplified equivalent static analysis) which provide a measure of protection against seismic actions.

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ISO 12494:2017 describes the general principles of determining ice load on structures of the types listed in this clause. In cases where a certain structure is not directly covered by this or another standard or recommendation, designers can use the intentions of this document. However, it is the user's responsibility to carefully consider the applicability of this document to the structure in question. The practical use of all data in this document is based upon certain knowledge of the site of the structure. Information about the degree of "normal" icing amounts (= ice classes) for the site in question is used. For many areas, however, no information is available. Even in such cases, this document can be useful because local meteorologists or other experienced persons should be able to, on the safe side, estimate a proper ice class. Using such an estimate in the structural design will result in a much safer structure than designing without any considerations for problems due to ice. CAUTION It is extremely important to design for some ice instead of no ice, and then the question of whether the amount of ice was correct is of less importance. In particular, the action of wind can be increased considerably due to both increased exposed area and increased drag coefficient. ISO 12494:2017 is intended for use in determining ice mass and wind load on the iced structure for the following types of structure: - masts; - towers; - antennas and antenna structures; - cables, stays, guy ropes, etc.; - rope ways (cable railways); - structures for ski-lifts; - buildings or parts of them exposed to potential icing; - towers for special types of construction such as transmission lines, wind turbines, etc. Atmospheric icing on electrical overhead lines is covered by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standards. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 2394. NOTE Some typical types of structure are mentioned, but other types can also be considered by designers by thinking in terms of which type of structure is sensitive to unforeseen ice, and act thereafter. Also, in many cases, only parts of structures are to be designed for ice loads because they are more vulnerable to unforeseen ice than is the whole structure. Even if electrical overhead lines are covered by IEC standards, designers can use this document for the mast structures to overhead lines (which are not covered by IEC standards) if they so wish.

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ISO 15928-1:2015 sets out a method for describing the structural safety performance of houses. It covers objectives, provides performance descriptions, establishes parameter descriptions, and outlines evaluation processes. It includes a description of permanent, imposed, wind, seismic, snow and other actions as well as structural resistance. ISO 15928-1:2015 is intended for use in the evaluation of the design and construction of houses, in the international trading of houses or their sub-systems, and in developing risk-management tools for the protection of houses. The ISO 15928‑ series does not specify a level of performance and it is not intended to provide a design method and/or criteria. It describes the structural safety of a house as a whole. NOTE 1 Annex A includes background information on this part of ISO 15928, guidance on its use, and suggestions on good practice. NOTE 2 Details on references referred to in Notes are provided in a Bibliography. NOTE 3 Structural serviceability, durability and other attributes are covered in other parts of ISO 15928.

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ISO 15928-3:2015 sets out a method for describing the structural durability performance of houses. It covers objectives, provides performance descriptions, establishes parameter descriptions and outlines evaluation processes. ISO 15928-3:2015 is intended for use in the evaluation of the design and construction of houses, in the international trading of houses or their subsystems and in developing quality systems for houses. The ISO 15928‑ series does not specify a level of performance and it is not intended to provide a design method and/or criteria. NOTE 1 Annex A includes background information on this part of ISO 15928, guidance on its use and suggestions on good practice. NOTE 2 Details on references referred to in Notes are provided on Bibliography. NOTE 3 Structural safety, serviceability and other attributes are covered in other parts of ISO 15928.

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ISO 2394:2015 constitutes a risk- and reliability-informed foundation for decision making concerning design and assessment of structures both for the purpose of code making and in the context of specific projects.

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This part of this European Standard specifies a test method for determining the ability of a vertical protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance (loadbearing capacity R) of loadbearing vertical structural building members fabricated from steel, concrete, steel/concrete composites or timber. The method described is applicable to any type of vertical protective membrane, which can be associated with a separate bracing membrane.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for determining the contribution of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural concrete/profiled sheet steel composite members or slabs. The concrete can be lightweight, normal-weight or heavy-weight concrete and of strength classes 20/25 (LC/C/HC) to 50/60 (LC/C/HC).
The method is applicable to all fire protection systems used for the protection of such structural composite members or slabs and includes sprayed fire protection, coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials.
The test method and its assessment procedure are designed to permit direct application of the results to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material.
The test method is applicable to all fire protection materials used for the protection of concrete/steel composite members or slab and includes sprayed materials, coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials, with or without a cavity between the fire protection material and the concrete/steel composite members or slab.
This European Standard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which shall be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain coherent and fixed to the composite member and to provide data on the temperatures of the steel sheet, throughout the depth of the concrete (for extended application purposes) and the unexposed surface of the concrete, when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve according to the procedures defined herein.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering curve. The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in Annex A.
The fire test methodology makes provision for the collection and presentation of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance of concrete/steel composite members in accordance with the procedures given in EN 1994-1-2.
This European Standard also contains the assessment which prescribes how the analysis of the test data shall be made and gives guidance to the procedures by which interpolation shall be undertaken.
The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with permitted direct application of the results to different steel/concrete composite structures, steel types and thicknesses, concrete densities, strengths, thicknesses and production techniques over the range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for determining the contribution of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural concrete/profiled sheet steel composite members or slabs. The concrete can be lightweight, normal-weight or heavy-weight concrete and of strength classes 20/25 (LC/C/HC) to 50/60 (LC/C/HC).
The test method and its assessment procedure are designed to permit direct application of the results to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material.
The test method is applicable to all fire protection materials used for the protection of concrete/steel composite members or slab and includes sprayed materials, coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials, with or without a cavity between the fire protection material and the concrete/steel composite members or slab.
This European Standard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which will be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain coherent and fixed to the composite member and to provide data on the temperatures of the steel sheet, throughout the depth of the concrete (for extended application purposes) and the unexposed surface of the concrete, when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve according to the procedures defined herein.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering curve. The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in Annex A.
The fire test methodology makes provision for the collection and presentation of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance of concrete/steel composite members in accordance with the procedures given in EN 1994 1 2.
This European Standard also contains the assessment which prescribes how the analysis of the test data needs to be made and gives guidance to the procedures by which interpolation needs to be undertaken.
The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with permitted direct application of the results to different steel/concrete composite structures, steel types and thicknesses, concrete densities, strengths, thicknesses and production techniques over the range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for determining the ability of a vertical protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance (loadbearing capacity R) of loadbearing vertical structural building members fabricated from steel, concrete, steel/concrete composites or timber. The method described is applicable to any type of vertical protective membrane, which can be associated with a separate bracing membrane.
The vertical protective membrane can be either separated from or attached to the structural building member and is self-supporting. This test method is applicable to vertical protective membranes where there is a gap and a cavity between the vertical protective membrane and the structural building member, otherwise alternative test methods prEN 13381-3, EN 13381-4, EN 13381-6 or prEN 13381-7 should be used as appropriate.
This test method and assessment is not applicable to the following:
a) all situations where the cavity is to be used as a service or ventilation shaft;
b) all situations where the vertical protective membrane acts as a bracing membrane.
This European Standard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which shall be carried out whereby the vertical protective membrane together with the structural member to be protected is exposed to the specified fire. The fire exposure, to the standard temperature/time curve given in EN 1363-1, is applied to the side which would be exposed in practice.
The test method makes provision, through specified optional additional procedures, for the collection of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance according to the processes given in EN 1992-1-2, EN 1993-1-2, EN 1994-1-2 and EN 1995-1-2.
This European Standard also contains the assessment which provides information relative to the analysis of the test data and gives guidance for the interpretation of the results of the fire test, in terms of loadbearing capacity criteria of the protected vertical structural member.
The results of the fire test and the assessment can be applied, with certain defined provisions, to vertical structural building members which can be beams, columns or a combination of both and / or which could form part of a separating element or partition.
The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with permitted direct application of the results to different structures, membranes and fittings.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject the protection material to a smouldering curve. The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in Annex B.
Tests should be carried out without additional combustible materials in the cavity.

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ISO/TR 12930:2014 provides seismic design examples for geotechnical works based on ISO 23469:2005 in order to demonstrate how to use this ISO standard. The design examples are intended to provide guidance to experienced practicing engineers and code writers. Geotechnical works include buried structures (e.g. buried tunnels, box culverts, pipelines, and underground storage facilities), foundations (e.g. shallow and deep foundations, and underground diaphragm walls), retaining walls (e.g. soil retaining and quay walls), pile-supported wharves and piers, earth structures (e.g. earth and rock fill dams and embankments), gravity dams, tanks, landfill and waste sites.

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ISO 4355:2013 specifies methods for the determination of snow load on roofs. It can serve as a basis for the development of national codes for the determination of snow load on roofs. National codes should supply statistical data of the snow load on ground in the form of zone maps, tables, or formulae. The shape coefficients presented in ISO 4355:2013 are prepared for design application, and can thus be directly adopted for use in national codes, unless justification for other values is available. For determining the snow loads on roofs of unusual shapes or shapes not covered by ISO 4355:2013 or in national standards, it is advised that special studies be undertaken. These can include testing of scale models in a wind tunnel or water flume, especially equipped for reproducing accumulation phenomena, and should include methods of accounting for the local meteorological statistics. Examples of numerical methods, scale model studies, and accompanying statistical analysis methods are described in ISO 4355:2013 (Annex G). The annexes of ISO 4355:2013 describing methods for determining the characteristic snow load on the ground, exposure coefficient, thermal coefficient, and loads on snow fences are for information only as a consequence of the limited amount of documentation and available scientific results. In some regions, single winters with unusual weather conditions can cause severe load conditions not taken into account by ISO 4355:2013. Specification of standard procedures and instrumentation for measurements is not dealt with in ISo 4355:2013.

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ISO 13033:2013 establishes the means to derive seismic actions on nonstructural components and systems (NSCS) supported by or attached to new or existing buildings. It also provides procedures for the verification of NSCS seismic capacities. NSCS include architectural elements, mechanical and electrical systems, and building contents. ISO 13033:2013 is not a legally binding and enforceable code. It is a source document that is utilized in the development of codes of practice by the competent authority responsible for issuing structural design regulations. It is intended for application by regional and national standards committees when preparing standards for the seismic performance of NSCS. ISO 13033:2013 does not specifically cover industrial facilities, including nuclear power plants, since these are dealt with separately in other International Standards. However, the principles in ISO 13033:2013 can be appropriate for the derivation of seismic actions for NSCS in such facilities.

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ISO 3898:2013 covers physical quantities in a general sense. The kernel-index-method enables to form (compound) symbols of physical quantities related to a particular material and/or a particular technical field of design of structures. It also gives the main names, symbols, and units for physical quantities within the field of design of structures.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for determining the contribution of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural concrete filled hollow steel columns. The concrete can be lightweight, normalweight or heavyweight concrete, and of all the strength classes provided for in EN 1994-1-2. The use of a dry sand is considered to be an alternative, conservative approach to the use of wet concrete. A specification for dry sand is given in 5.6.3. The method is applicable to all fire protection systems used for the protection of concrete filled hollow columns and includes sprayed fire protection, reactive coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials. If there is no hollow section data from prEN 13381-4 (revision of ENV 13381-4:2002) or prEN 13381-8 (revision of EN 13381-8:2010), this European Standard cannot be used. For passive systems, this data can be derived using the Formula in Annex A of prEN 13381-4 (revision of ENV 13381-4:2002). Testing to this European Standard is not required if the fire protection thicknesses for hollow sections derived from prEN 13381-4 (revision of ENV 13381-4:2002) or prEN 13381-8 (revision of EN 13381-8:2010) are to be used for concrete filled hollow sections. The evaluation is designed to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material, a range of steel sections, characterized by their diameters and wall thicknesses, a range of design temperatures and a range of valid fire protection classification periods. The test method is applicable to fire protection systems which are intimately in contact with the structural column, or which include an airspace between the structural column and the protection system. This European Standard specifies the fire tests which are carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to provide fire protection to composite columns. The tests produce data on the average steel temperatures of the composite column, when exposed to the time/temperature curve according to the procedures defined herein. This European Standard also provides the assessment procedure, which prescribes how the analysis of the test data should be made and gives guidance on the procedures by which interpolation is undertaken. In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering curve. The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in prEN 13381-8 (revision of EN 13381-8:2010). This exposure, applicable to reactive fire protection materials, is used only in special circumstances (which are specified in the national building regulations of a member state of the European Union) and is therefore not intended to be mandatory for all fire protection materials applied to concrete filled hollow steel columns. This European Standard ignores any contribution from the concrete to the structural capability of the hollow column and therefore only deals with thermal performance. The justification for using this approach is given in Annex B. The fire test methodology makes provision for the collection and presentation of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance of concrete/steel composite members in accordance with the procedures given in EN 1994-1-2.

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ISO 13822:2010 provides general requirements and procedures for the assessment of existing structures (buildings, bridges, industrial structures, etc.) based on the principles of structural reliability and consequences of failure. It is based on ISO 2394. ISO 13822:2010 is applicable to the assessment of any type of existing structure that was originally designed, analysed and specified based on accepted engineering principles and/or design rules, as well as structures constructed on the basis of good workmanship, historic experience and accepted professional practice. The assessment can be initiated under the following circumstances: an anticipated change in use or extension of design working life; a reliability check (e.g. for earthquakes, increased traffic actions) as required by authorities, insurance companies, owners, etc.; structural deterioration due to time-dependent actions (e.g. corrosion, fatigue); structural damage by accidental actions (see ISO 2394). ISO 13822:2010 is also applicable to heritage structures provided additional considerations shown in Annex I are taken into account. ISO 13822:2010 is applicable to existing structures of any material, although specific adaptation can be required depending on the type of material, such as concrete, steel, timber, masonry, etc. ISO 13822:2010 provides principles regarding actions and environmental influences. Further detailed considerations are necessary for accidental actions such as fire and earthquake. ISO 13822:2010 is intended to serve as a basis for preparing national standards or codes of practice in accordance with current engineering practice and the economic conditions.

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ISO 4354:2008 describes the actions of wind on structures and specifies methods of calculating characteristic values of wind loads for use in designing buildings, towers, chimneys, bridges and other structures, as well as their components and appendages. The loads are suitable for use in conjunction with ISO 2394 and other International Standards concerned with wind loads. In particular, ISO 4354:2008 facilitates the conversion between peak- and mean-wind-speed methodologies and covers the three main storm types, synoptic winds, thunderstorms and tropical cyclones (hurricanes and typhoons). ISO 4354:2008 provides the basic methods from which to determine wind loading analytically through the determination of design pressures or orthogonal along-wind and cross-wind forces and moments for structures of simple shape and wind directionality effects, and through wind tunnel or computational determinations of pressure, forces and moments for structures with complex shapes and wind directionality effects resulting in complex combinations of forces and moments. Two methods of analytical determination of design wind loads are given, one based on a peak velocity and the other on a mean velocity.

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ISO 13823:2008 specifies general principles and recommends procedures for the verification of the durability of structures subject to known or foreseeable environmental actions, including mechanical actions, causing material degradation leading to failure of performance. It is necessary to insure reliability of performance throughout the design service life of the structure. Fatigue failure due to cyclic stress is not within the scope of ISO 13823:2008.

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ISO 10137:2007 gives recommendations on the evaluation of serviceability against vibrations of buildings, and walkways within buildings or connecting them or outside of buildings. It covers three recipients of vibrations: human occupancy in buildings and on walkways; the contents of the building; the structure of the building. It does not include bridges that carry vehicular traffic, even in conjunction with pedestrian traffic, nor the design of foundations or supporting structures of machinery.

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ISO 21650:2007 describes the principles of determining the wave and current actions on structures of the following types in the coastal zone and estuaries: breakwaters: rubble mound breakwaters; vertical and composite breakwaters; wave screens; floating breakwaters; coastal dykes; seawalls; cylindrical structures (jetties, dolphins, lighthouses, pipelines etc.). ISO 21650:2007 does not include breakwater layout for harbours, layout of structures to manage sediment transport, scour and beach stability or the response of flexible dynamic structures, except vortex induced vibrations. Design will be performed at different levels of detail: concepts; feasibility; detailed design. ISO 21650:2007 is aimed at serving the detailed design.

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This standard specifies the equations to be used in a simulation method for calculating the non steady transfer of heat and moisture through building structures.  
It also provides a benchmark example intended to be used for validating a simulation method claiming conformity with this standard, together with the allowed tolerances.
The equations in this standard take account of the following storage and one-dimensional transport phenomena:
-   heat storage in dry building materials and absorbed water;
-   heat transport by moisture-dependent thermal conduction;
-   latent heat transfer by vapour diffusion;
-   moisture storage by vapour sorption and capillary forces;
-   moisture transport by vapour diffusion;
-   moisture transport by liquid transport (surface diffusion and capillary flow).
The equations described in this standard account for the following climatic variables:
-   internal and external temperature;
-   internal and external humidity;
-   solar and longwave radiation;
-   precipitation (normal and driving rain);
-   wind speed and direction.
The hygrothermal equations described in this standard shall not be applied in cases where:
-   convection takes place through holes and cracks;
-   two-dimensional effects play an important part (e.g. rising damp, conditions around thermal bridges, effect of gravitational forces);
•   hydraulic, osmotic, electrophoretic forces are present;
daily mean temperatures in the component exceed 50 °C.

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ISO 23469:2005 provides guidelines for specifying seismic actions for designing geotechnical works, including buried structures (e.g. buried tunnels, box culverts, pipelines, and underground storage facilities), foundations (e.g. shallow and deep foundations, and underground diaphragm walls), retaining walls (e.g. soil retaining and quay walls), pile-supported wharves and piers, earth structures (e.g. earth and rockfill dams and embankments), gravity dams, landfill and waste sites. The guidelines provided in ISO 23469:2005 are general enough to be applicable for both new and existing geotechnical works. However, for use in practice, procedures more specific to existing geotechnical works can be needed, such as those described for existing structures in ISO 13822.

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Fixes the equivalence of the principal terms used in the field of reliability of structures, in different languages (English, French, Russian and German). An annex contains approximate but simple definitions of, and commentary on, the terms listed, gives indications about their use and quotes the corresponding symbols and subscripts.

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This International Standard defines a range of climatological data required for building design, gives guidance on methods of measurement and proposes symbols to designate them. It does not deal with suffixes or concepts combining several types of data, or values derived from basic data such as degree-days or characteristic wind speed. The definitions and symbols given in this International Standard aim to harmonize the expression of climatological data which may be drawn on when drafting regulatory and standard documents and when definitions and symbols are required for building design and construction.

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Deals with pressure conditions in hoppers, bunkers, bins and silos constructed using normal structural engineering materials. For the purposes of definition, the term silo is used to represent all forms of storage. All parameters given shall be agreed with the client and written into all contract documents. Design of the silo shall be checked if any of the criteria given are changed.

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Defines the actions due to the self-weight of structures, non-structural elements and stored materials and gives the numerical values of their densities. These actions are to be determined by multiplying the densities by the gravitational acceleration and by the actual volume. The actions caused by the weight of the earth placed on the structures are similarly calculated.

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Indicates the lowest nominal values of loads due to use and occupancy in residential and public buildings. These values are the most unfavourable values for certain conditions of normal use of a building. Gives also the lowest nominal values of uniformly distributed loads, the reduction of uniformly distributed loads, and horizontal loads.

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Specifies methods of determining imposed floor loads to be adopted for certain functions of production buildings and warehouses, for design-calculation purposes. Indicates definitions, establishing of imposed floor loads, minimum imposed floor loads and reduction of imposed floor loads.

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This specifies the test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members for vertical protective membranes.

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This specifies the test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members for horizontal protective membranes.

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This specifies the test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members for applied protection to concrete filled hollow steel columns.

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This specifies the test methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of structural members for applied protection to concrete/profiled sheet steel composite members.

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This Part of this European Standard specifies a test method for determining the ability of a horizontal protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance of standard horizontal structural building members as defined in section 6.4.2 of this standard. Test of horizontal protective membrane installed under a specific non-standard floor shall be tested according to EN 1365-2. This European Standard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which are carried out whereby the horizontal protective membrane, together with the structural member to be protected, is exposed to a fire test according to the procedures defined herein. The fire exposure, to the temperature/time curve given in EN 1363-1, is applied from below the membrane itself.

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ISO 15928-2:2015 sets out a method for describing the structural serviceability performance of houses. It covers objectives, provides performance descriptions, establishes parameter descriptions and outlines evaluation processes. ISO 15928-2:2015 is intended for use in the evaluation of the design and construction of houses, in the international trading of houses or their sub-systems, and in developing risk-management tools for the protection of houses. The ISO 15928‑ series does not specify a level of performance and it is not intended to provide a design method and/or criteria. NOTE 1 Annex A includes background information on this part of ISO 15928, guidance on its use, and suggestions on good practice. NOTE 2 Details on references referred to in Notes are provided in a Bibliography. NOTE 3 Structural safety, durability and other attributes are covered in other parts of ISO 15928.

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This Part of this European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the ability of a horizontal protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance of horizontal structural building members.
This European Technical Specification contains the fire test which specifies the tests which are carried out whereby the horizontal protective membrane, together with the structural member to be protected, is exposed to a fire test according to the procedures defined herein. The fire exposure, to the temperature/time curve given in EN 1363-1, is applied to the side which would be exposed in practice and from below the membrane itself.
The test method makes provision, through specified optional additional procedures, for the collection of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance according to the processes given within EN 1992-1-2, EN 1993-1-2, EN 1994-1-2 and EN 1995-1-2.
A related test method for determining the contribution to the fire protection of vertical structural members by vertical protective membranes is given in Part 2 of this ENV.
This European Technical Specification also contains the assessment which provides information relative to the analysis of the test data and gives guidance for the interpretation of the results of the fire test, in terms of loadbearing capacity criteria of the protected horizontal structural member.
The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with permitted direct application of the results to different structures, membranes and fittings.
This European Technical Specification applies only where there is a gap and a cavity between the horizontal protective membrane and the structural building member. Otherwise the test methods in ENV 13381-3, ENV 13381-4 or ENV 13381-5, as appropriate, apply.
Tests shall be carried out without additional combustible materials in the cavity.

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This part of this European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the ability of a vertical protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance of loadbearing vertical structural building members fabricated from steel, concrete, steel / concrete composites or timber. The method described is applicable to any type of vertical protective membrane, which can be associated with a separate bracing membrane.
The vertical protective membrane can be separate from the structural building member and be self-supporting or can be attached to the structural building member and can form part of any load bearing structure. This test method is applicable to vertical protective membranes where there is a separating gap of at least 5 mm size between the vertical protective membrane and the structural building member, otherwise alternative test methods prENV 13381-3, prENV 13381-4, prENV 13381-6 or prENV 13381-7 should be used as appropriate
This test method and assessment is not applicable to the following:
a)    all situations where the cavity behind the vertical protective membrane contains more than a specified amount of combustible materials, e.g. electrical cables and pipes, other than where timber structural members themselves are required;
b)   all situations where the cavity is to be used as a service or ventilation shaft;
c)   all situations where the vertical protective membrane acts as a bracing membrane.
This European Prestandard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which should be carried out whereby the vertical protective membrane together with the structural member to be protected is exposed to the specified fire. The fire exposure, to the standard temperature/time curve given in EN 1363-1, is applied to the side which would be exposed in practice.
The test method makes provision, through specified optional additional procedures, for the collection of data which can be used as direct

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This European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the contribu-tion of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural concrete/profiled sheet steel composite members or slabs. The concrete can be lightweight, normal-weight or heavy-weight concrete and of strength classes 20/25 (LC/C/HC) to 50/60 (LC/C/HC).
The method is applicable to all fire protection systems used for the protection of such structural composite members or slabs and includes sprayed fire protection, coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials.
The test method and its assessment procedure are designed to permit direct application of the results to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material.
The test method is only applicable to fire protection systems which are fixed directly to the underside of the concrete/steel composite member or slab. Fire protection systems where the fire protection material is not attached directly to the composite member, leading to a continuous cavity between the concrete/steel composite member and the fire protection system of size greater than 5 mm is the subject of prENV 13381-1.
This European Prestandard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which shall be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain coherent and fixed to the composite member and to provide data on the temperatures of the steel sheet, throughout the depth of the concrete (for extended application purposes) and the unexposed surface of the concrete, when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve according to the procedures defined herein.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering curve. The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in annex A.
The fire test methodology makes provision for the colle

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This European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the contribu-tion of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural concrete/profiled sheet steel composite members or slabs. The concrete can be lightweight, normal-weight or heavy-weight concrete and of strength classes 20/25 (LC/C/HC) to 50/60 (LC/C/HC).
The method is applicable to all fire protection systems used for the protection of such structural composite members or slabs and includes sprayed fire protection, coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials.
The test method and its assessment procedure are designed to permit direct application of the results to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material.
The test method is only applicable to fire protection systems which are fixed directly to the underside of the concrete/steel composite member or slab. Fire protection systems where the fire protection material is not attached directly to the composite member, leading to a continuous cavity between the concrete/steel composite member and the fire protection system of size greater than 5 mm is the subject of prENV 13381-1.
This European Prestandard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which shall be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain coherent and fixed to the composite member and to provide data on the temperatures of the steel sheet, throughout the depth of the concrete (for extended application purposes) and the unexposed surface of the concrete, when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve according to the procedures defined herein.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering curve. The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in annex A.
The fire test methodology makes provision for the colle

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This Part of this European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the ability of a horizontal protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance of horizontal structural building members.
This European Technical Specification contains the fire test which specifies the tests which are carried out whereby the horizontal protective membrane, together with the structural member to be protected, is exposed to a fire test according to the procedures defined herein. The fire exposure, to the temperature/time curve given in EN 1363-1, is applied to the side which would be exposed in practice and from below the membrane itself.
The test method makes provision, through specified optional additional procedures, for the collection of data which can be used as direct input to the calculation of fire resistance according to the processes given within EN 1992-1-2, EN 1993-1-2, EN 1994-1-2 and EN 1995-1-2.
A related test method for determining the contribution to the fire protection of vertical structural members by vertical protective membranes is given in Part 2 of this ENV.
This European Technical Specification also contains the assessment which provides information relative to the analysis of the test data and gives guidance for the interpretation of the results of the fire test, in terms of loadbearing capacity criteria of the protected horizontal structural member.
The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined, together with permitted direct application of the results to different structures, membranes and fittings.
This European Technical Specification applies only where there is a gap and a cavity between the horizontal protective membrane and the structural building member. Otherwise the test methods in ENV 13381-3, ENV 13381-4 or ENV 13381-5, as appropriate, apply.
Tests shall be carried out without additional combustible materials in the cavity.

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This part of this European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the ability of a vertical protective membrane, when used as a fire resistant barrier, to contribute to the fire resistance of loadbearing vertical structural building members fabricated from steel, concrete, steel / concrete composites or timber. The method described is applicable to any type of vertical protective membrane, which can be associated with a separate bracing membrane.
The vertical protective membrane can be separate from the structural building member and be self-supporting or can be attached to the structural building member and can form part of any load bearing structure. This test method is applicable to vertical protective membranes where there is a separating gap of at least 5 mm size between the vertical protective membrane and the structural building member, otherwise alternative test methods prENV 13381-3, prENV 13381-4, prENV 13381-6 or prENV 13381-7 should be used as appropriate
This test method and assessment is not applicable to the following:
a)    all situations where the cavity behind the vertical protective membrane contains more than a specified amount of combustible materials, e.g. electrical cables and pipes, other than where timber structural members themselves are required;
b)   all situations where the cavity is to be used as a service or ventilation shaft;
c)   all situations where the vertical protective membrane acts as a bracing membrane.
This European Prestandard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which should be carried out whereby the vertical protective membrane together with the structural member to be protected is exposed to the specified fire. The fire exposure, to the standard temperature/time curve given in EN 1363-1, is applied to the side which would be exposed in practice.
The test method makes provision, through specified optional additional procedures, for the collection of data which can be used as direct

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This Part of this European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the contribu-tion of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural concrete filled hollow steel columns. The concrete can be lightweight, normal-weight or heavy-weight concrete and of strength classes 20/25 (LC/C/HC) to 50/60 (LC/C/HC).
The method is applicable to all fire protection systems used for the protection of such structural columns and includes sprayed fire protection, coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials.
The test method and its assessment procedure is designed to permit direct application of the results to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material.
The test method is only applicable to fire protection systems which are fixed directly to the structural column. Fire protection systems where the fire protection material is not attached directly to the composite column, leading to a continuous cavity between the column and the fire protection material of size greater than 5 mm are the subject of prENV 13381-2.
This European Prestandard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which should be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain coherent and fixed to the composite column and to provide data on the temperatures of the outer steel surface of the composite column, when exposed to the standard time/temperature curve according to the procedures defined herein.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering curve.  The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in annex A.
This exposure, applicable to reactive fire protection materials, is used only in special circumstances, where specified in the national building regulations of a member state of the European Union, and is not intended to be ma

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This Part of this European Prestandard specifies a test method for determining the contribu-tion of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural concrete filled hollow steel columns. The concrete can be lightweight, normal-weight or heavy-weight concrete and of strength classes 20/25 (LC/C/HC) to 50/60 (LC/C/HC).
The method is applicable to all fire protection systems used for the protection of such structural columns and includes sprayed fire protection, coatings, cladding protection systems and multi-layer or composite fire protection materials.
The test method and its assessment procedure is designed to permit direct application of the results to cover a range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection material.
The test method is only applicable to fire protection systems which are fixed directly to the structural column. Fire protection systems where the fire protection material is not attached directly to the composite column, leading to a continuous cavity between the column and the fire protection material of size greater than 5 mm are the subject of prENV 13381-2.
This European Prestandard contains the fire test which specifies the tests which should be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain coherent and fixed to the composite column and to provide data on the temperatures of the outer steel surface of the composite column, when exposed to the standard time/temperature curve according to the procedures defined herein.
In special circumstances, where specified in national building regulations, there can be a need to subject reactive protection material to a smouldering curve.  The test for this and the special circumstances for its use are detailed in annex A.
This exposure, applicable to reactive fire protection materials, is used only in special circumstances, where specified in the national building regulations of a member state of the European Union, and is not intended to be ma

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