Cranes - General design - Part 3-6: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery - Hydraulic cylinders

This document is to be used together with the other generic parts of EN 13001 series of standards, see Annex E, as well as pertinent crane type product EN standards, and as such they specify general conditions, requirements and methods to, by design and theoretical verification, prevent mechanical hazards of hydraulic cylinders that are part of the load carrying structures of cranes. Hydraulic piping, hoses and connectors used with the cylinders are not within the scope of this document, as well as cylinders made from other material than carbon steel.
NOTE 1   Specific requirements for particular crane types are given in the appropriate European product standards, see Annex E.
The significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons during intended use are identified in Annex F. Clauses 4 to 7 of this document provide requirements and methods to reduce or eliminate these risks:
a)   exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
b)   elastic instability (column buckling).
NOTE 2   EN 13001-3-6 deals only with the limit state method in accordance with EN 13001-1.

Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-6: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von Maschinenbauteilen - Hydraulikzylinder

Diese Europäische Norm ist gemeinsam mit EN 13001-1, EN 13001-2 und EN 13001-3-1 anzuwenden sowie mit den einschlägigen EN-Produktnormen für Krane, die allgemeine Bedingungen, Anforderungen und Methoden festlegen, um so anhand der Konstruktion und der theoretischen Verifizierung mechanische Gefährdungen der Hydraulikzylinder, die Teil der lasttragenden Struktur von Kranen sind, zu verhindern. Hydraulikleitungen, -schläuche und -anschlüsse von Zylindern sowie Zylinder aus anderen Werkstoffen als Kohlenstoffstahl fallen nicht in den Anwendungsbereich der vorliegenden Norm.
Nachfolgend ist eine Auflistung der signifikanten Gefährdungssituationen und Gefährdungsereignisse aufgeführt, die während der bestimmungsgemäßen Verwendung und der vernünftigerweise vorhersehbaren Fehlanwendung zu Risiken für Personen führen können. Die Abschnitte 4 bis 7 der vorliegenden Norm sind notwendig, um Risiken in Verbindung mit den folgenden Gefährdungen zu mindern oder zu beseitigen:
a)   Überschreiten der Festigkeitsgrenzwerte (Fließgrenze, Bruch- und Ermüdungsfestigkeit);
b)   elastische Instabilität (knickstabähnliches Verhalten).
ANMERKUNG   EN 13001-3-6 behandelt ausschließlich die Methode der Grenzzustände in Übereinstimmung mit EN 13001-1.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception générale - Partie 3-6 : États limites et vérification d'aptitude des éléments de mécanismes - Vérins hydrauliques

Le présent document doit être utilisé conjointement avec les autres parties génériques de la série des EN 13001, voir Annexe E, ainsi qu'avec les normes européennes pertinentes de type produit, pour appareil de levage à charge suspendue. Dans ce cadre, ils spécifient les conditions générales, les prescriptions et les méthodes visant à prévenir les dangers mécaniques liés aux vérins hydrauliques qui font partie des structures transmettant des charges dans les appareils de levage, par la conception et la vérification théorique. Les tuyaux, flexibles et raccords hydrauliques utilisés avec les vérins, ainsi que les vérins fabriqués dans un autre matériau que l'acier au carbone n'entrent pas dans le domaine d'application du présent document.
NOTE 1   Des prescriptions spécifiques pour des types particuliers d’appareil de levage à charge suspendue sont données dans la Norme européenne « Produit » appropriée au type particulier d’appareil de levage à charge suspendue, voir Annexe E.
Les situations et les événements dangereux significatifs susceptibles d’entraîner des risques pour les personnes lors d’une utilisation normale et d’une mauvaise utilisation raisonnablement prévisible sont identifiés à l’Annexe F. Les Articles 4 à 7 du présent document fournissent des prescriptions et des méthodes réduire ou éliminer ces risques :
a)   dépassement des limites de résistance (élasticité, rupture, fatigue) ;
b)   instabilité élastique (flambage de colonne).
NOTE 2    L'EN 13001-3-6 traite uniquement de la méthode des états limites selon l’EN 13001-1.

Žerjavi - Konstrukcija, splošno - 3-6. del: Mejna stanja in dokaz varnosti mehanizma - Hidravlični cilindri

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6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
16-Jun-2021
Completion Date
16-Jun-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
01-september-2021
Žerjavi - Konstrukcija, splošno - 3-6. del: Mejna stanja in dokaz varnosti
mehanizma - Hidravlični cilindri

Cranes - General design - Part 3-6: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery -

Hydraulic cylinders

Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-6: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von

Maschinenbauteilen - Hydraulikzylinder

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception générale - Partie 3-6 : États

limites et vérification d'aptitude des éléments de mécanismes - Vérins hydrauliques

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
ICS:
23.100.20 Hidravlični valji Cylinders
53.020.20 Dvigala Cranes
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 23.100.20; 53.020.20 Supersedes EN 13001-3-6:2018
English Version
Cranes - General design - Part 3-6: Limit states and proof
of competence of machinery - Hydraulic cylinders

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-6:

générale - Partie 3-6 : États limites et vérification Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von

d'aptitude des éléments de mécanismes - Vérins Maschinenbauteilen - Hydraulikzylinder

hydrauliques

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 November 2017 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 9 May

2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ................................................................................................................. 7

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Symbols an abbreviations ............................................................................................................................ 7

3.3 Terminology ................................................................................................................................................... 10

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.1 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 Materials for hydraulic cylinders ........................................................................................................... 13

4.2.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................ 13

4.2.2 Grades and qualities ................................................................................................................................... 14

5 Proof of static strength ............................................................................................................................... 14

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.2 Limit design stresses ................................................................................................................................... 16

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.2.2 Limit design stress in structural members ......................................................................................... 16

5.2.3 Limit design stresses in welded connections ..................................................................................... 17

5.3 Linear stress analysis ................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.2 Typical load cases and boundary conditions ..................................................................................... 17

5.3.3 Cylinder tube ................................................................................................................................................. 19

5.3.4 Cylinder bottom ............................................................................................................................................ 20

5.3.5 Piston rod welds ........................................................................................................................................... 21

5.3.6 Cylinder head ................................................................................................................................................. 22

5.3.7 Cylinder tube and piston rod threads ................................................................................................... 22

5.3.8 Thread undercuts and locking wire grooves ..................................................................................... 22

5.3.9 Oil connector welds ..................................................................................................................................... 23

5.3.10 Connecting interfaces to crane structure ............................................................................................ 23

5.4 Nonlinear stress analysis .......................................................................................................................... 24

5.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 24

5.4.2 Standard cylinder with end moments .................................................................................................. 24

5.4.3 Support leg ...................................................................................................................................................... 24

5.5 Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................ 25

5.5.1 Proof for load bearing components ....................................................................................................... 25

5.5.2 Proof for bolted connections .................................................................................................................... 25

5.5.3 Proof for welded connections .................................................................................................................. 26

6 Proof of fatigue strength ............................................................................................................................ 26

6.1 !General ...................................................................................................................................................... 26

6.2 Stress histories .............................................................................................................................................. 26

6.3 Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................ 28

6.4 Limit design stress range .......................................................................................................................... 28

6.5 Details for consideration ........................................................................................................................... 28

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SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)

6.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

6.5.2 Bottom weld.................................................................................................................................................... 29

6.5.3 Notch stress at oil connectors .................................................................................................................. 31

6.5.4 Cylinder head ................................................................................................................................................. 32

6.5.5 Piston rod ........................................................................................................................................................ 34

6.5.6 Cylinder head bolts ...................................................................................................................................... 36

6.5.7 Cylinder head flange weld ......................................................................................................................... 36

6.5.8 Mechanical interfaces ................................................................................................................................. 39

7 Proof of elastic stability .............................................................................................................................. 39

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 39

7.2 Critical buckling load .................................................................................................................................. 39

7.3 Limit compressive design force ............................................................................................................... 41

7.4 Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................. 42

Annex A (informative) Critical buckling load for common buckling cases ............................................. 43

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 43

A.2 Buckling case A .............................................................................................................................................. 44

A.3 Buckling case B .............................................................................................................................................. 44

A.4 Buckling case C .............................................................................................................................................. 45

A.5 Buckling case D .............................................................................................................................................. 45

A.6 Buckling case E .............................................................................................................................................. 45

A.7 Buckling case F .............................................................................................................................................. 46

A.8 Buckling case G .............................................................................................................................................. 46

Annex B (informative) Second order analysis of two important cases .................................................... 47

B.1 Compressed cylinder with end moments and angular misalignment ....................................... 47

B.2 Compressed cylinder with lateral end force and angular misalignment ................................. 48

B.3 Axial stresses for cases in B.1 and B.2 ................................................................................................... 49

Annex C (informative) Shell section forces and moments for cylinder bottom .................................... 50

Annex D (informative) Fatigue analysis of bottom weld for more complex cases ............................... 53

Annex E (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application ......... 56

Annex F (informative) List of hazards .................................................................................................................. 58

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC aimed to be covered ...................................................... 59

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 60

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SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 13001-3-6:2018+2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147

“Cranes — Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2021.
This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 21 May 2021.
This document supersedes EN 13001-3-6:2018.

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !".

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
Introduction

This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard to provide one means for the

mechanical design and theoretical verification of cranes to conform with the essential health and safety

requirements of the Machinery Directive, as amended. This standard also establishes interfaces

between the user (purchaser) and the designer, as well as between the designer and the component

manufacturer, in order to form a basis for selecting cranes and components.
This European Standard is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100:2010.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and events are

covered are indicated in the scope of this standard.

When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B

standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other

standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C

standard.
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SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
1 Scope

!This document is to be used together with the other generic parts of EN 13001 series of standards,

see Annex E, as well as pertinent crane type product EN standards, and as such they specify general

conditions, requirements and methods to, by design and theoretical verification, prevent mechanical

hazards of hydraulic cylinders that are part of the load carrying structures of cranes. Hydraulic piping,

hoses and connectors used with the cylinders are not within the scope of this document, as well as

cylinders made from other material than carbon steel.

NOTE 1 Specific requirements for particular crane types are given in the appropriate European product

standards, see Annex E.

The significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons during

intended use are identified in Annex F. Clauses 4 to 7 of this document provide requirements and

methods to reduce or eliminate these risks:"
a) exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
b) elastic instability (column buckling).

!NOTE 2" EN 13001–3–6 deals only with the limit state method in accordance with EN 13001–1.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

!deleted text"

EN 10277-2:2008, Bright steel products — Technical delivery conditions — Part 2: Steels for general

engineering purposes

!EN 10297-1:2003, Seamless circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes —

Technical delivery conditions — Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes"

EN 10305-1:2016, Steel tubes for precision applications — Technical delivery conditions — Part 1:

Seamless cold drawn tubes

EN 10305-2:2016, Steel tubes for precision applications — Technical delivery conditions — Part 2:

Welded cold drawn tubes

!EN 13001-1:2015, Cranes — General design — Part 1: General principles and requirements

EN 13001-2:2014, Crane safety — General design — Part 2: Load actions

EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018, Cranes — General design — Part 3-1: Limit States and proof competence

of steel structure"

EN ISO 148-1:2016, Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 1: Test method (ISO 148-

1:2016)

!EN ISO 683-1:2018, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 1: Non-alloy steels

for quenching and tempering (ISO 683-1:2016)

EN ISO 683-2:2018, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 2: Alloy steels for

quenching and tempering (ISO 683-2:2016)"
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)

EN ISO 5817:2014, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam

welding excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:2014)
EN ISO 8492:2013, Metallic materials — Tube — Flattening test (ISO 8492:2013)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk

reduction (ISO 12100:2010)
ISO 724:1993, ISO general-purpose metric screw threads — Basic dimensions
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100:2010 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.2 Symbols an abbreviations
The essential symbols and abbreviations are given in Table 1.
Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations
Symbols Description
A% Percentage elongation at fracture
a Weld throat thickness
A , B , C , D
Constants
i i i i
Stress area
D Piston diameter
d Rod diameter
Diameter of axles
a,i
Pressure affected diameter
Weld diameter
E Modulus of elasticity
F Compressive force
Compressive force
FE Finite Elements
Limit design stress
Limit design stress, normal
Rdσ
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SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
Symbols Description
Limit design stress, shear
Rdτ
Lateral force
External design force
Ultimate strength
Limit design weld stress
w,Rd
Yield strength
h thickness of the cylinder bottom
I Moment of inertia, generic
Moment of inertia of the tube
Moment of inertia of the rod
L Overall length of the cylinder
Length of the cylinder tube
Length of the cylinder rod
m Slope of the log Δσ – log N curve
Shell section bending moment, acting at the intersection between tube and
bottom
MB Bending moment
N Compressive force
Critical buckling load
Limit compressive design force
! deleted text"
Maximum pressure in piston side chamber
Maximum pressure in rod side chamber
Outer pressure
Design pressure
Middle radius of the tube (R = R + t/2)
Inner radius of the tube
Inner radius of the tube
Outer radius of the tube
Outer radius of the piston rod
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SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
Symbols Description
Stress history parameter (see EN 13001–3-1)
t Wall thickness of the tube
Shell section transverse force, acting at the intersection between tube and
bottom
x, y Longitudinal and lateral coordinates
α Angular misalignment, radians
γ General resistance factor (γ = 1,1, see EN 13001–2)
m m
Fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see EN 13001–3-1)
γ Total resistance factor (γ = γ · γ )
R R m s
Specific resistance factor
Δσ Stress range
Bending stress range in the tube
Characteristic fatigue strength
Membrane stress range in the tube (axial)
Limit design stress range
Design stress range
Design pressure range on piston side
Maximum displacement
max
κ Reduction factor for buckling
λ Slenderness
Friction parameters
Friction factors
ν Poisson’s ratio (ν = 0,3 for steel)
Axial stress in the tube
Lower extreme value of a stress range
Radial stress in the tube
Design stress, normal
Tangential stress in the tube (hoop stress)
Upper extreme value of a stress range
Weld design stress, normal
w,Sd
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
Symbols Description
Design stress, shear
Weld design stress, shear
w,Sd
3.3 Terminology

Terms which are used in this European Standard for the main parts of hydraulic cylinder are indicated

in Figure 1 to Figure 3.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
Key
1 bushing
2 rod head
3 cylinder head
4 oil connector
5 piston rod
6 cylinder tube
7 spacer
8 piston
9 nut
10 cylinder bottom
11 grease nipple
12 piston side chamber
13 rod side chamber
Figure 1 — Complete cylinder
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
Key
1 wiper
2 O-ring
3 secondary seal
4 guide ring (2 × )
5 primary seal
6 backup ring
7 O-ring
Figure 2 — Cylinder head
Key
1 seal
2 pressure element
3 guide ring (2 × )
Figure 3 — Piston

The figures above show some specific design features in order to exemplify the terminology. Other

designs may be used.
4 General
4.1 Documentation
The documentation of the proof of competence shall include:
— design assumptions including calculation models;
— applicable loads and load combinations;
— material grades and qualities;
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
!— weld quality levels, in accordance with EN ISO 5817:2014 and EN 13001-3-
1:2012+A2:2018;"
— relevant limit states;
— results of the proof of competence calculation, and tests when applicable.
4.2 Materials for hydraulic cylinders
4.2.1 General requirements

!The materials for cylinder tubes and piston rods shall fulfil the following requirements:"

!— The impact toughness shall be tested in accordance with EN ISO 148-1:2016 and shall meet the

requirements stated in EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018. Samples shall be cut out in the

longitudinal direction. For cylinder tubes and tubes for pressurized piston rods, samples shall

also be cut out in the transversal direction. The samples shall be prepared such that the axis of

the notch is perpendicular to the surface of the tube."
Key
1 sample cut out in longitudinal direction
2 sample cut out in transversal direction
Figure 4 — Sample for impact toughness testing

!— If the material thickness does not allow samples to be cut out in the transversal direction, the

tube material shall instead pass a flattening test in accordance with EN ISO 8492:2013. Two

flattening tests are required for welded tubes, one with the weld aligned with the press

direction and one where the weld is placed 90 degrees from the press direction. The tube

section shall be flattened down to a height H given by:"
1+⋅C t
( )
where
!C is a factor that depends on the yield strength of the tube,
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021
EN 13001-3-6:2018+A1:2021 (E)
C is 0,07 for f ≤ 400 MPa and C is 0,05 for f > 400 MPa;"
y y
D is the outer diameter of the tube;
t is the wall thickness of the tube.

!Material used in other parts shall meet the requirements stated in EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018."

4.2.2 Grades and qualities

!European Standards specify materials and specific values. This standard gives a preferred selection.

Steels in accordance with the following European Standards shall be used as material for cylinder tubes

and piston rods:"
!— EN ISO 683-1:2018;
— EN ISO 683-2:2018;
— EN 10277-2:2008;
— EN 10297-1:2003;
— EN 10305-1:2016;
— EN 10305-2:2016."

!Alternatively, other steel grades and qualities than those listed in this clause may be used as

material for cylinder tubes and piston rods, provided that the following conditions apply:"

— the design value of f is limited to f /1,1 for materials with f /f < 1,1;
y u u y

— the percentage elongation at fracture A % ≥ 14 % on a gauge length LS5,65× (where S is

0 0 0
the original cross-sectional area);

!Grades and qualities of materials used in other parts of cylinders or mounting interfaces of cylinders

shall be selected in accordance with EN 13001-3-1:2012+A2:2018."
5 Proof of static strength
5.1 General

!A proof of static strength by calculation is intended to prevent excessive deformations due to

yielding of the material, elastic instability and fracture of structural members or connections. Dynamic

factors given in EN 13001-2:2014 or relevant product standards are used to produce equivalent static

loads to simulate dynamic effects. Also, load increasing effects due to deformation shall be considered.

The use of the theory of plasticity for calculation of ultimate load bearing capacity is not considered

acceptabl
...

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