Electronic fee collection - Application interface definition for dedicated short-range communication (ISO 14906:2011)

ISO 14906:2011 specifies the application interface in the context of electronic fee collection (EFC) systems using the dedicated short-range communication (DSRC).

Elektronische Gebührenerhebung - Anwendungsschnittstelle zur dezidierten Nahbereich-Kommunikation (ISO 14906:2011)

Perception du télépéage - Définition de l'interface d'application relative aux communications dédiées à courte portée (ISO 14906:2011)

L'ISO 14906:2011 spécifie l'interface d'application dans le contexte des installations de perception du télépéage utilisant des communications dédiées à courte portée.

Elektronsko pobiranje pristojbin - Definicija aplikacijskega vmesnika za posebne komunikacije kratkega dosega (ISO 14906:2011)

Ta mednarodni standard določa aplikacijski vmesnik v okviru sistemov elektronskega pobiranja pristojbin (EFC) z uporabo posebne komunikacije kratkega dosega (DSRC). EFC aplikacijski vmesnik je EFC vmesnik aplikacijskega procesa DSRC aplikacijske plasti, kot ja razvidno iz spodnje slike 1. Ta mednarodni standard sestavlja specifikacije – EFC atributov (tj. EFC aplikacijske informacije), ki se prav tako lahko uporabijo za druge aplikacije in/ali vmesnike, – postopkov naslavljanja EFC atributov in komponent (strojne opreme), (npr. ICC in MMI), - EFC aplikacijske funkcije, tj. nadaljnja kvalifikacija akcij z definicijami obravnavanih storitev, dodelitev povezanih »ActionType« vrednosti ter vsebino in pomen akcijskih parametrov, - EFC transakcijskega modela, ki določa splošne elemente in korake vsake EFC transakcije, - obnašanja vmesnika, da zagotovi interoperabilnost EFC-DSRC stopnje aplikacijskega vmesnika.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
14-Oct-2011
Withdrawal Date
11-Dec-2018
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
01-december-2011
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 14906:2005
Elektronsko pobiranje pristojbin - Definicija aplikacijskega vmesnika za posebne
komunikacije kratkega dosega (ISO 14906:2011)

Electronic fee collection - Application interface definition for dedicated short-range

communication (ISO 14906:2011)

Elektronische Gebührenerfassung (EFC) - Anforderungen an die EFC-Schnittstelle für

Fahrzeug-Baken-Kommunikation (ISO 14906:2011)
Perception du télépéage - Définition de l'interface d'application relative aux
communications dédiées à courte portée (ISO 14906:2011)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14906:2011
ICS:
03.220.20 Cestni transport Road transport
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
transportu in trgovini and trade
SIST EN ISO 14906:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 14906
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2011
ICS 03.220.20; 35.240.60 Supersedes EN ISO 14906:2004
English Version
Electronic fee collection - Application interface definition for
dedicated short-range communication (ISO 14906:2011)

Perception du télépéage - Définition de l'interface Elektronische Gebührenerhebung -

d'application relative aux communications dédiées à courte Anwendungsschnittstelle zur dezidierten Nahbereich-

portée (ISO 14906:2011) Kommunikation (ISO 14906:2011)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 August 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14906:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
EN ISO 14906:2011 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
EN ISO 14906:2011 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 14906:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204 "Intelligent

transport systems" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 278 “Road transport and traffic

telematics” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by April 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14906:2004.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14906:2011 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 14906:2011 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14906
Second edition
2011-10-15
Electronic fee collection — Application
interface definition for dedicated short-
range communication
Perception du télépéage — Définition de l'interface d'application relative
aux communications dédiées à courte portée
Reference number
ISO 14906:2011(E)
ISO 2011
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 2

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 5

5 EFC application interface architecture ................................................................................................ 7

5.1 Relation to the DSRC communication architecture ........................................................................... 7

5.2 Usage of DSRC application layer by the EFC application interface ................................................ 9

5.3 Addressing of EFC attributes ............................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Addressing of components ................................................................................................................ 11

6 EFC Transaction Model ....................................................................................................................... 12

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Initialisation Phase .............................................................................................................................. 12

6.3 Transaction phase ............................................................................................................................... 15

7 EFC Functions ..................................................................................................................................... 17

7.1 Overview and general concepts ........................................................................................................ 17

7.2 EFC functions ...................................................................................................................................... 21

8 EFC Attributes ..................................................................................................................................... 34

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 34

8.2 Data group CONTRACT ...................................................................................................................... 36

8.3 Data group RECEIPT ........................................................................................................................... 36

8.4 Data group VEHICLE ........................................................................................................................... 36

8.5 Data group EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................................... 37

8.6 Data group DRIVER ............................................................................................................................. 37

8.7 Data group PAYMENT ......................................................................................................................... 37

Annex A (normative) EFC data type specifications ...................................................................................... 51

Annex B (informative) CARDME transaction .................................................................................................. 67

Annex C (informative) Examples of EFC transaction types ......................................................................... 93

Annex D (informative) Functional requirements .......................................................................................... 103

Annex E (normative) Mapping table from LatinAlphabetNo2 & 5 to LatinAlphabetNo1 .......................... 110

Annex F (informative) Mapping table between EFC Vehicledata attribute and European

registration certificate ....................................................................................................................... 111

Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................... 113

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 14906 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems, in collaboration

with Technical Committee CEN/TC 278, Road transport and traffic telematics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14906:2004), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
Introduction

This International Standard specifies an application interface for electronic fee collection (EFC) systems,

which are based on dedicated short-range communication (DSRC). It supports interoperability between EFC

systems on an EFC-DSRC application interface level. This International Standard is intended for DSRC

charging applications, but specifically the definition of EFC data elements is valid beyond the use of a DSRC

charging interface and might be used for other DSRC applications (e.g. compliance checking communication)

and/or on other interfaces (e.g. the application interface of autonomous systems).

This International Standard provides specifications for the EFC transaction model, EFC data elements

(referred to as attributes) and functions, from which an EFC transaction can be built. The EFC transaction

model provides a mechanism that allows handling of different versions of EFC transactions and associated

contracts. A certain EFC transaction supports a certain set of EFC attributes and EFC functions as defined in

this International Standard. It is not envisaged that the complete set of EFC attributes and functions be

present in each piece of EFC equipment, on-board equipment (OBE) or roadside equipment (RSE).

This International Standard provides the basis for agreements between operators, which are needed to

achieve interoperability. Based on the tools specified in this International Standard, interoperability can be

reached by operators recognising each others' EFC transactions (including the exchange of security

algorithms and keys) and implementing the EFC transactions in each others' RSEs, or they can reach an

agreement to define a new transaction (and contract) that is common to both. Considerations should also be

made by each operator so that the RSE has sufficient resources to implement such additional EFC

transactions.
In order to achieve interoperability, operators should agree on issues such as
 which optional features are actually being implemented and used,
 access rights and ownership of EFC application data in the OBE,

 security policy (including encryption algorithms and key management, if applicable),

 operational issues, such as how many receipts may be stored for privacy reasons, how many receipts are

necessary for operational reasons (for example as entry tickets or as proof of payment),

 the agreements needed between operators in order to regulate the handling of different EFC transactions.

In this revision, users are faced with issues related to backward compatibility. This issue can be managed by

using the following:
 EfcModule ASN.1 module, including a version number;

 Efc-ContextMark (incl. the ContextVersion), denoting the implementation version, provides a means to

ensure co-existence of different implementation versions by means of a look-up table and associated

appropriate transaction processing. This will enable the software of the RSE to determine the version of

the OBE and his capabilty to accept the new features of this version of this International Standard.

Annex A provides the normative ASN.1 specifications of the used data types (EFC action parameters and

attributes).

Annex B presents an informative example of a transaction based on the CARDME specification, including

bit-level specification.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)

Annex C presents informative examples of EFC transaction types, using the specified EFC functions and

attributes.

Annex D presents an informative listing of functional requirements, which can be satisfied by using the tools

provided by this International Standard.

Annex E presents an informative mapping table from LatinAlphabetNo2 & 5 to LatinAlphabetNo1 to ease for a

Service Provider the use of LatinAlphabetNo1 to encode an OBE for data available wiitten with non-Latin1

characters.

Annex F presents an informative mapping table between EFC vehicle data attributes and European

registration certificates to ease the task of a service provider when he needs to personalise an OBE by

obtaining vehicle data.

This application interface definition can also be used with other DSRC media which do not use a layer 7

according to ISO 15628/EN 12834. Any DSRC medium which provides services to read and write data, to

initialise communication and to perform actions is suitable to be used as a basis for this application interface.

Adaptations are medium specific and are not further covered here. As Annex B describes in detail a

transaction for central account systems, this International Standard can also be used for onboard account

systems, in conjunction with ISO/TS 25110, which provides examples of systems based on onboard accounts.

vi © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14906:2011(E)
Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for
dedicated short-range communication
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the application interface in the context of electronic fee collection (EFC)

systems using the dedicated short-range communication (DSRC).

The EFC application interface is the EFC application process interface to the DSRC application layer, as can

be seen in Figure 1 below. This International Standard comprises specifications of

 EFC attributes (i.e. EFC application information) that can also be used for other applications and/or

interfaces,

 the addressing procedures of EFC attributes and (hardware) components (e.g. ICC and MMI),

 EFC application functions, i.e. further qualification of actions by definitions of the concerned services,

assignment of associated ActionType values and content and meaning of action parameters,

 the EFC transaction model, which defines the common elements and steps of any EFC transaction,

 the behaviour of the interface so as to ensure interoperability on an EFC-DSRC application interface level.

RSE OBE
Application process
Application process
Attributes Attributes
(e.g. PaymentMeans, (e.g. PaymentMeans,
VehicleDimensions, …) VehicleDimensions, …)
ADU
ActionType (e.g. debit,
ActionType (e.g. debit,
set_MMI, transfer_channel, …) set_MMI, transfer_channel, …)
Scope of this
NotifyApplicationRSU
NotifyApplicationOBU
GET
GET
International
SET
SET
Standard
ACTION
EndApplication ACTION
RegisterApplicationOBU
RegisterApplicationRSU
.request .confirm DeregisterApplication
.response .indication
DeregisterApplication
EndApplication
T-ASDU T-ASDU
DSRC DSRC
I-Kernel
I-Kernel
application application
layer layer
T-APDU T-Kernel
T-Kernel
Kernel
Kernel
Figure 1 — The EFC application interface

This is an interface standard, adhering to the open systems interconnection (OSI) philosophy (see

ISO/IEC 7498-1), and it is as such not concerned with the implementation choices to be realised at either side

of the interface.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)

This International Standard provides security-specific functionality as place holders (data and functions) to

enable the implementation of secure EFC transactions. Yet the specification of the security policy (including

specific security algorithms and key management) remains at the discretion and under the control of the EFC

operator, and hence is outside the scope of this International Standard.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 612, Road vehicles — Dimensions of motor vehicles and towed vehicles — Terms and definitions

ISO 1176, Road vehicles — Masses — Vocabulary and codes

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country

codes

ISO 3779, Road vehicles — Vehicle identification number (VIN) — Content and structure

ISO 4217, Codes for the representation of currencies and funds

ISO 7812-1, Identification cards — Identification of issuers — Part 1: Numbering system

ISO/IEC 8824-1, Information technology — Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic

notation

ISO/IEC 8825-2, Information technology — ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Packed Encoding Rules

(PER)

ISO 14816:2005, Road transport and traffic telematics — Automatic vehicle and equipment identification —

Numbering and data structure

ISO 15628:2007, Road transport and traffic telematics — Dedicated short range communication (DSRC) —

DSRC application layer

EN 12834:2003, Road transport and traffic telematics — Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) —

DSRC application layer
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
access credentials

data that is transferred to on-board equipment (OBE), in order to establish the claimed identity of a roadside

equipment (RSE) application process entity

NOTE The access credentials carry information needed to fulfil access conditions in order to perform the operation

on the addressed element in the OBE. The access credentials can carry passwords as well as cryptographic based

information such as authenticators.
3.2
action

function that an application process resident at the roadside equipment can invoke in order to make the on-

board equipment (OBE) execute a specific operation during the transaction
2 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
3.3
attribute

application information formed by one or by a sequence of data elements, and that is managed by different

actions used for implementation of a transaction
3.4
authenticator

data appended to, or a cryptographic transformation of, a data unit that allows a recipient of the data unit to

prove the source and/or the integrity of the data unit and protect against forgery

3.5
channel
information transfer path
[ISO 7498-2:1989, definition 3.3.13]
3.6
component

logical and physical entity composing an on-board equipment, supporting a specific functionality

3.7
contract

expression of an agreement between two or more parties concerning the use of the road infrastructure

3.8
cryptography

discipline which embodies principles, means, and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its

information content, prevent its undetected modification and/or prevent its unauthorised use

[ISO 7498-2:1989, definition 3.3.20]
3.9
data group

collection of closely related EFC data attributes which together describe a distinct part of an EFC transaction

3.10
data integrity
property that data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorised manner
[ISO 7498-2:1989, definition 3.3.21]
3.11
element
DSRC directory containing application information in the form of attributes
3.12
empty list
container for attributeValues (OCTET STRING) with the length equal to zero
3.13
on-board equipment

equipment fitted within or on the outside of a vehicle and used for toll purposes

NOTE The OBE does not need to include payment means.
3.14
on-board unit

minimum component of an on-board equipment, whose functionality always includes at least the support of

the DSRC interface
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
3.15
operator
entity involved in the process outside the user

NOTE An operator is a generic term which can be used for a toll service provider or a toll charger.

3.16
roadside equipment

equipment located along the road transport network, for the purpose of communication and data exchanges

with on-board equipment
3.17
service

EFC road transport related facility provided by a service provider, normally a type of infrastructure, the use of

which is offered to the user, for which the user may be requested to pay
3.18
service primitive

communication elementary communication service provided by the application layer protocol to the

application processes

NOTE The invocation of a service primitive by an application process implicitly calls upon and uses services offered

by the lower protocol layers.
3.19
session

exchange of information and interaction occurring at a specific EFC station between the roadside equipment

and the user/vehicle
3.20
toll charger
legal entity charging toll for vehicles in a toll domain
[ISO/TS 17574:2009, definition 3.27]
3.21
toll domain
area or part of a road network where a toll regime is applied
[ISO 17573:2010, definition 3.18]
3.22
toll service

EFC service enabling users having only one contract and one set of on-board equipment (OBE) to use a

vehicle in one or more toll domains
NOTE Adapted from ISO/TS 12813:2009.
3.23
toll service provider

EFC legal entity providing to his customers toll services on one or more toll domains for one or more classes

of vehicle
NOTE 1 In other documents the terms issuer or contract issuer may be used.

NOTE 2 The toll service provider may provide the OBE or may provide only a magnetic card or a smart card to be used

with OBE provided by a third party (like a mobile telephone and a SIM card can be obtained from different parties).

NOTE 3 The toll service provider is responsible for the operation (functioning) of the OBE.

[ISO/TS 17574:2009, definition 3.28]
4 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
3.24
transaction

whole of the exchange of information between the roadside equipment and the on-board equipment

necessary for the completion of an EFC operation over the DSRC
3.25
transaction model

functional model describing the general structure of electronic payment fee collection transactions

3.26
user

customer of a toll service provider, one liable for toll, the owner of the vehicle, a fleet operator, a driver, etc.,

depending on the context
4 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply unless otherwise specified.

4.1
APDU
Application Protocol Data Unit
4.2
Application Process
4.3
ASN.1
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ISO/IEC 8824-1)
4.4
BST
Beacon Service Table
4.5
CCC
Compliance check communication
4.6
Confirm
4.7
DSRC
Dedicated Short-Range communication
4.8
EID
Element Identifier
4.9
EFC
Electronic Fee Collection
4.10
GPS
Global Positioning System
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
4.11
ICC
Integrated Circuit(s) Card
4.12
I-Kernel
Initialisation Kernel
4.13
IID
Invoker Identifier
4.14
ind
Indication
4.15
LAC
Localisation Augmentation Communication
4.16
Layer 1 of DSRC (Physical Layer)
4.17
Layer 2 of DSRC (Data Link Layer)
4.18
Application Layer Core of DSRC
4.19
LID
Logical Link Control Identifier
4.20
LLC
Logical Link Control
4.21
LPDU
LLC Protocol Data Unit
4.22
MAC
Medium Access Control
4.23
MMI
Man-Machine Interface
4.24
n.a.
Not applicable
4.25
OBE
On-Board Equipment
6 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
4.26
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
4.27
PER
Packed Encoding Rules (ISO/IEC 8825-2)
4.28
req
Request
4.29
Response
4.30
RSE
Roadside Equipment
4.31
RTTT
Road Transport and Traffic Telematics
4.32
SAM
Secure Application Module
4.33
T-APDU
Transfer-Application Protocol Data Unit
4.34
T-ASDU
Transfer-Application Service Data Unit
4.35
T-Kernel
Transfer Kernel
4.36
VST
Vehicle Service Table
5 EFC application interface architecture
5.1 Relation to the DSRC communication architecture

The DSRC services are provided to an application process by means of the DSRC Application Layer service

primitives, which are abstract implementation interactions between a communication service user and a

provider. The services are offered by the DSRC communication entities by means of its DSRC Application

Layer (EN 12834/ISO 15628).
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 14906:2011
ISO 14906:2011(E)
RSU OBU
AP ADU AP
NotifyApplicationRSU NotifyApplicationOBU
GET GET
SET SET
EndApplication RegisterApplicationOBU
ACTION ACTION
RegisterApplicationRSU DeregisterApplication
.response .indication
.request .confirm
DeregisterApplication EndApplication
B-Kernel
B-Kernel
I-Kernel I-Kernel
n.a. for
n.a. for
EFC
EFC
DSRC-L7 DSRC-L7
T-Kernel
...

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