This document gives guidelines and recommendations for the general principles of design appropriate to articles to be hot dip galvanized after fabrication (e.g. in accordance with ISO 1461) for the corrosion protection of, for example, articles that have been manufactured in accordance with EN 1090-2.
This document does not apply to hot dip galvanized coatings applied to continuous wire or sheet (e.g. to EN 10346).

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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements for the execution of aluminium structural components and structures made from:
a)   rolled sheet, strip and plate;
b)   extrusions;
c)   cold drawn rod, bar and tube;
d)   forgings;
e)   castings.
NOTE 1   The execution of structural components is referred to as manufacturing, in accordance with EN 1090-1.
This European Standard specifies requirements independent of the type and shape of the aluminium structure, and this European Standard is applicable to structures under predominantly static loads as well as structures subject to fatigue. It specifies requirements related to the execution classes that are linked with consequence classes.
NOTE 2   Consequence classes are defined in EN 1990.
NOTE 3   Recommendations for selection of execution class in relation to consequence class are given in EN 1999-1-1.
This European Standard covers components made of constituent products with thickness not less than 0,6 mm for welded components not less than 1,5 mm.
For components made from cold formed profiled sheeting that are within the scope of FprEN 1090-5, the requirements of FprEN 1090-5 take precedence over corresponding requirements in this European Standard.
This European Standard applies to structures designed according to the relevant parts of EN 1999. If this European Standard is used for structures designed according to other design rules or used for other alloys and tempers not covered by EN 1999, a judgement of the reliability elements in these design rules should be made.
This European Standard specifies requirements for surface preparation prior to application of a protective treatment, and gives guidelines for application for such treatment in an informative annex.
This European Standard gives options for specifying requirements to match project specific requirements.
This European Standard is also applicable to temporary aluminium structures.

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This document specifies requirements for the execution of aluminium structural components and structures made from:
a)   rolled sheet, strip and plate;
b)   extrusions;
c)   cold drawn rod, bar and tube;
d)   forgings;
e)   castings.
NOTE 1   The execution of structural components is referred to as manufacturing, in accordance with EN 1090-1.
This document specifies requirements independent of the type and shape of the aluminium structure, and this document is applicable to structures under predominantly static loads as well as structures subject to fatigue. It specifies requirements related to the execution classes that are linked with consequence classes.
NOTE 2   Consequence classes are defined in EN 1990.
NOTE 3   Recommendations for selection of execution class in relation to consequence class are given in EN 1999-1-1.
This document covers components made of constituent products with thickness not less than 0,6 mm for welded components not less than 1,5 mm.
For components made from cold formed profiled sheeting that are within the scope of EN 1090-5, the requirements of EN 1090-5 take precedence over corresponding requirements in this document.
This document applies to structures designed according to the relevant parts of EN 1999. If this document is used for structures designed according to other design rules or used for other alloys and tempers not covered by EN 1999, a judgement of the reliability elements in these design rules is intended to be made.
This document specifies requirements for surface preparation prior to application of a protective treatment, and gives guidelines for application for such treatment in an informative annex.
This document gives options for specifying requirements to match project specific requirements.
This document is also applicable to temporary aluminium structures.

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This Standard defines the requirements for the manufacture of thingauge cold-formed steel elements, the execution of structures made from such elements (e.g. roofs, coverings, walls, floors, ceilings and purlins) under predominantly static loading conditions and corresponding requirements to documentation. It does cover products of construction class I and II according to EN 1993-1-3 used in structures

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This European Standard specifies requirements for the execution, i.e. the manufacture and the installation, of cold-formed structural steel members and sheeting and cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor, wall and cladding applications.
This European Standard applies to structures designed according to the EN 1993 series.
This European Standard applies to structural members and sheeting to be designed according to EN 1993 1 3.
This European Standard may be used for structures designed according to other design rules provided that conditions for execution comply with them and any necessary additional requirements are specified.
This European Standard also specifies requirements for the execution i.e. the manufacture and the installation of structures made from cold formed profiled sheeting for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications under predominately static loading or seismic loading conditions and their documentation.
This European Standard covers sheeting of structural classes I and II according to EN 1993 1 3 used in structures.
This European Standard covers structural members of all structural classes according to EN 1993 1 3.
Structural sheeting are understood here to be:
-   profiled sheet, such as trapezoidal, sinusoidal or liner trays (Figure 1), or
Structural members are understood here to be:
-   members (linear profiled cross sections) that are produced by cold forming (Figure 2).
This European Standard also covers:
-   not welded built-up sections (Figure 2b and 2c);
-   cold-formed hollow sections including the welding of the longitudinal seam, not covered by EN 10219 1;
-   perforated, punctured and micro profiled sheeting and members;
NOTE 1   Welded built-up sections, are not covered, the execution provisions are given in EN 1090–2.
This European Standard also covers spacer constructions between the outer and inner or upper and lower skins for roofs, walls and ceilings made from cold-formed profiled sheeting and the connections and attachments of the afore mentioned elements as long as all are involved in load transfer.
This European Standard covers steel profiled sheeting for composite floors, e.g. during installation and in stage of pouring concrete.
Composite structural members where the interaction between dissimilar materials are an integral part of the structural behaviour such as sandwich panels and composite floors are not covered by this standard.
This European Standard does not cover the necessary analyses and detailing and execution rules for thermal insulation, moisture protection, noise control and fire protection.
This European Standard does not cover regulations of roof cladding and wall cladding, produced by traditional plumber methods or tinsmith methods.
Annex B of this standard concerns provisions which are not yet included in EN 1993 1 3. The guidelines in this annex may be wholly or partially superseded by future guidelines added to EN 1993.
This European Standard does not cover detailed requirements for water tightness or air permeability resistance and thermal aspects of sheeting.
NOTE 2   The structures covered in this standard can be for example
-   single- or multi-skin roofs, whereby the load-bearing structure (lower skin) or the actual roof covering (upper skin) or both consist of cold-formed structural members and sheeting;
-   single- or multi-skin walls whereby the load-bearing structure (inner skin), the actual cladding (outer skin) or both consist of cold-formed structural members and sheeting, or
-   trusses from cold formed members.
NOTE 3   Structures can consist of an assembly of structural members and sheeting made of steel according to EN 1090–4 and of aluminium according to EN 1090-5.

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The standard defines the requirements for the manufacture of thin-gauge cold-formed aluminium elements, the execution of structures made from such elements (e.g. roofs, coverings, walls, florors, ceilings and purlins) under predominantly static loading conditions and corresponding requirements to documentation

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ISO 14713-1:2017 provides guidelines and recommendations regarding the general principles of design which are appropriate for articles to be zinc coated for corrosion protection and the level of corrosion resistance provided by zinc coatings applied to iron or steel articles, exposed to a variety of environments. Initial protection is covered in relation to
-      available standard processes,
-      design considerations, and
-      environments for use.
ISO 14713-1:2017 applies to zinc coatings applied by the following processes:
a)    hot dip galvanized coatings (applied after fabrication);
b)    hot dip galvanized coatings (applied onto continuous sheet);
c)    sherardized coatings;
d)    thermal sprayed coatings;
e)    mechanically plated coatings;
f)     electrodeposited coatings.
These guidelines and recommendations do not deal with the maintenance of corrosion protection in service for steel with zinc coatings. Guidance on this subject can be found in ISO 12944‑5 and ISO 12944‑8.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for the execution i.e. the manufacture and the installation of cold-formed structural aluminium components made from profiled sheeting for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications under predominately static loading conditions or seismic loading conditions and their documentation. It does cover products of structural class I and II according to EN 1999-1-4 used in structures.
Structural elements are understood here to mean profiled sheeting, such as trapezoidal, sinusoidal, liner trays or cassette profiles (Figure 1), that are produced by cold forming. Perforated and micro profiled sheeting are also covered by this part.
Welded sections are excluded from this part and are covered by EN 1090-3 except seal welding in low-stress areas.
This standard also covers spacer constructions between the outer and inner or upper and lower skins as well as supporting members for roofs, walls and ceilings made from cold-formed profiled sheeting and the connections and attachments of the afore mentioned elements as long as they are involved in load transfer, it also covers connections and attachments of these elements.
A combination of steel and aluminium structural elements are permitted, e.g. liner trays made of steel, stiffened by profiles made of aluminium. In this case, EN 1090-4 and this document apply.
Composite structural elements where the interaction between dissimilar materials are an integral part of the structural behaviour such as sandwich panels and composite floors are not covered by this standard.
NOTE   The structures covered in this standard can be for example
-   single- or multi-skin roofs, whereby the load-bearing structure (lower skin) as well as the actual roof covering (upper skin) or both consist of structural elements;
-   single- or multi-skin walls whereby the load-bearing structure (inner skin) as well as the actual cladding (outer skin) or both consist of structural elements; or
-   suspended ceilings for interior fitting.

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The scope of EN 1090-1:2009+A1:2011 states that the standard covers structural components and kits which are referred to as structural construction products in this document. This Technical Report gives information that clarifies when a structural construction product is covered by the scope of EN 1090-1:2009+A1:2011 and lists examples of products covered and not covered.

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures" - European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures - prEN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 - prEN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5 EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

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(1)   EN 1999-1-1 gives basic design rules for structures made of wrought aluminium alloys and limited guidance for cast alloys (see section 3).
NOTE   Minimum material thickness may be defined in the National Annex. The following limits are recommended – if not otherwise explicitly stated in this standard:
-   components with material thickness not less than 0,6 mm;
-   welded components with material thickness not less than 1,5 mm;
-   connections with:
o   steel bolts and pins with diameter not less than 5 mm;
o   aluminium bolts and pins with diameter not less than 8 mm;
o   rivets and thread forming screws with diameter not less than 4,2 mm
(2)   The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1999-1-1:
Section 1:   General
Section 2:   Basis of design
Section 3:   Materials
Section 4:   Durability
Section 5:   Structural analysis
Section 6:   Ultimate limit states for members
Section 7:   Serviceability limit states
Section 8:   Design of joints
Annex A    Execution classes
Annex B   Equivalent T-stub in tension
Annex C    Materials selection
Annex D   Corrosion and surface protection
Annex E    Analytical models for stress strain relationship
Annex F    Behaviour of cross section beyond elastic limit
Annex G    Rotation capacity
Annex H    Plastic hinge method for continuous beams
Annex I    Lateral torsional buckling of beams and torsional or flexural-torsional buckling of compression members
Annex J    Properties of cross sections
Annex K    Shear lag effects in member design
Annex L    Classification of connections
Annex M   Adhesive bonded connections
(3)   Sections 1 to 2 provide additional clauses to those given in EN 1990 “Basis of structural design”.
(4)   Section 3 deals with material properties of products made of structural aluminium alloys.
(5)   Section 4 gives general rules for durability.
(6)   Section 5 refers to the structural analysis of structures, in which the members can be modelled with sufficient accuracy as line elements for global analysis.
(7)   Section 6 g

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This European Standard specifies requirements for conformity assessment of performance characteristics for structural steel and aluminium components as well as for kits placed on the market as construction products. The conformity assessment covers the manufacturing characteristics, and where appropriate the structural design characteristics. This European Standard covers also the conformity assessment of steel components used in composite steel and concrete structures.
The components can be used directly or in construction works or as structural components in the form of kits. This European Standard applies to series and non-series structural components including kits. The components can be made of hot rolled or cold formed constituent products or constituent products produced with other technologies. They may be produced of sections/profiles with various shapes, flat products (plates, sheet, strip), bars, castings, forgings made of steel and aluminium materials, unprotected or protected against corrosion by coating or other surface treatment, e.g. anodising of aluminium. This European Standard covers structural cold formed members and sheeting as defined in EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1999-1-4. This European Standard does not cover conformity assessment of components for suspended ceilings, rails or sleepers for use in railway systems. NOTE   For certain steel and aluminium components, particular specifications for performance and other requirements have been developed. The particular specifications may be issued as an EN or as Clauses within an EN. An example is given in EN 13084-7 for single wall steel chimneys and steel liners. Such particular specifications will take precedence in case of non-compliance with the requirements of this European Standard.

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(1) EN 1999-1-3 gives the basis for the design of aluminium alloy structures with respect to the limit state of fracture induced by fatigue.
(2) EN 1999-1-3 gives rules for:
-   Safe life design;
-   damage tolerant design;
-   design assisted by testing.
(3) EN 1999-1-3 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1090-3 "Technical requirements for the execution of aluminium structures" which contains the requirements necessary for the design assumptions to be met during execution of components and structures.
(4) EN 1999-1-3 does not cover pressurised containment vessels or pipe-work.

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures" - European Standards construction products relevant for aluminium structures - EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 - EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5 EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures" - European Standards construction products relevant for aluminium structures - EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 - EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5 EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for conformity assessment of performance characteristics for structural steel and aluminium components as well as for kits placed on the market as construction products. The conformity assessment covers the manufacturing characteristics, and where appropriate the structural design characteristics.
This European Standard covers also the conformity assessment of steel components used in composite steel and concrete structures.
The components can be used directly or in construction works or as structural components in the form of kits.
This European Standard applies to series and non-series structural components including kits.
The components can be made of hot rolled or cold formed constituent products or constituent products produced with other technologies. They may be produced of sections/profiles with various shapes, flat products (plates, sheet, strip), bars, castings, forgings made of steel and aluminium materials, unprotected or protected against corrosion by coating or other surface treatment, e.g. anodising of aluminium.
This European Standard covers structural cold formed members and sheeting as defined in EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1999-1-4.
This European Standard does not cover conformity assessment of components for suspended ceilings, rails or sleepers for use in railway systems.
NOTE   For certain steel and aluminium components, particular specifications for performance and other requirements have been developed. The particular specifications may be issued as an EN or as Clauses within an EN. An example is given in EN 13084-7 for single wall steel chimneys and steel liners. Such particular specifications will take precedence in case of non-compliance with the requirements of this European Standard.

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(1)P   EN 1999-1-4 gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to cold-formed aluminium products made from hot rolled or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been cold-formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking. The execution of aluminium structures made of cold-formed sheeting is covered in EN 1090-3.
NOTE   The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1.
(2)   Methods are also given for stressed-skin design using aluminium sheeting as a structural diaphragm.
(3)   This part does not apply to cold-formed alumi¬nium profiles like C-, Z- etc profiles nor cold-formed and welded circular or rectangular hollow sections.
(4)   EN 1999-1-4 gives methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for the design by calculation apply only within stated ranges of material properties and geometrical properties for which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design by testing.
(5)   EN 1999-1-4 does not cover load arrangement for loads during execution and main-tenance.

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(1) EN 1999-1-3 gives the basis for the design of aluminium alloy structures with respect to the limit state of fracture induced by fatigue.
(2) EN 1999-1-3 gives rules for:
-   Safe life design;
-   damage tolerant design;
-   design assisted by testing.
(3) EN 1999-1-3 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1090-3 "Technical requirements for the execution of aluminium structures" which contains the requirements necessary for the design assumptions to be met during execution of components and structures.
(4) EN 1999-1-3 does not cover pressurised containment vessels or pipe-work.

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures" - European Standards construction products relevant for aluminium structures - EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 - EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5 EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

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TC - Modifications to Subclauses A.1.3.1, A.1.3.2 and A.1.4.2 in the E mother reference version.

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures", all relevant parts European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures - EN 1998 "Design of structures for earthquake resistance", where aluminium structures are built in seismic regions EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: - EN 1999-1-1 Design of aluminium structures: General structural rules - EN 1999-1-2 Design of aluminium structures: - Structural fire design - EN 1999-1-3 Design of aluminium structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue - EN 1999-1-4 Design of aluminium structures: Cold formed structural sheeting - EN 1999-1-5 Design of aluminium structures: Shell structures.

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TC - Modifications to Subclauses A.1.3.1, A.1.3.2 and A.1.4.2 in the E mother reference version.
2013: Originator of XML version: first setup pilot of CCMC in 2012

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TC - Modifications to Subclauses 1.2.3, 3.2.1, 5.5.4.3 and to Clause A.1 in the E mother refernce version.
2013: Originator of XML version: first setup pilot of CCMC in 2012

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TC - Modifications in 1.2, 4.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.3, 4.2.2.4, 4.2.3.1, 4.2.3.3 and B.5.1.3 in the E mother reference version - Building and civil engineering.
2013: Originator of XML version: first setup pilot of CCMC in 2012

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures" - European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures - prEN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 - prEN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5 EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

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2009-07-14 SJ: DOP of 12 months!
2013: Originator of XML version: first setup pilot of CCMC in 2012

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1.1.1   Scope of EN 1999
(1) P EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 – Basis of structural design.
(2) EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.
(3) EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   EN 1990 Basis of structural design
-   EN 1991 Actions on structures
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Conformity assessment of structural components )
-   EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures )
(4) EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts:
EN 1999-1-1   Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules
EN 1999-1-2   Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design
EN 1999-1-3   Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue
EN 1999-1-4   Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting
EN 1999-1-5   Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures
1.1.2   Scope of EN 1999-1-3
(1) EN 1999-1-3 gives the basis for the design of aluminium alloy structures with respect to the limit state of fracture induced by fatigue.
(2) EN 1999-1-3 gives rules for:
-   Safe life design;
-   damage tolerant design;
-   design assisted by testing.
(3) EN 1999-1-3 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1090-3 -Technical requirements for the execution of aluminium structures- which contains the requirements necessary for the design assumptions to be met during execution of components and structures.
(4) EN 1999-1-3 does not cover pre

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1.1.1   Scope of EN 1999
(1) P EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 – Basis of structural design.
(2) EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.
(3) EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   EN 1990 Basis of structural design
-   EN 1991 Actions on structures
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Conformity assessment of structural components )
-   EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures )
(4) EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts:
EN 1999-1-1   Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules
EN 1999-1-2   Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design
EN 1999-1-3   Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue
EN 1999-1-4   Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting
EN 1999-1-5   Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures
1.1.2   Scope of EN 1999-1-3
(1) EN 1999-1-3 gives the basis for the design of aluminium alloy structures with respect to the limit state of fracture induced by fatigue.
(2) EN 1999-1-3 gives rules for:
-   Safe life design;
-   damage tolerant design;
-   design assisted by testing.
(3) EN 1999-1-3 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1090-3 -Technical requirements for the execution of aluminium structures- which contains the requirements necessary for the design assumptions to be met during execution of components and structures.
(4) EN 1999-1-3 does not cover pre

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(1)   EN 1999-1-1 gives basic design rules for structures made of wrought aluminium alloys and limited guidance for cast alloys (see section 3).
NOTE   Minimum material thickness may be defined in the National Annex. The following limits are recommended – if not otherwise explicitly stated in this standard:
-   components with material thickness not less than 0,6 mm;
-   welded components with material thickness not less than 1,5 mm;
-   connections with:
o   steel bolts and pins with diameter not less than 5 mm;
o   aluminium bolts and pins with diameter not less than 8 mm;
o   rivets and thread forming screws with diameter not less than 4,2 mm
(2)   The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1999-1-1:
Section 1:   General
Section 2:   Basis of design
Section 3:   Materials
Section 4:   Durability
Section 5:   Structural analysis
Section 6:   Ultimate limit states for members
Section 7:   Serviceability limit states
Section 8:   Design of joints
Annex A    Execution classes
Annex B   Equivalent T-stub in tension
Annex C    Materials selection
Annex D   Corrosion and surface protection
Annex E    Analytical models for stress strain relationship
Annex F    Behaviour of cross section beyond elastic limit
Annex G    Rotation capacity
Annex H    Plastic hinge method for continuous beams
Annex I    Lateral torsional buckling of beams and torsional or flexural-torsional buckling of compression members
Annex J    Properties of cross sections
Annex K    Shear lag effects in member design
Annex L    Classification of connections
Annex M   Adhesive bonded connections
(3)   Sections 1 to 2 provide additional clauses to those given in EN 1990 “Basis of structural design”.
(4)   Section 3 deals with material properties of products made of structural aluminium alloys.
(5)   Section 4 gives general rules for durability.
(6)   Section 5 refers to the structural analysis of structures, in which the members can be modelled with sufficient accuracy as line elements for global analysis.
(7)   Section 6 g

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures", all relevant parts European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures - EN 1998 "Design of structures for earthquake resistance", where aluminium structures are built in seismic regions EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: - EN 1999-1-1 Design of aluminium structures: General structural rules - EN 1999-1-2 Design of aluminium structures: - Structural fire design - EN 1999-1-3 Design of aluminium structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue - EN 1999-1-4 Design of aluminium structures: Cold formed structural sheeting - EN 1999-1-5 Design of aluminium structures: Shell structures.

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design. EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with: - EN 1990 "Basis of structural design" - EN 1991 "Actions on structures" - European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures - prEN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components5 - prEN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures5 EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts: EN 1999-1-1 Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules. EN 1999-1-2 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design. EN 1999-1-3 Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue. EN 1999-1-4 Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting. EN 1999-1-5 Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.

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(1)P   EN 1999-1-5 applies to the structural design of aluminium structures, stiffened and unstiffened, that have the form of a shell of revolution or of a round panel in monocoque structures.
(2)   The relevant parts of EN 1999 should be followed for specific application rules for structural design.
(3)   Supplementary information for certain types of shells are given in EN 1993-1-6 and the relevant application parts which include:
-  Part 3-1 for towers and masts;
-  Part 3-2 for chimneys;
-  Part 4-1 for silos;
-  Part 4-2 for tanks;
-  Part 4-3 for pipelines.
(4)   The provisions in EN 1999-1-5 apply to axisymmetric shells (cylinders, cones, spheres) and associated circular or annular plates and beam section rings and stringer stiffeners where they form part of the complete structure.
(5)   Single shell panels (cylindrical, conical or spherical) are not explicitly covered by EN 1999-1-5. However, the provisions can be applicable if the appropriate boundary conditions are duly taken into account.

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(1)P   EN 1999-1-5 applies to the structural design of aluminium structures, stiffened and unstiffened, that have the form of a shell of revolution or of a round panel in monocoque structures.
(2)   The relevant parts of EN 1999 should be followed for specific application rules for structural design.
(3)   Supplementary information for certain types of shells are given in EN 1993-1-6 and the relevant application parts which include:
-  Part 3-1 for towers and masts;
-  Part 3-2 for chimneys;
-  Part 4-1 for silos;
-  Part 4-2 for tanks;
-  Part 4-3 for pipelines.
(4)   The provisions in EN 1999-1-5 apply to axisymmetric shells (cylinders, cones, spheres) and associated circular or annular plates and beam section rings and stringer stiffeners where they form part of the complete structure.
(5)   Single shell panels (cylindrical, conical or spherical) are not explicitly covered by EN 1999-1-5. However, the provisions can be applicable if the appropriate boundary conditions are duly taken into account.

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1.1.1   Scope of EN 1999
(1)P   EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works in aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 - Basis of structural design.
(2)   EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resis¬tance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.
(3)   EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   EN 1990 "Basis of structural design"
-   EN 1991 "Actions on structures"
-   European Standards construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components
-   EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures
(4)   EN 1999 is subdivided in five parts:
EN 1999-1-1   Design of Aluminium Structures: General structural rules.
EN 1999-1-2   Design of Aluminium Structures: Structural fire design.
EN 1999-1-3   Design of Aluminium Structures: Structures susceptible to fatigue.
EN 1999-1-4   Design of Aluminium Structures: Cold-formed structural sheeting.
EN 1999-1-5   Design of Aluminium Structures: Shell structures.
1.1.2   Scope of EN 1999-1-4
(1)P   EN 1999-1-4 gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to cold-formed aluminium products made from hot rolled or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been cold-formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking. The execution of aluminium structures made of cold-formed sheeting is covered in EN 1090-3.
NOTE   The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1.
(2)   (...)

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Supplementary to Part 1-1. Additional and varied rules to be used for the design of aluminium alloys structures which are required to avoid premature structural collapse and to limit the spread of fire in the accidental situation of exposure to fire.

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This document specifies the safety requirements for planning, selection, production, intended use as well as testing of aluminium stage decks and frames that are capable of being used as aluminium stage decks, inclinations, steps and stairs; including railings for performance areas (stages) and stands.
This document deals with all of the significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events relevant to aluminium stage decks and frames when they are used as intended and under conditions of misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer.
If these products become components of a built environment, then structural requirements are expected to be taken into consideration.
This document does not apply to scaffolding used as substructures in stage and studio environments in accordance with the standard series EN 12810 and EN 12811 and not for fairground rides in accordance with EN 13814 1.

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This European standard provides product category rules (c-PCR), that are complementary to EN 15804, for Type III environmental declarations for steel components and aluminium components fabricated from steel or aluminium constituent products to be used for structural purposes in buildings and civil engineering works where their characteristic affects the mechanical resistance and stability of these construction works or parts thereof, where there does not exist a more specific specification for the product. This standard also provides guidance for other metal construction products where a specific PCR as EN standard does not exist.

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1.1 Scope of EN 1999-1-3
(1) This document gives the basis for the design of aluminium alloy structures subject to fatigue in the ultimate limit state.
(2) This document gives rules for:
- safe life design;
- damage tolerant design;
- design assisted by testing.
(3) This document does not cover pressurized containment vessels or pipework.
1.2 Assumptions
(1) The general assumptions of EN 1990 apply.
(2) The provisions of EN 1999-1-1 apply.
(3) EN 1999-1-3 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), relevant parts in EN 1992 to EN 1999, EN 1090-1 and EN 1090-3 for requirements for execution, and ENs, EADs and ETAs for construction products relevant to aluminium structures.

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1.1   Scope of EN 1999 1 5
(1)   EN 1999 1 5 applies to the structural design of aluminium structures, stiffened and unstiffened, that have the form of a shell of revolution or of a round panel in monocoque structures.
(2)   EN 1999 1 5 covers additional provisions to those given in the relevant parts of EN 1999 for design of aluminium structures.
NOTE    Supplementary information for certain types of shells is given in EN 1993 1 6 and the relevant application parts which include:
-   Part 3-1 for towers and masts;
-   Part 3-2 for chimneys;
-   Part 4-1 for silos;
-   Part 4-2 for tanks;
-   Part 4-3 for pipelines.
(4)   The provisions in EN 1999 1 5 apply to axisymmetric shells (cylinders, cones, spheres) and associated circular or annular plates, beam section rings and stringer stiffeners, where they form part of the complete structure.
(5)   Single shell panels (cylindrical, conical or spherical) are not explicitly covered by EN 1999 1 5. However, the provisions can be applicable if the appropriate boundary conditions are duly taken into account.
(6)   Types of shell walls covered in EN 1999 1 5 can be (see Figure 1.1):
-   shell wall constructed from flat rolled sheet with adjacent plates connected with butt welds, termed ‘isotropic’;
-   shell wall with lap joints formed by connecting adjacent plates with overlapping sections, termed lap-jointed;
-   shell wall with stiffeners attached to the outside, termed ‘externally stiffened’ irrespective of the spacing of stiffeners;
-   shell wall with the corrugations running up the meridian, termed ‘axially corrugated’;
-   shell wall constructed from corrugated sheets with the corrugations running around the shell circumference, termed ‘circumferentially corrugated’.
(7)   The provisions of EN 1999 1 5 are intended to be applied within the temperature range defined in EN 1999 1 1. The maximum temperature is restricted so that the influence of creep can be neglected. For structures subject to elevated temperatures associated with fire see EN 1999 1 2.
(8)   EN 1999 1 5 does not cover the aspect of leakage.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   The general assumptions of EN 1990 apply.
(2)   The provisions of EN 1999 1 1 apply.
(3)   The design procedures are valid only when the requirements for execution in EN 1090 3 or other equivalent requirements are complied with.
(4)   For the design of new structures, prEN 1999 (all parts) is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993, EN 1994, EN 1995, EN 1997 and EN 1998.
(5)   EN 1999 (all parts) is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090 1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components
-   EN 1090 3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures

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EN 1999 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering and structural works made of aluminium. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990 – Basis of structural design.
EN 1999 is only concerned with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of aluminium structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.
EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
—   EN 1990 Basis of structural design
—   EN 1991 Actions on structures
—   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
—   EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components
—   EN 1090-3: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures.
EN 1999-1-1 gives basic design rules for structures made of wrought aluminium alloys and limited guidance for cast alloys.
The following limits are recommended – if not otherwise explicitly stated in this standard:
   components with material thickness not less than 0,6 mm;
   welded components with material thickness not less than 1,5 mm;
   connections with:
—   steel bolts and pins with diameter not less than 5 mm;
—   aluminium bolts and pins with diameter not less than 8 mm;
—   rivets and thread forming screws with diameter not less than 3,9 mm

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1.1   Scope of EN 1999-1-4
(1)P   This document gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to cold-formed aluminium products made from hot rolled or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been cold-formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking.
NOTE 1   The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1.
NOTE 2    The execution of aluminium structures made of cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications is covered in EN 1090-5.
(2)   This document gives methods for stressed-skin design using aluminium sheeting as a structural diaphragm.
(3)   This document does not apply to cold-formed aluminium profiles like C- and Z- profiles nor cold-formed and welded circular or rectangular hollow sections.
(4)   This document gives methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for the design by calculation apply only within stated ranges of material properties and geometrical properties for which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design by testing.
(5)   This document does not cover load arrangement for loads during execution and maintenance.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) For the design of new structures, prEN 1999 (all parts) is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993, EN 1994, EN 1995, EN 1997 and EN 1998.
EN 1999 (all parts) is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components
-   EN 1090-5: Technical requirements for cold-formed structural aluminium elements and cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications

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1.1   Scope of EN 1999-1-2
(1)   EN 1999-1-2 deals with the design of aluminium structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure and is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1999-1-1, EN 1999-1-2, EN 1999-1-3, EN 1999-1-4 and EN 1999-1-5. This document only identifies differences from, or supplements to, normal temperature design.
(2)   EN 1999-1-2 applies to aluminium structures required to fulfil a load bearing function.
(3)   EN 1999-1-2 gives principles and application rules for the design of structures for specified requirements in respect of the aforementioned function and the levels of performance.
(4)   EN 1999-1-2 applies to structures, or parts of structures, that are within the scope of EN 1999 1 1 and are designed accordingly.
(5)   The methods given in EN 1999-1-2 are applicable to the following aluminium alloys:
EN AW-3004 - H34   EN AW-5083 - O and H12   EN AW-6063 - T5 and T6
EN AW-5005  -  O and H34   EN AW-5454 - O and H34   EN AW-6082 - T4 and T6
EN AW-5052  - H34      EN AW-6061 - T6   
(6)   The methods given in EN 1999-1-2 are applicable also to other aluminium alloy/tempers of EN 1999 1-1, if reliable material properties at elevated temperatures are available or the simplified assumptions in 5.2.1 are applied.
1.2   Assumptions
(1)   In addition to the general assumptions of EN 1990, the following assumptions apply:
-   the choice of the relevant design fire scenario is made by appropriate qualified and experienced personnel, or is given by the relevant national regulation.
-   any active and passive fire protection systems taken into account in the design will be adequately maintained.
(2)   For the design of new structures, EN 1999 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993, EN 1994, EN 1995, EN 1997, EN 1998 and EN 1999.
(3)   EN 1999 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090-1, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components
-   EN 1090-3, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 3: Technical requirements for aluminium structures

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This document specifies the product characteristics and performance criteria for steel components and aluminium components manufactured from steel or aluminium constituent products to be used for structural purposes in buildings and civil engineering works where their characteristic affects the mechanical resistance and stability of these construction works or parts thereof. This document only applies for components manufactured according to EN 1090-2:2018, FprEN 1090-3:2018, EN 1090-4:2018 and EN 1090-5:2017.
This document also gives methods for assessing the performance and specifies requirements for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance for these components.
This document covers series and non-series produced structural components including kits as well as steel parts of composite components.
This document does not cover (components for)
-   Aluminium structural composite components,
-   Amusement rides and devices which are machines or not permanently installed,
-   Anchor channels for use in concrete,
-   Balustrades unless fulfilling the function of a barrier,
-   Blind rivets,
-   Cabinets for cables and power supply installations,
-   Cables, ropes and wires,
-   Castings,
-   Circulation fixtures except sign gantry and cantilevers,
-   Components for suspended ceilings,
-   Fasteners glued to timber structures,
-   Fasteners for use in timber,
-   Fasteners and anchors for use in concrete and masonry,
-   Fastening plates and other cast into concrete fastenings,
-   Flagpoles,
-   Forgings,
-   Foundation bolts, column shoes and pile joints cast into concrete,
-   Joining devices for rail track isolation systems,
-   Non-structural fences and railings,
-   Ornamentations,
-   Piles if non-fabricated,
-   Pipelines and pipes,
-   Playground equipment,
-   Powder actuated fasteners,
-   Prefabricated steel and stainless steel wire rope systems with end connectors,
-   Prefabricated tension rod systems with end connectors,
-   Racking and shelving systems, if not integral part of the load bearing structure of the construction works,
-   Rails or sleepers for railway systems,
-   Raised floors,
-   Rebar connections,
-   Reinforcing steel for concrete or masonry,
-   Roof safety products incl. roof ladders and walkways,
-   Scaffoldings,
-   Sculptures (Metal Art),
-   Self-drilling and self-tapping screws,
-   Steel and aluminium components and elements produced on site,
-   Steel and aluminium stairs, walkways and fences forming integral part of a machine, silo, tank, etc.,
-   Steel spring elements,
-   Structural components for offshore structures,
-   Structural double skin metal faced sandwich panels,
-   Temporary structures (e.g. tents, fairground and amusement park machinery and structures)
-   Traditional craft type and non-structural components (e.g. weather cocks, letter boxes, bicycle racks, fences),
-   Tuned mass damper systems,
-   Wind turbine towers.

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To amend the technical content of EN 1090-1 on issues agreed within the TC

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1.1   Scope of EN 1999-1-4
(1)P   This document gives design requirements for cold-formed trapezoidal aluminium sheeting. It applies to cold-formed aluminium products made from hot rolled or cold rolled sheet or strip that have been cold-formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-breaking.
NOTE 1   The rules in this part complement the rules in other parts of EN 1999-1.
NOTE 2    The execution of aluminium structures made of cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications is covered in EN 1090-5.
(2)   This document gives methods for stressed-skin design using aluminium sheeting as a structural diaphragm.
(3)   This document does not apply to cold-formed aluminium profiles like C- and Z- profiles nor cold-formed and welded circular or rectangular hollow sections.
(4)   This document gives methods for design by calculation and for design assisted by testing. The methods for the design by calculation apply only within stated ranges of material properties and geometrical properties for which sufficient experience and test evidence is available. These limitations do not apply to design by testing.
(5)   This document does not cover load arrangement for loads during execution and maintenance.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) For the design of new structures, prEN 1999 (all parts) is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993, EN 1994, EN 1995, EN 1997 and EN 1998.
EN 1999 (all parts) is intended to be used in conjunction with:
-   European Standards for construction products relevant for aluminium structures
-   EN 1090-1: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Part 1: Requirements for conformity assessment of structural components
-   EN 1090-5: Technical requirements for cold-formed structural aluminium elements and cold-formed structures for roof, ceiling, floor and wall applications

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