Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Part 1: Fundamentals (ISO 19136-1:2020)

The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in accordance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features.
This document defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:
— provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML;
— allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities;
— support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities;
— enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets;
— support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets;
— increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.
Implementers can decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they can decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport.
NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this document provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema.

Geoinformation - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Teil 1: Grundsätze (ISO 19136-1:2020)

Information géographique - Langage de balisage en géographie (GML) - Partie 1: Principes de base (ISO 19136-1:2020)

Le langage GML (Geography Markup Language, Langage de balisage en géographie) est un codage XML conforme à l'ISO 19118 pour le transport et le stockage des informations géographiques modélisées conformément au cadre de modélisation conceptuelle utilisé dans la série de Normes internationales ISO 19100, et comprenant les propriétés spatiales et non spatiales des entités géographiques.
Le présent document définit la syntaxe, les mécanismes et les conventions du schéma XML qui:
— offrent un cadre ouvert indépendant du fournisseur pour la description des schémas d'application géospatiale pour le transport et le stockage des informations géographiques en langage XML;
— autorisent les profils prenant en charge les sous-ensembles corrects de possibilités descriptives du cadre GML;
— prennent en charge la description des schémas d'application géospatiale pour les domaines et communautés d'informations spécialisés;
— permettent de créer et d'entretenir des schémas d'application géographique associés et des ensembles de données;
— prennent en charge le stockage et le transport des schémas d'application et des ensembles de données;
— augmentent les possibilités d'organisation pour partager des schémas d'application géographique et les informations qu'ils décrivent.
Les implémenteurs peuvent choisir de stocker les schémas d'application géographique et les informations en GML, ou de les convertir à la demande à partir d'un autre format de stockage et d'utiliser GML uniquement pour le schéma et le transport des données.
NOTE Si un schéma d'application conforme à l'ISO 19109 décrit en langage UML est utilisé comme base du stockage et du transport des informations géographiques, le présent document donne les règles normatives de mise en correspondance de ce type de schéma d'application avec le schéma d'application GML en langage XML Schema et, en tant que tel, avec le codage XML pour les données dotées d'une structure logique conformément au schéma d'application conforme à l'ISO 19109.

Geografske informacije - Jezik za označevanje geografskih podatkov (GML) - 1. del: Osnove (ISO 19136-1:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Apr-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Apr-2020
Completion Date
15-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
01-junij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 19136:2009
Geografske informacije - Jezik za označevanje geografskih podatkov (GML) - 1.
del: Osnove (ISO 19136-1:2020)
Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Part 1: Fundamentals
(ISO 19136-1:2020)
Geoinformation - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Teil 1 (ISO 19136-1:2020)
Information géographique - Langage de balisage en géographie (GML) - Partie 1:
Principes de base (ISO 19136-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ICS:
07.040 Astronomija. Geodezija. Astronomy. Geodesy.
Geografija Geography
35.060 Jeziki, ki se uporabljajo v Languages used in
informacijski tehniki in information technology
tehnologiji
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
EN ISO 19136-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 35.240.70 Supersedes EN ISO 19136:2009
English Version
Geographic information - Geography Markup Language
(GML) - Part 1: Fundamentals (ISO 19136-1:2020)

Information géographique - Langage de balisage en Geoinformation - Geography Markup Language (GML) -

géographie (GML) - Partie 1: Principes de base (ISO Teil 1 (ISO 19136-1:2020)
19136-1:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 April 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19136-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
EN ISO 19136-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
EN ISO 19136-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 19136-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211

"Geographic information/Geomatics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 287

“Geographic Information” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 19136:2009.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19136-1:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19136-1:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19136-1
First edition
2020-01
Geographic information — Geography
Markup Language (GML) —
Part 1:
Fundamentals
Reference number
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................x

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................xii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Conformance ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1 Conformance requirements ......................................................................................................................................................10

4.2 Conformance classes related to GML application schemas ...........................................................................10

4.3 Conformance classes related to GML profiles ...........................................................................................................11

4.4 Conformance classes related to GML documents ..................................................................................................12

4.5 Conformance classes related to software implementations .........................................................................12

5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 XML namespaces ................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Versioning.................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Deprecated parts of previous versions of GML ........................................................................................................13

5.4 UML notation .........................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 XML Schema ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Overview of the GML schema ................................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 GML schema ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 GML application schemas ...........................................................................................................................................................15

6.3 Relationship between the ISO 19100 series of International Standards, the GML

schema and GML application schemas ............................................................................................................................16

6.4 Organization of this document ...............................................................................................................................................17

6.5 Deprecated and experimental schema components ...........................................................................................18

7 GML schema — General rules and base schema components ............................................................................19

7.1 GML model and syntax ..................................................................................................................................................................19

7.1.1 GML instance documents ......................................................................................................................................19

7.1.2 Lexical conventions ....................................................................................................................................................20

7.1.3 XML Schema definition of GML language ................................................................................................20

7.2 gmlBase schema components .................................................................................................................................................21

7.2.1 Goals of base schema components ................................................................................................................21

7.2.2 Base objects .......................................................................................................................................................................21

7.2.3 GML properties...............................................................................................................................................................22

7.2.4 Standard properties of GML objects ............................................................................................................27

7.2.5 Collections of GML objects ...................................................................................................................................27

7.2.6 Metadata ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

8 GML schema — Xlinks and basic types .......................................................................................................................................31

8.1 Xlinks — Object associations and remote properties ........................................................................................31

8.2 Basic types ...............................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2.2 Relationship with ISO 19103 .............................................................................................................................33

8.2.3 Simple types ......................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2.4 Lists ..........................................................................................................................................................................................38

9 GML schema — Features ............................................................................................................................................................................40

9.1 General concepts ................................................................................................................................................................................40

9.2 Relationship with ISO 19109 ...................................................................................................................................................40

9.3 Features ......................................................................................................................................................................................................41

9.3.1 AbstractFeatureType .................................................................................................................................................41

9.3.2 AbstractFeature .............................................................................................................................................................41

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9.4 Standard feature properties .....................................................................................................................................................41

9.4.1 boundedBy, BoundingShapeType, EnvelopeWithTimePeriod,

EnvelopeWithTimePeriodType ........................................................................................................................41

9.4.2 locationName, locationReference ...................................................................................................................42

9.4.3 FeaturePropertyType, FeatureArrayPropertyType ........................................................................43

9.5 Geometry properties .......................................................................................................................................................................43

9.6 Topology properties ........................................................................................................................................................................44

9.7 Temporal properties .......................................................................................................................................................................45

9.8 Defining application-specific feature types .................................................................................................................46

9.9 Feature collections ............................................................................................................................................................................47

9.9.1 GML feature collections ..........................................................................................................................................47

9.9.2 AbstractFeatureMemberType and derived property types .....................................................48

9.10 Spatial reference system used in a feature or feature collection ..............................................................48

10 GML schema — Geometric primitives .........................................................................................................................................49

10.1 General concepts ................................................................................................................................................................................49

10.1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................49

10.1.2 Relationship with ISO 19107 .............................................................................................................................49

10.1.3 Abstract geometry .......................................................................................................................................................50

10.1.4 Coordinate geometry, vectors and envelopes ......................................................................................52

10.2 Abstract geometric primitives ................................................................................................................................................54

10.2.1 AbstractGeometricPrimitiveType, AbstractGeometricPrimitive .........................................54

10.2.2 GeometricPrimitivePropertyType .................................................................................................................55

10.3 Geometric primitives (0-dimensional)............................................................................................................................55

10.3.1 PointType, Point ............................................................................................................................................................55

10.3.2 PointPropertyType, pointProperty ...............................................................................................................55

10.3.3 PointArrayPropertyType, pointArrayProperty ..................................................................................56

10.4 Geometric primitives (1-dimensional)............................................................................................................................56

10.4.1 AbstractCurveType, AbstractCurve ..............................................................................................................56

10.4.2 CurvePropertyType, curveProperty .............................................................................................................56

10.4.3 CurveArrayPropertyType, curveArrayProperty ................................................................................57

10.4.4 LineStringType, LineString ..................................................................................................................................57

10.4.5 CurveType, Curve .........................................................................................................................................................57

10.4.6 OrientableCurveType, OrientableCurve, baseCurve ......................................................................58

10.4.7 Curve segments ..............................................................................................................................................................58

10.5 Geometric primitives (2-dimensional)............................................................................................................................67

10.5.1 AbstractSurfaceType, AbstractSurface ......................................................................................................67

10.5.2 SurfacePropertyType, surfaceProperty ....................................................................................................68

10.5.3 SurfaceArrayPropertyType, surfaceArrayProperty ........................................................................68

10.5.4 PolygonType, Polygon...............................................................................................................................................68

10.5.5 exterior, interior ............................................................................................................................................................68

10.5.6 AbstractRingType, AbstractRing .....................................................................................................................69

10.5.7 AbstractRingPropertyType ..................................................................................................................................69

10.5.8 LinearRingType, LinearRing ...............................................................................................................................69

10.5.9 LinearRingPropertyType .......................................................................................................................................70

10.5.10 SurfaceType, Surface .................................................................................................................................................70

10.5.11 OrientableSurfaceType, OrientableSurface, baseSurface ..........................................................70

10.5.12 Surface patches ..............................................................................................................................................................72

10.6 Geometric primitives (3-dimensional)............................................................................................................................76

10.6.1 AbstractSolidType, AbstractSolid ...................................................................................................................76

10.6.2 SolidPropertyType, solidProperty .................................................................................................................76

10.6.3 SolidArrayPropertyType, solidArrayProperty ....................................................................................77

10.6.4 SolidType, Solid ..............................................................................................................................................................77

10.6.5 ShellType, Shell ..............................................................................................................................................................77

10.6.6 ShellPropertyType .................. .................................................... .................................................................................78

11 GML schema — Geometric complex, geometric composites and geometric aggregates ........78

11.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................78

11.2 Geometric complex and geometric composites .......................................................................................................79

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11.2.1 Geometric complex .....................................................................................................................................................79

11.2.2 Composite geometries .............................................................................................................................................79

11.3 Geometric aggregates .....................................................................................................................................................................81

11.3.1 Aggregates of unspecified dimensionality ..............................................................................................81

11.3.2 0-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................82

11.3.3 1-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................83

11.3.4 2-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................84

11.3.5 3-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................85

12 GML schema — Coordinate reference systems schemas..........................................................................................85

12.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................85

12.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................85

12.1.2 Relationship with ISO 19111 .............................................................................................................................86

12.1.3 Important XML elements .......................................................................................................................................86

12.2 Reference systems .............................................................................................................................................................................87

12.2.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................87

12.2.2 IdentifiedObjectType ................................................................................................................................................88

12.2.3 Abstract coordinate reference system........................................................................................................88

12.3 Coordinate reference systems ................................................................................................................................................89

12.3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................89

12.3.2 Abstract coordinate reference systems .....................................................................................................89

12.3.3 Concrete coordinate reference systems ....................................................................................................90

12.4 Coordinate systems ..........................................................................................................................................................................96

12.4.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................96

12.4.2 Coordinate system axes ..........................................................................................................................................96

12.4.3 Abstract coordinate system .................................................................................................................................97

12.4.4 Concrete coordinate systems .............................................................................................................................98

12.5 Datums .....................................................................................................................................................................................................103

12.5.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................................................103

12.5.2 Abstract datum ............................................................................................................................................................103

12.5.3 Geo
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