Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Part 1: Fundamentals (ISO 19136-1:2020)

The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in accordance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features.
This document defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:
— provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML;
— allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities;
— support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities;
— enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets;
— support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets;
— increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.
Implementers can decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they can decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport.
NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this document provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema.

Geoinformation - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Teil 1: Grundsätze (ISO 19136-1:2020)

Information géographique - Langage de balisage en géographie (GML) - Partie 1: Principes de base (ISO 19136-1:2020)

Le langage GML (Geography Markup Language, Langage de balisage en géographie) est un codage XML conforme à l'ISO 19118 pour le transport et le stockage des informations géographiques modélisées conformément au cadre de modélisation conceptuelle utilisé dans la série de Normes internationales ISO 19100, et comprenant les propriétés spatiales et non spatiales des entités géographiques.
Le présent document définit la syntaxe, les mécanismes et les conventions du schéma XML qui:
— offrent un cadre ouvert indépendant du fournisseur pour la description des schémas d'application géospatiale pour le transport et le stockage des informations géographiques en langage XML;
— autorisent les profils prenant en charge les sous-ensembles corrects de possibilités descriptives du cadre GML;
— prennent en charge la description des schémas d'application géospatiale pour les domaines et communautés d'informations spécialisés;
— permettent de créer et d'entretenir des schémas d'application géographique associés et des ensembles de données;
— prennent en charge le stockage et le transport des schémas d'application et des ensembles de données;
— augmentent les possibilités d'organisation pour partager des schémas d'application géographique et les informations qu'ils décrivent.
Les implémenteurs peuvent choisir de stocker les schémas d'application géographique et les informations en GML, ou de les convertir à la demande à partir d'un autre format de stockage et d'utiliser GML uniquement pour le schéma et le transport des données.
NOTE Si un schéma d'application conforme à l'ISO 19109 décrit en langage UML est utilisé comme base du stockage et du transport des informations géographiques, le présent document donne les règles normatives de mise en correspondance de ce type de schéma d'application avec le schéma d'application GML en langage XML Schema et, en tant que tel, avec le codage XML pour les données dotées d'une structure logique conformément au schéma d'application conforme à l'ISO 19109.

Geografske informacije - Jezik za označevanje geografskih podatkov (GML) - 1. del: Osnove (ISO 19136-1:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Apr-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Apr-2020
Completion Date
15-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
01-junij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 19136:2009
Geografske informacije - Jezik za označevanje geografskih podatkov (GML) - 1.
del: Osnove (ISO 19136-1:2020)
Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Part 1: Fundamentals
(ISO 19136-1:2020)
Geoinformation - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Teil 1 (ISO 19136-1:2020)
Information géographique - Langage de balisage en géographie (GML) - Partie 1:
Principes de base (ISO 19136-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ICS:
07.040 Astronomija. Geodezija. Astronomy. Geodesy.
Geografija Geography
35.060 Jeziki, ki se uporabljajo v Languages used in
informacijski tehniki in information technology
tehnologiji
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
EN ISO 19136-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 35.240.70 Supersedes EN ISO 19136:2009
English Version
Geographic information - Geography Markup Language
(GML) - Part 1: Fundamentals (ISO 19136-1:2020)

Information géographique - Langage de balisage en Geoinformation - Geography Markup Language (GML) -

géographie (GML) - Partie 1: Principes de base (ISO Teil 1 (ISO 19136-1:2020)
19136-1:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 April 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19136-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
EN ISO 19136-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
EN ISO 19136-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 19136-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211

"Geographic information/Geomatics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 287

“Geographic Information” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 19136:2009.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19136-1:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19136-1:2020 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19136-1
First edition
2020-01
Geographic information — Geography
Markup Language (GML) —
Part 1:
Fundamentals
Reference number
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................x

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................xii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Conformance ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.1 Conformance requirements ......................................................................................................................................................10

4.2 Conformance classes related to GML application schemas ...........................................................................10

4.3 Conformance classes related to GML profiles ...........................................................................................................11

4.4 Conformance classes related to GML documents ..................................................................................................12

4.5 Conformance classes related to software implementations .........................................................................12

5 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 XML namespaces ................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Versioning.................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Deprecated parts of previous versions of GML ........................................................................................................13

5.4 UML notation .........................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 XML Schema ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Overview of the GML schema ................................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 GML schema ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 GML application schemas ...........................................................................................................................................................15

6.3 Relationship between the ISO 19100 series of International Standards, the GML

schema and GML application schemas ............................................................................................................................16

6.4 Organization of this document ...............................................................................................................................................17

6.5 Deprecated and experimental schema components ...........................................................................................18

7 GML schema — General rules and base schema components ............................................................................19

7.1 GML model and syntax ..................................................................................................................................................................19

7.1.1 GML instance documents ......................................................................................................................................19

7.1.2 Lexical conventions ....................................................................................................................................................20

7.1.3 XML Schema definition of GML language ................................................................................................20

7.2 gmlBase schema components .................................................................................................................................................21

7.2.1 Goals of base schema components ................................................................................................................21

7.2.2 Base objects .......................................................................................................................................................................21

7.2.3 GML properties...............................................................................................................................................................22

7.2.4 Standard properties of GML objects ............................................................................................................27

7.2.5 Collections of GML objects ...................................................................................................................................27

7.2.6 Metadata ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

8 GML schema — Xlinks and basic types .......................................................................................................................................31

8.1 Xlinks — Object associations and remote properties ........................................................................................31

8.2 Basic types ...............................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2.2 Relationship with ISO 19103 .............................................................................................................................33

8.2.3 Simple types ......................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2.4 Lists ..........................................................................................................................................................................................38

9 GML schema — Features ............................................................................................................................................................................40

9.1 General concepts ................................................................................................................................................................................40

9.2 Relationship with ISO 19109 ...................................................................................................................................................40

9.3 Features ......................................................................................................................................................................................................41

9.3.1 AbstractFeatureType .................................................................................................................................................41

9.3.2 AbstractFeature .............................................................................................................................................................41

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)

9.4 Standard feature properties .....................................................................................................................................................41

9.4.1 boundedBy, BoundingShapeType, EnvelopeWithTimePeriod,

EnvelopeWithTimePeriodType ........................................................................................................................41

9.4.2 locationName, locationReference ...................................................................................................................42

9.4.3 FeaturePropertyType, FeatureArrayPropertyType ........................................................................43

9.5 Geometry properties .......................................................................................................................................................................43

9.6 Topology properties ........................................................................................................................................................................44

9.7 Temporal properties .......................................................................................................................................................................45

9.8 Defining application-specific feature types .................................................................................................................46

9.9 Feature collections ............................................................................................................................................................................47

9.9.1 GML feature collections ..........................................................................................................................................47

9.9.2 AbstractFeatureMemberType and derived property types .....................................................48

9.10 Spatial reference system used in a feature or feature collection ..............................................................48

10 GML schema — Geometric primitives .........................................................................................................................................49

10.1 General concepts ................................................................................................................................................................................49

10.1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................49

10.1.2 Relationship with ISO 19107 .............................................................................................................................49

10.1.3 Abstract geometry .......................................................................................................................................................50

10.1.4 Coordinate geometry, vectors and envelopes ......................................................................................52

10.2 Abstract geometric primitives ................................................................................................................................................54

10.2.1 AbstractGeometricPrimitiveType, AbstractGeometricPrimitive .........................................54

10.2.2 GeometricPrimitivePropertyType .................................................................................................................55

10.3 Geometric primitives (0-dimensional)............................................................................................................................55

10.3.1 PointType, Point ............................................................................................................................................................55

10.3.2 PointPropertyType, pointProperty ...............................................................................................................55

10.3.3 PointArrayPropertyType, pointArrayProperty ..................................................................................56

10.4 Geometric primitives (1-dimensional)............................................................................................................................56

10.4.1 AbstractCurveType, AbstractCurve ..............................................................................................................56

10.4.2 CurvePropertyType, curveProperty .............................................................................................................56

10.4.3 CurveArrayPropertyType, curveArrayProperty ................................................................................57

10.4.4 LineStringType, LineString ..................................................................................................................................57

10.4.5 CurveType, Curve .........................................................................................................................................................57

10.4.6 OrientableCurveType, OrientableCurve, baseCurve ......................................................................58

10.4.7 Curve segments ..............................................................................................................................................................58

10.5 Geometric primitives (2-dimensional)............................................................................................................................67

10.5.1 AbstractSurfaceType, AbstractSurface ......................................................................................................67

10.5.2 SurfacePropertyType, surfaceProperty ....................................................................................................68

10.5.3 SurfaceArrayPropertyType, surfaceArrayProperty ........................................................................68

10.5.4 PolygonType, Polygon...............................................................................................................................................68

10.5.5 exterior, interior ............................................................................................................................................................68

10.5.6 AbstractRingType, AbstractRing .....................................................................................................................69

10.5.7 AbstractRingPropertyType ..................................................................................................................................69

10.5.8 LinearRingType, LinearRing ...............................................................................................................................69

10.5.9 LinearRingPropertyType .......................................................................................................................................70

10.5.10 SurfaceType, Surface .................................................................................................................................................70

10.5.11 OrientableSurfaceType, OrientableSurface, baseSurface ..........................................................70

10.5.12 Surface patches ..............................................................................................................................................................72

10.6 Geometric primitives (3-dimensional)............................................................................................................................76

10.6.1 AbstractSolidType, AbstractSolid ...................................................................................................................76

10.6.2 SolidPropertyType, solidProperty .................................................................................................................76

10.6.3 SolidArrayPropertyType, solidArrayProperty ....................................................................................77

10.6.4 SolidType, Solid ..............................................................................................................................................................77

10.6.5 ShellType, Shell ..............................................................................................................................................................77

10.6.6 ShellPropertyType .................. .................................................... .................................................................................78

11 GML schema — Geometric complex, geometric composites and geometric aggregates ........78

11.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................78

11.2 Geometric complex and geometric composites .......................................................................................................79

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19136-1:2020
ISO 19136-1:2020(E)

11.2.1 Geometric complex .....................................................................................................................................................79

11.2.2 Composite geometries .............................................................................................................................................79

11.3 Geometric aggregates .....................................................................................................................................................................81

11.3.1 Aggregates of unspecified dimensionality ..............................................................................................81

11.3.2 0-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................82

11.3.3 1-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................83

11.3.4 2-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................84

11.3.5 3-Dimensional aggregates ....................................................................................................................................85

12 GML schema — Coordinate reference systems schemas..........................................................................................85

12.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................85

12.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................85

12.1.2 Relationship with ISO 19111 .............................................................................................................................86

12.1.3 Important XML elements .......................................................................................................................................86

12.2 Reference systems .............................................................................................................................................................................87

12.2.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................87

12.2.2 IdentifiedObjectType ................................................................................................................................................88

12.2.3 Abstract coordinate reference system........................................................................................................88

12.3 Coordinate reference systems ................................................................................................................................................89

12.3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................89

12.3.2 Abstract coordinate reference systems .....................................................................................................89

12.3.3 Concrete coordinate reference systems ....................................................................................................90

12.4 Coordinate systems ..........................................................................................................................................................................96

12.4.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................96

12.4.2 Coordinate system axes ..........................................................................................................................................96

12.4.3 Abstract coordinate system .................................................................................................................................97

12.4.4 Concrete coordinate systems .............................................................................................................................98

12.5 Datums .....................................................................................................................................................................................................103

12.5.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................................................103

12.5.2 Abstract datum ............................................................................................................................................................103

12.5.3 Geo
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018
01-oktober-2018
*HRJUDIVNHLQIRUPDFLMH-H]LN]DR]QDþHYDQMHJHRJUDIVNLKSRGDWNRY *0/ 
GHO2VQRYH ,62',6
Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML) - Part 1: Fundamentals
Geoinformation - Geography Markup Language (GML) (ISO 19136:2007); Englische
Fassung EN ISO 19136:2009
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 19136-1
ICS:
07.040 Astronomija. Geodezija. Astronomy. Geodesy.
Geografija Geography
35.060 Jeziki, ki se uporabljajo v Languages used in
informacijski tehniki in information technology
tehnologiji
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 19136-1
ISO/TC 211 Secretariat: SIS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2018-08-14 2018-11-06
Geographic information — Geography Markup Language
(GML) —
Part 1:
Fundamentals
Information géographique — Langage de balisage en géographie (GML) —
Partie 1: Titre manque
ICS: 35.240.70
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 19136-1:2018(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018
ISO/DIS 19136-1:2018(E)
Warning

OGC official documents use a triple decimal-dot notation (i.e. MM.xx.ss). This document may be identified as

MM.xx (Major.minor) and may include increments to the third dot series (schema changes) without any

modification to this document, or the version displayed on the document. This means, for example, that a

document labelled with versions 1.1.0 and 1.1.1 or even 1.1.9 are exactly the same except for modifications to the

official schemas that are maintained and perpetually located at: http://schemas.opengis.net/. Note that

corrections to the document are registered via corrigendums. A corrigendum will change the base document and

notice will be given by appending a c# to the version (where # specifies the corrigendum number). In

corrigendums that correct both the schemas and the base document, the third triplet of the document version will

increment and the ‘c1’ or subsequent identifier will be appended, however the schemas will only increase the third

triplet of the version.

This document is an OGC Standard. Recipients of this document are invited to submit, with their comments,

notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018
ISO/DIS 19136-1:2018(E)
Warning

OGC official documents use a triple decimal-dot notation (i.e. MM.xx.ss). This document may be identified as

MM.xx (Major.minor) and may include increments to the third dot series (schema changes) without any

modification to this document, or the version displayed on the document. This means, for example, that a

document labelled with versions 1.1.0 and 1.1.1 or even 1.1.9 are exactly the same except for modifications to the

official schemas that are maintained and perpetually located at: http://schemas.opengis.net/. Note that

corrections to the document are registered via corrigendums. A corrigendum will change the base document and

notice will be given by appending a c# to the version (where # specifies the corrigendum number). In

corrigendums that correct both the schemas and the base document, the third triplet of the document version will

increment and the ‘c1’ or subsequent identifier will be appended, however the schemas will only increase the third

triplet of the version.

This document is an OGC Standard. Recipients of this document are invited to submit, with their comments,

notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018
ISO/DIS 19136-1:2018(E)
ISO 19136-1:2008
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Conformance requirements ................................................................................................................. 1

2.2 Conformance classes related to GML application schemas ............................................................ 2

2.3 Conformance classes related to GML profiles .................................................................................. 2

2.4 Conformance classes related to GML documents ............................................................................ 4

2.5 Conformance classes related to software implementations ............................................................ 4

3 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 4

4 Terms and symbols .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................... 13

5 Conventions ........................................................................................................................................ 14

5.1 XML namespaces ................................................................................................................................ 14

5.2 Versioning ........................................................................................................................................... 14

5.3 Deprecated parts of previous versions of GML ............................................................................... 15

5.4 UML notation ....................................................................................................................................... 15

5.5 XML Schema ........................................................................................................................................ 16

6 Overview of the GML schema ............................................................................................................ 16

6.1 GML schema ........................................................................................................................................ 16

6.2 GML application schemas ................................................................................................................. 17

6.3 Relationship between the ISO 19100 series of International Standards, the GML schema and

GML application schemas ................................................................................................................. 18

6.4 Organization of this International Standard ..................................................................................... 19

6.5 Deprecated and experimental schema components ....................................................................... 20

7 GML schema — General rules and base schema components ..................................................... 20

7.1 GML model and syntax ...................................................................................................................... 20

7.2 gmlBase schema components .......................................................................................................... 22

8 GML schema — Xlinks and basic types ........................................................................................... 34

8.1 Xlinks — Object associations and remote properties .................................................................... 34

8.2 Basic types .......................................................................................................................................... 35

9 GML schema — Features ................................................................................................................... 44

9.1 General concepts ................................................................................................................................ 44

9.2 Relationship with ISO 19109 .............................................................................................................. 45

9.3 Features ............................................................................................................................................... 45

9.4 Standard feature properties ............................................................................................................... 45

9.5 Geometry properties ........................................................................................................................... 47

9.6 Topology properties ........................................................................................................................... 50

9.7 Temporal properties ........................................................................................................................... 50

9.8 Defining application-specific feature types ..................................................................................... 52

9.9 Feature collections ............................................................................................................................. 52

9.10 Spatial reference system used in a feature or feature collection .................................................. 54

2 Copyright © 2007,2016 Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19136-1:2018
ISO/DIS 19136-1:2018(E)
ISO 19136-1:2008

10 GML schema — Geometric primitives ............................................................................................... 54

10.1 General concepts ................................................................................................................................ 54

10.2 Abstract geometric primitives ............................................................................................................ 61

10.3 Geometric primitives (0-dimensional) ............................................................................................... 61

10.4 Geometric primitives (1-dimensional) ............................................................................................... 62

10.5 Geometric primitives (2-dimensional) ............................................................................................... 75

10.6 Geometric primitives (3-dimensional) ............................................................................................... 85

11 GML schema — Geometric complex, geometric composites and geometric aggregates .......... 87

11.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 87

11.2 Geometric complex and geometric composites .............................................................................. 88

11.3 Geometric aggregates ......................................................................................................................... 91

12 GML schema — Coordinate reference systems schemas .............................................................. 96

12.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 96

12.2 Reference systems .............................................................................................................................. 98

12.3 Coordinate reference systems ......................................................................................................... 100

12.4 Coordinate systems .......................................................................................................................... 108

12.5 Datums ................................................................................................................................................ 116

12.6 Coordinate operations ...................................................................................................................... 122

13 GML schema — Topology ................................................................................................................ 136

13.1 General concepts .............................................................................................................................. 136

13.2 Abstract topology .............................................................................................................................. 136

13.3 Topological primitives ...................................................................................................................... 137

13.4 Topological collections ..................................................................................................................... 141

13.5 Topology complex ............................................................................................................................. 144

14 GML schema — Temporal information and dynamic features ..................................................... 146

14.1 General concepts .............................................................................................................................. 146

14.2 Temporal schema .............................................................................................................................. 147

14.3 Temporal topology schema .............................................................................................................. 155

14.4 Temporal reference systems ............................................................................................................ 158

14.5 Representing dynamic features ....................................................................................................... 165

15 GML schema — Definitions and dictionaries ................................................................................. 170

15.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 170

15.2 Dictionary schema ............................................................................................................................. 170

16 GML schema — Units, measures and values ................................................................................. 173

16.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 173

16.2 Units schema ..................................................................................................................................... 173

16.3 Measures schema .............................................................................................................................. 179

16.4 Value objects schema ....................................................................................................................... 180

17 GML schema — Directions ............................................................................................................... 188

17.1 Direction schema ............................................................................................................................... 188

17.2 direction, DirectionPropertyType..................................................................................................... 188

17.3 DirectionVectorType ......................................................................................................................... 188

17.4 DirectionDescriptionType ................................................................................................................. 189

18 GML schema — Observations .......................................................................................................... 190

18.1 Observations ...................................................................................................................................... 190

18.2 Observation schema ......................................................................................................................... 190

19 GML schema — Coverages .............................................................................................................. 194

19.1 The coverage model and representations ...................................................................................... 194

19.2 Grids schema ..................................................................................................................................... 198

19.3 Coverage schema .............................................................................................................................. 201

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20 Profiles ............................................................................................................................................... 217

20.1 Profiles of GML and application schemas ..................................................................................... 217

20.2 Definition of profile ........................................................................................................................... 218

20.3 Relation to application schema ....................................................................................................... 218

20.4 Rules for elements and types in a profile....................................................................................... 218

20.5 Rules for referencing GML profiles from application schemas ................................................... 219

20.6 Recommendations for application schemas using GML profiles ............................................... 220

20.7 Summary of rules for GML profiles ................................................................................................. 220

21 Rules for GML application schemas ............................................................................................... 221

21.1 Instances of GML objects ................................................................................................................ 221

21.2 GML application schemas ............................................................................................................... 221

21.3 Schemas defining Features and Feature Collections ................................................................... 224

21.4 Schemas defining spatial geometries ............................................................................................ 225

21.5 Schemas defining spatial topologies ............................................................................................. 227

21.6 Schemas defining time ..................................................................................................................... 228

21.7 Schemas defining coordinate reference systems ......................................................................... 228

21.8 Schemas defining coverages .......................................................................................................... 229

21.9 Schemas defining observations ...................................................................................................... 231

21.10 Schemas defining dictionaries and definitions ............................................................................. 232

21.11 Schemas defining values ................................................................................................................. 233

21.12 GML profiles of the GML schema .................................................................................................... 233

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suites for GML application schemas, GML profiles and GML

documents ......................................................................................................................................... 236

Annex B (normative) Abstract test suite for software implementations .................................................. 251

Annex C (informative) GML schema ............................................................................................................. 255

Annex D (normative) Implemented Profile of the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and

Extensions ......................................................................................................................................... 257

Annex E (normative) UML-to-GML application schema encoding rules .................................................. 325

Annex F (normative) GML-to-UML application schema encoding rules .................................................. 347

Annex G (informative) Guidelines for subsetting the GML schema ......................................................... 357

Annex H (informative) Default styling .......................................................................................................... 371

Annex I (informative) Backwards compatibility with earlier versions of GML ......................................... 383

Annex J (informative) Modularization and dependencies .......................................................................... 401

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................... 403

Index ................................................................................................................................................................ 405

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Foreword

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights.

The OGC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims

or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the

standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.

The Geography Markup Language (GML) was originally developed within the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.

(OGC). ISO 19136 was prepared by ISO/TC 211 jointly with the OGC.

This version is a corrigendum to GML 3.2.1 (ISO 19136:2007). It addresses the OGC Change Request 12-092

(gml:id attribute on LinearRing) by applying the following changes:
 the XML attribute gml:id in gml:AbstractGMLType has been made optional;

 the elements gml:AbstractRing and gml:Shell have been added to the substitutionGroups

gml:AbstractCurve and gml:AbstractSurface respectively;

 the types gml:AbstractRingType and gml:ShellType are now extended from base types

gml:AbstractCurveType and gml:AbstractSurfaceType respectively;

These changes correct inconsistencies with ISO 19107 without breaking the validity of instance documents created

using the GML 3.2.1 schema. I.e., all GML 3.2 instance documents that are valid against the GML 3.2.1 schema

are also valid against the GML 3.2.2 schema.

The corrected GML 3.2 schema is available at http://schemas.opengis.net/gml/3.2.1/. Note that the use of “3.2.1” in

the URL is unchanged since this version (3.2.2) is a corrigendum and the corrected schema replaces the GML 3.2.1

schema. Previous versions of the GML 3.2.1 schema are available at http://schemas.opengis.net/gml/gml-3_2_1.zip.

The change to the gml:id attribute reverts a change that has been made between GML 3.1.1 and GML 3.2.1.

Reverting this change also addresses comments raised by several communities since the release of GML 3.2.1 /

ISO 19136:2007.

As the correction relaxes a constraint in the XML schema, not all instance documents created based on the GML

3.2.2 schema will be valid against the GML 3.2.1 schema:

 all GML 3.2 instance documents that include a gml:id attribute on a ring or shell element are not valid

against the GML 3.2.1 schema;

 all GML 3.2 instance documents that include a feature, a spatial object or a temporal object without a gml:id

attribute are not valid against the GML 3.2.1 schema.

Local copies of the GML 3.2.1 schema documents have to be replaced by the GML 3.2.2 schema documents – or

be replaced by links to http://schemas.opengis.net/gml/3.2.1/gml.xsd.

This corrigendum also updates URIs – mainly in examples – where OGC policies have changed since the release

of GML 3.2.1 (location of the Xlink schema document, use of OGC HTTP URIs for coordinate reference systems).

As the corrigendum is currently not published by ISO, the reference to the normative schema documents in Annex

C now refers to the OGC schema repository.
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Introduction

Geography Markup Language is an XML grammar written in XML Schema for the description of application schemas

as well as the transport and storage of geographic information.

The key concepts used by Geography Markup Language (GML) to model the world are drawn from the ISO 19100

series of International Standards and the OpenGIS Abstract Specification.

A feature is an “abstraction of real world phenomena” (ISO 19101); it is a geographic feature if it is associated with

a location relative to the Earth. So a digital representation of the real world may be thought of as a set of features.

The state of a feature is defined by a set of properties, where each property may be thought of as a {name, type,

value} triple.

The number of properties a feature may have, together with their names and types, is determined by its type

definition. Geographic features with geometry are those with properties that may be geometry-valued. A feature

collection is a collection of features that may itself be regarded as a feature; as a consequence a feature collection

has a feature type and thus may have distinct properties of its own, in addition to the features it contains.

Following ISO 19109, the feature types of an application or application domain is usually captured in an application

schema. A GML application schema is specified in XML Schema and can be constructed in two different and

alternative ways:

 by adhering to the rules specified in ISO 19109 for application schemas in UML, and conforming to both the

constraints on such schemas and the rules for mapping them to GML application schemas specified in this

International Standard;

 by adhering to the rules for GML application schemas specified in this International Standard f

...

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