Free-standing chimneys - Part 4: Brick liners - Design and execution

This European Standard specifies special requirements and performance criteria for the design and construction of lining systems made of brickwork for free-standing industrial chimneys. Current European practice favours sectional liners and the statements of the standard are mainly devoted to such solutions but are also largely applicable to base supported independent and stayed liners. The differences in the design and construction of the two last types are covered by Annex A. This European Standard identifies requirements to ensure mechanical resistance and stability of liners in accordance with the general requirements given in EN 13084-1.
Lining systems comprise some or all of the following:
chimney liner including duct entry;
insulation;
liner support;
space between liner and concrete windshield.
Gas flow calculations to determine liner sizes are covered by EN 13084-1.

Freistehende Schornsteine - Teil 4: Innenrohre aus Mauerwerk - Entwurf, Bemessung und Ausführung

Diese Europäische Norm behandelt die besonderen Anforderungen und die Leistungskriterien für Entwurf, Bemessung und Ausführung von Innenrohrkonstruktionen aus Mauerwerk für freistehende Industrieschornsteine. In der gängigen europäischen Praxis werden aus einzelnen Abschnitten bestehende Innenrohre (Etagen-Innenrohre) bevorzugt, und die Festlegungen der Norm beziehen sich hauptsächlich auf diese Lösungen, gelten aber auch weitestgehend für unten abgestützte freistehende und horizontal abgestützte Innenrohre. Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt die Anforderungen an die mechanische Festigkeit und Stabilität von Innenrohren entsprechend den allgemeinen Anforderungen nach EN 13084-1.
Innenrohrkonstruktionen bestehen vollständig oder teilweise aus folgenden Teilen:
-   Schornsteininnenrohr einschließlich Abgaskanal-Einführung;
-   Wärmedämmung;
-   Innenrohrabstützung;
-   Raum zwischen Innenrohr und Beton-Tragrohr.
Strömungstechnische Berechnungen zur Bestimmung der Innenrohrmaße sind in EN 13084-1 angegeben.

Cheminées indépendantes - Partie 4: Parois intérieurs en terre cuite - Planification et exécution

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences et critères de performance particuliers applicables à la conception et à la construction des systèmes de conduit intérieur en briques de terre cuite pour les cheminées industrielles autoportantes. La pratique courante en Europe favorise les conduits en sections ; les exigences de la présente norme concernent principalement ces solutions, mais elles sont aussi largement applicables aux conduits portés par la base indépendants et étayés. La présente Norme européenne définit les exigences permettant de garantir la résistance mécanique et la stabilité des conduits intérieurs, conformément aux exigences générales données dans l'EN 13084-1.
Les systèmes de conduit intérieur sont constitués de tout ou partie des éléments suivants :
-   le conduit intérieur de cheminée avec une arrivée de gaine ;
-   l'isolation ;
-   le support du conduit intérieur ;
-   l'espace entre le conduit intérieur et le brise-vent en béton.
Les calculs de débit de gaz visant à déterminer la taille des conduits intérieurs sont expliqués dans l'EN 13084-1.

Prostostoječi dimniki - 4. del: Notranje zidane cevi - Projektiranje in izvedba

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2005
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
01-Jul-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 13084-4:2005
01-december-2005
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 13084-4:2004
3URVWRVWRMHþLGLPQLNLGHO1RWUDQMH]LGDQHFHYL3URMHNWLUDQMHLQL]YHGED
Free-standing chimneys - Part 4: Brick liners - Design and execution

Freistehende Schornsteine - Teil 4: Innenrohre aus Mauerwerk - Entwurf, Bemessung

und Ausführung

Cheminées indépendantes - Partie 4: Parois intérieurs en terre cuite - Planification et

exécution
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 13084-4:2005
ICS:
91.060.40 Dimniki, jaški, kanali Chimneys, shafts, ducts
SIST EN 13084-4:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 13084-4:2005
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 13084-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2005
ICS 91.060.40 Supersedes EN 13084-4:2002
English Version
Free-standing chimneys - Part 4: Brick liners - Design and
execution

Cheminées indépendantes - Partie 4: Conduits intérieurs Freistehende Schornsteine - Teil 4: Innenrohre aus

en briques de terre cuite - Conception et mise en oeuvre Mauerwerk - Entwurf, Bemessung und Ausführung

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 April 2005.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13084-4:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
Contents
Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................5

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................6

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ........................................................................................................6

3.1 Terms and definitions.........................................................................................................................6

3.2 Symbols...............................................................................................................................................8

4 Material ................................................................................................................................................8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................8

4.2 Brickwork.............................................................................................................................................8

4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................8

4.2.2 Thermal effects ...................................................................................................................................9

4.2.3 Classification and chemical attack....................................................................................................9

4.3 Insulation...........................................................................................................................................10

5 General design requirements...........................................................................................................11

5.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Minimum wall thickness ...................................................................................................................11

5.3 Liner supports...................................................................................................................................11

5.4 Openings ...........................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Ventilation..........................................................................................................................................12

5.6 Protective coatings...........................................................................................................................12

5.7 Accessories.......................................................................................................................................12

5.7.1 Joints .................................................................................................................................................12

5.7.2 Compensators...................................................................................................................................13

5.7.3 Ducts and fans ..................................................................................................................................13

6 Structural design...............................................................................................................................13

6.1 Actions...............................................................................................................................................13

6.1.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................13

6.1.2 Wind actions......................................................................................................................................13

6.1.3 Seismic actions.................................................................................................................................13

6.1.4 Thermal effects .................................................................................................................................13

6.1.5 Internal pressure and explosions ....................................................................................................14

6.2 Resistances.......................................................................................................................................14

6.3 Verification ........................................................................................................................................14

6.3.1 Ultimate limit state ............................................................................................................................14

6.3.2 Serviceability limit state ...................................................................................................................17

6.3.3 Stress calculations in the ultimate limit state.................................................................................17

6.3.4 Elastic stability..................................................................................................................................18

7 Execution...........................................................................................................................................18

7.1 Imperfections ....................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Tolerances.........................................................................................................................................18

8 Inspection and maintenance............................................................................................................19

8.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................19

8.2 Inspection aspects............................................................................................................................19

8.2.1 Brick liner ..........................................................................................................................................19

8.2.2 Insulation...........................................................................................................................................20

8.3 Frequency..........................................................................................................................................20

8.4 Performance ......................................................................................................................................20

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SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)

Annex A (informative) Structural design of base supported liners .........................................................22

A.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................22

A.2 Elastic stability..................................................................................................................................22

A.2.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................22

A.2.2 Elastic stability of the uncracked tube............................................................................................22

A.2.3 Elastic stability of free standing vertical columns .........................................................................24

A.2.4 Elastic stability of a half tube...........................................................................................................25

A.2.5 Comparison of the three calculation methods and conclusions ..................................................26

Annex B (normative) Openings ..................................................................................................................29

Annex C (informative) Compensators........................................................................................................30

Annex D (informative) Dynamic effects .....................................................................................................32

Annex E (informative) Strengthening – reinforced brickwork..................................................................35

E.1 Steel bands, fitted outside the liner.................................................................................................35

E.1.1 Stresses in the liner..........................................................................................................................35

E.1.2 Plain steel bands...............................................................................................................................36

E.1.3 Steel bands fitted with springs ........................................................................................................36

E.2 Reinforced brickwork .......................................................................................................................39

E.2.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................39

E.2.2 Dimensioning ....................................................................................................................................39

E.2.3.1 Bricks .........................................................................................................................................39

E.2.3.2 Mortar .........................................................................................................................................39

E.2.3.3 Reinforcing steel .......................................................................................................................39

E.2.4 Corrosion protection ........................................................................................................................39

E.2.5 Execution...........................................................................................................................................40

Annex F (informative) Thermal effects.......................................................................................................41

Thermal stresses ...........................................................................................................................................41

Annex G (informative) Drying and start up.................................................................................................43

G.1 New Liners.........................................................................................................................................43

G.1.1 General ..............................................................................................................................................43

G.1.2 Externally insulated liners................................................................................................................43

G.1.3 Uninsulated liners.............................................................................................................................43

G.2 Old brick liners..................................................................................................................................44

Figures

Figure A.A1 — The critical height of a free standing uncracked brick liner ..................................................... 24

Figure A.A2 — The critical height of cracked and uncracked brick liners........................................................ 27

Figure C.C1 — Example of a liner joint with compensator .............................................................................. 31

Figure D.D1 — Lowest relevant mode shape of liner...................................................................................... 34

Figure D.D2 — Relationship between h/r and γ .............................................................................................. 34

Figure E.E1 — Steel bands fitted with springs ................................................................................................ 38

Figure E.E2 — Integral reinforcement section with shaped bricks .................................................................. 40

TablesTable 1 — Main symbols ....................................................................................................................... 8

Table 2 — Minimum wall thickness for brickwork liners .................................................................................. 11

Table 4 — Characteristic values of mechanical properties of brickwork.......................................................... 14

Table 5 — Combination of actions for persistent design situations ............................................................... 16

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SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)

Table 5 N – Partial safety factors γG and γQi for actions................................................................................. 16

Table 6 N — Partial Safety factors γM for brickwork ....................................................................................... 17

Table A.1 — Critical height as a function of wall thickness ............................................................................. 25

Table A.2 — Calculation results with given tube dimensions .......................................................................... 26

Table A.3 — Maximum liner height and minimum wall thickness as a function of diameter ............................ 28

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 13084-4:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 297 “Free-standing

industrial chimneys”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn

at the latest by February 2006.
This document is part 4 of a package of standards as listed below:
 EN 13084-1, Free-standing industrial chimneys - Part 1: General requirements.
 EN 13084-2, Free-standing chimneys - Part 2: Concrete chimneys.

 prEN 13084-4, Free-standing chimneys - Part 4: Brick liners – Design and execution.

 EN 13084-5, Free-standing chimneys - Part 5: Materials for brick liners - Product specifications.

 EN 13084-6, Free-standing chimneys - Part 6: Steel liners - Design and execution.

 EN 13084-7, Free-standing chimneys – Part 7: Product specifications of cylindrical steel fabrications for

use in single wall chimneys and steel liners.

 EN 13084-8, Free-standing chimneys – Part 8: Design and execution of mast construction with satellite

components.
Additionally applies:

 EN 1993-3-2, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 3-2: Towers, masts and chimneys –

Chimneys

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

and United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies special requirements and performance criteria for the design and

construction of lining systems made of brickwork for free-standing industrial chimneys. Current European

practice favours sectional liners and the statements of the standard are mainly devoted to such solutions but

are also largely applicable to base supported independent and stayed liners. This European Standard

identifies requirements to ensure mechanical resistance and stability of liners in accordance with the general

requirements given in EN 13084-1.
Lining systems comprise some or all of the following:
 chimney liner including duct entry;
 insulation;
 liner support;
 space between liner and concrete windshield.
Gas flow calculations to determine liner sizes are covered by EN 13084-1.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1052-1, Methods of test for masonry  Part 1: Determination of compressive strength.

EN 1052-2, Methods of test for masonry  Part 2: Determination of flexural strength.

EN 13084-1:2000, Free-standing industrial chimneys — Part 1: General requirements.

EN 13084-5:2005, Free-standing chimneys — Part 5: Materials for brick liners — Product specifications.

3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 13084-1:2000 together with

the following apply.
3.1.1
base supported liner
liner which is supported vertically only at the liner base
3.1.2
independent liner
base supported liner which has no other horizontal support or restraint
3.1.3
stayed liner
base supported liner which has horizontal restraints
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SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
3.1.4
sectional liner
liner which is supported vertically at a number of elevations
3.1.5
liner support
load bearing component which supports the liner
3.1.6
duct entry
part of the liner which introduces the flue gases into the liner
3.1.7
thermal gradient

temperature difference between outer and inner wall surface related to the thickness of the wall

3.1.8
thermal shock

effect on the liner of rapid changes in flue gas temperature, giving stresses. This can typically occur due to

uncontrolled shutdowns, a fire or sudden by-pass of an energy conservation or flue gas desulphurisation unit

3.1.9
compensator

any systems which allows the movement of the joint in any direction maintaining its gas tightness

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
3.2 Symbols
The main symbols used in this document are given in Table 1.
Table 1 — Main symbols
Symbol Denomination Unit
Safety factor:
partial safety factor -
Material properties:
f strength N/mm
modulus of elasticity N/mm
σ stress
N/mm
α coefficient of thermal expansion
T K
Actions:
T thermal effects -
G permanent actions -
W wind actions -
a acceleration m/s
Dimensions:
d diameter m
h height m
t wall thickness m
Subscripts:
c compression -
t tensile -
y yield -
k characteristic -
M material -
4 Material
4.1 General
The choice of material will depend upon the service required.
4.2 Brickwork
4.2.1 General

The type of brickwork used is largely determined by the resistance to chemical attack of the bricks and

mortars. In addition, when thermal shocks are expected, brick types will be selected on the basis of their

resistance to spalling and other mechanical damage caused by the same.
Brickwork covered by this document consists of brick types in accordance with
EN 13084-5:2005, 5.1 and mortar types in accordance with EN 13084-5:2005, 5.2
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SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
4.2.2 Thermal effects

According to the requirements as specified in EN 13084-1:2000, 5.2.3.4 the temperature effect on brickwork

shall be considered particularly with regard to:
 limit temperature of the various components;

 thermal gradients through the brickwork components in steady and transient conditions;

 uniform temperature;
 expansion;
 thermal shock.

Calculations based on the maximum temperature of flue gas and the maximum expected ambient temperature

shall show that all the materials are operating below their allowable temperatures.

Thermal gradients, if not limited, could cause cracks in liners especially in those made of bricks type BT1, BT2

and BT3.

Thermal shock can cause spalling and cracks on bricks type BT1, BT2 and BT3. It normally causes only

shallow cracks but the thermal gradient may cause these to grow.
4.2.3 Classification and chemical attack
4.2.3.1 General

Depending on the degree of chemical attack given in EN 13084-1:2000, Table 3 the following brickwork

classes may be used for the construction of chimney liners:
 brickwork class A: resistant to "very high chemical attack";
 brickwork class B: resistant to "high chemical attack";
 brickwork class C: resistant to "medium chemical attack";
 brickwork class D: resistant to "low chemical attack";
 brickwork class E: not subject to "chemical attack".

Mortar type MT3 based on Portland cement may be used only for brickwork classes D and E.

NOTE For all brickwork classes in the presence of alkalis with temperatures above 680 °C, bricks with a low true

porosity (10 % maximum) are recommended.
4.2.3.2 Brickwork class A: resistant to "very high chemical attack"
This will normally consist of:
 bricks type BT1;

 mortar type MT1 (in the case of very high chemical attack due only to acids: mortar type MT2).

If abnormal temperature deviations are expected the limit in service temperature of mortars type MT1 shall be

taken into account.
Brickwork class A using mortar type MT1 can also withstand alkaline condensates.
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SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
4.2.3.3 Brickwork class B: resistant to "high chemical attack"
This will normally consist of:
 bricks type BT2;
 mortar type MT2.

The use of mortar type MT2 allows its use up to 1000 °C; if thermal shocks are expected the resistance to

thermal cycling of the bricks will be a factor of major importance.
Brickwork class B is not resistant to alkaline condensates.
4.2.3.4 Brickwork class C: resistant to "medium chemical attack"
This will normally consist of:
 bricks type BT3;
 mortar type MT2.

The use of mortar type MT2 allows its use up to 1000 °C; if thermal shocks are expected the resistance to

thermal cycling of the bricks will be a factor of major importance.
Brickwork class C is not resistant to alkaline condensates.
4.2.3.5 Brickwork class D: resistant to "low chemical attack"
This will normally consist of:
 bricks type BT4;
 mortar type MT3.
4.2.3.6 Brickwork class E: not subjected to chemical attack
This will normally consist of:
 bricks type BT4 or BT5;
 mortar type MT3.

Brickwork class E may be used in liners that are always operating safely above the dew point.

Bricks type B5 may only be used provided that mechanical actions such as erosion or abrasion are not

expected.
4.3 Insulation

Insulation may be used to reduce the thermal gradient in the liner as well as in the windshield and to reduce

the heat loss of the flue gases.

The following types of insulating materials are widely available for the purpose:

 insulating bricks;
 mineral wool blankets;
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SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
 cellular glass blocks;
 vermiculite/perlite preformed blocks;
 calcium silicate blocks;
 glass wool blankets;
 ceramic fibre lancets.

Stability of insulation shall be ensured even in the case of vibrations due to possible pulsation of flue gas

pressure.
5 General design requirements
5.1 General

A gas tight floor shall be provided no more than 1,0 m from the bottom of the lowest duct entry.

Adequate means shall be provided to drain acid condensate to a safe location.
5.2 Minimum wall thickness
For the determination of the minimum wall thickness of the liner see Table 2.
Table 2 — Minimum wall thickness for brick liners
1 2 3 4
Internal diameter, d, of
Minimum wall thickness, in mm, for
liner
shaped bricks with lateral shaped bricks with
bricks without tongue and
in m
tongue and groove continuous tongue
groove
and groove
1 0 < d ≤ 4,0 115 100 64
2 115 100 80
4,0 < d ≤ 6,0
3 115 100 100
6,0 < d ≤ 8,0
4 8,0 < d ≤ 10,0 — 120 120
5 — 140 140
10,0 < d ≤ 12,0
5.3 Liner supports

Brick liner supports shall be designed with adequate rigidity to avoid imposing unacceptable non-uniform

support reactions on the liner. In addition, in the case of multiflue chimneys, the deformation of the supporting

platforms shall be such that the required clearance between the top of the liner and the upper platform is

respected. Supports comprising segmental beams, supported by discrete corbels projecting from the

windshield, shall be provided with torsional continuity by in-situ reinforced concrete joints or other means.

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SIST EN 13084-4:2005
EN 13084-4:2005 (E)
5.4 Openings

In order to limit the effects of differential temperatures around the circumference of the liner, openings

introducing gases at different temperatures should be so arranged that a good mixing of the separate gas

streams is ensured. They should be positioned at elevations as near to each other as possible in order to

increase mixing between gas streams and reduce temperature differences which can otherwise cause

additional stresses in the brickwork.
5.5 Ventilation

Brick liners are normally used when flue gas pressure is lower than the ambient pressure outside the

brickwork at the same elevation. Positive pressure excursions of limited duration are permitted, but these

should be taken into account in assessing the chemical load.

If the gas flow calculations show that significant operating periods are expected with flue gas pressure higher

than the pressure in the space between liner and windshield, pressurisation of the space – by the use of fans

– and the provision of compensators are required.

Where access is required into the space between liner and windshield during operation of a liner, ventilation

shall be sufficient to ensure that no flue gas leaks through the liner. The ventilation system shall comply with

the requirements of EN 13084-1:2000, 4.5.
Air ventilation can also be used to cool and avoid
...

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