Safety of machinery - Safety requirements for pressure metal diecasting units

This European Standard specifies the safety requirements for pressure metal diecasting units.
It applies to pressure diecasting machines and to the interfaces with the following ancillary equipment:
   die,
   melting, holding and dosing furnaces (see EN 746-1),
   metal feeding equipment,
   inserting and removal devices,
   spraying appliances,
   heat exchanger for the die.
This ancillary equipment itself is not covered.
Additional risks arising from the material being cast are not covered.
This standard does not apply to low pressure diecasting machines and/or gravity diecasting machines.
This standard deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to pressure diecasting machines when used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Clause 4). It provides the requirements to be met by the manufacturer to ensure the safety of persons and property during transport, commissioning, use, de-commissioning and maintenance periods, as well as in the event of foreseeable failures or malfunctions that may occur in the equipment.
This document is not applicable to pressure metal diecasting units/machinery which are manufactured before the date of its publication as EN.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Sicherheitsanforderungen an Metall-Druckgießanlagen

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Sicherheitsanforderungen für Metall-Druckgießanlagen fest.
Sie gilt für Druckgießmaschinen und Übergangsstellen zu folgenden Zusatzeinrichtungen:
-   Druckgießform,
-   Schmelz, Warmhalte- und Dosieröfen (siehe EN 746-1),
-   Metallzuführeinrichtung,
-   Einlege- und Entnahmegeräte,
-   Sprühvorrichtungen,
-   Wärmetauscher für die Druckgießform.Diese Zusatzeinrichtungen an sich sind nicht abgedeckt.
Weitere Risiken, die aus dem gegossenen Material resultieren, sind nicht abgedeckt.
Diese Norm gilt nicht für Niederdruck-Kokillengießmaschinen und/oder Schwerkraft-Kokillengießmaschinen.
Diese Norm enthält alle relevanten signifikanten Gefährdungen, Gefährdungssituationen und Gefährdungs¬ereignisse für Druckgießmaschinen, vorausgesetzt, dass diese bestimmungsgemäß verwendet werden, sowie für vernünftigerweise durch den Hersteller vorhersehbaren Fehlgebrauch (siehe Abschnitt 4). Diese Norm enthält die vom Hersteller zu erfüllenden Anforderungen, um die Sicherheit von Personen und Gegenständen während des Transports, der Inbetriebnahme, des Betriebs, der Außerbetriebnahme und der Instandhaltung sowohl im Fall von vorhersehbaren Fehlern als auch bei Fehlfunktionen sicherzustellen, die in den Ausrüs¬tungen auftreten können.
Diese Norm gilt nicht für Metall-Druckgießanlagen/-maschinen, die vor dem Erscheinungstermin dieser Norm als EN hergestellt worden sind.

Sécurité des machines - Prescriptions de sécurité pour les chantiers de moulage des métaux sous pression

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les prescriptions de sécurité relatives aux chantiers de moulage des métaux sous pression.
Elle s'applique aux machines à couler sous pression et aux interfaces avec les équipements auxiliaires suivants :
-   le moule ;
-   les fours de fusion, de maintien et de dosage (voir EN 746-1) ;
-   les dispositifs d'alimentation en métal ;
-   les dispositifs d'amenée ou d'extraction ;
-   les dispositifs de poteyage ;
-   l’échangeur de chaleur du moule.
Ces équipements auxiliaires ne sont pas couverts.
Les risques additionnels provenant du matériau en cours de coulée ne sont pas couverts.
La présente norme ne s'applique pas aux chantiers de moulage à basse pression et/ou par gravité.
La présente norme traite tous les phénomènes dangereux, situations et évènements dangereux significatifs spécifiques aux chantiers de moulage sous pression, lorsqu’ils sont utilisés dans les conditions normales prévues et dans des conditions anormales telles que le constructeur a pu raisonnablement les prévoir (voir Article 4). Elle définit les prescriptions auxquelles doit satisfaire le fabricant pour assurer la sécurité des personnes et des biens pendant la construction, le transport, la mise en service, l'utilisation, la mise hors service et la maintenance, ainsi que dans le cas de pannes ou de défauts de fonctionnement prévisibles, susceptibles d'affecter le matériel.
Le présent document ne s’applique pas aux chantiers/machines de moulage des métaux sous pression qui sont fabriqués avant la date de publication de ce document par le CEN.

Varnost strojev - Varnostne zahteve za enote za tlačno ulivanje kovin

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
12-Sep-2006
Withdrawal Date
07-Apr-2009
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Due Date
08-Apr-2009
Completion Date
08-Apr-2009

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 869:2007
01-januar-2007
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 869:2000
9DUQRVWVWURMHY9DUQRVWQH]DKWHYH]DHQRWH]DWODþQRXOLYDQMHNRYLQ
Safety of machinery - Safety requirements for pressure metal diecasting units
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Sicherheitsanforderungen an Metall-Druckgießanlagen

Sécurité des machines - Prescriptions de sécurité pour les chantiers de moulage des

métaux sous pression
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 869:2006
ICS:
25.120.30 Livarska oprema Moulding equipment
SIST EN 869:2007 sl,en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 869
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2006
ICS 25.120.30 Supersedes EN 869:1997
English Version
Safety of machinery - Safety requirements for pressure metal
diecasting units

Sécurité des machines - Prescriptions de sécurité pour les Sicherheit von Maschinen - Sicherheitsanforderungen an

chantiers de moulage des métaux sous pression Metall-Druckgießanlagen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 August 2006.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 869:2006: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................5

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................6

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................8

4 List of significant hazards ..................................................................................................................11

4.1 General..................................................................................................................................................11

4.2 Mechanical hazards.............................................................................................................................11

4.3 Electrical hazards/control system......................................................................................................12

4.4 Thermal hazards..................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Fire hazards..........................................................................................................................................12

4.6 Noise hazards.......................................................................................................................................13

4.7 Hazards caused by gases, vapours, fumes and dusts ....................................................................13

4.8 Hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles in machinery design.............................13

4.9 Setting-up the diecasting machine ....................................................................................................14

4.10 Falls from heights................................................................................................................................14

4.11 Particular hazards with regard to cold-chamber diecasting machines .........................................14

4.11.1 Bursting of slugs .................................................................................................................................14

4.11.2 Injection drive area..............................................................................................................................14

4.12 Particular hazards of diecasting machines with vertical closing movement................................14

4.13 Particular hazards with regard to hot-chamber diecasting machines ...........................................14

4.13.1 Nozzle....................................................................................................................................................14

4.13.2 Initiation of the casting process due to a fault in the control system............................................14

4.14 Hydraulics and pneumatics................................................................................................................14

5 Safety requirements and/or protective measures............................................................................14

5.1 General..................................................................................................................................................14

5.2 Mechanical............................................................................................................................................15

5.2.1 General..................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.2 Guards and protective devices for die area (see also 5.4.1) ...........................................................15

5.2.3 Guards for the die closing mechanism area.....................................................................................17

5.2.4 Additional requirements for movable guards and access doors ...................................................17

5.2.5 Diecasting units...................................................................................................................................18

5.3 Electric equipment and control systems ..........................................................................................18

5.3.1 Electric equipment...............................................................................................................................18

5.3.2 Safety related parts of the control system: General ........................................................................18

5.3.3 Emergency stop functions..................................................................................................................19

5.3.4 Safety related control system of the dangerous movements of the die........................................19

5.3.5 Safety related control system of the dangerous movements with closing safety device ...........19

5.3.6 Control of ancillary equipment...........................................................................................................20

5.4 Measures against thermal hazards....................................................................................................20

5.4.1 Spurting of molten metal ....................................................................................................................20

5.4.2 Contact with hot surfaces...................................................................................................................20

5.5 Hydraulics, pneumatics, combustible fluids ....................................................................................20

5.5.1 Hydraulics, pneumatics......................................................................................................................20

5.5.2 Pressure fluids.....................................................................................................................................20

5.5.3 Spray systems for release agents......................................................................................................20

5.5.4 Heat exchanger media.........................................................................................................................20

5.6 Noise.....................................................................................................................................................21

5.6.1 Noise sources......................................................................................................................................21

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)

5.6.2 Noise reduction as a safety requirement..........................................................................................21

5.6.3 Noise emission measurement and declaration................................................................................21

5.7 Gases, vapours, fumes and dusts .....................................................................................................21

5.8 Ergonomic aspects.............................................................................................................................22

5.9 Protective measures when setting-up diecasting machines, inserting and removal

appliances, tie bar pulling devices, and other ancillary equipment ..............................................22

5.9.1 Setting-up without protective devices for the die area ...................................................................22

5.9.2 Movement of core pullers and ejectors.............................................................................................22

5.9.3 Movement of tie bar pulling devices .................................................................................................22

5.9.4 Movement of the plunger of cold chamber machines .....................................................................22

5.10 Elevated working places.....................................................................................................................23

5.11 Additional protective measures for cold-chamber diecasting machines......................................23

5.11.1 Bursting and removal of slugs...........................................................................................................23

5.11.2 Guards for the plunger area with vertical shot sleeve ....................................................................23

5.11.3 Guards for the plunger area with horizontal shot sleeve................................................................23

5.12 Additional protective measures for diecasting machines with vertical closing movement........23

5.13 Additional protective measures for hot-chamber diecasting machines .......................................23

5.13.1 Metal spraying between nozzle and die ............................................................................................23

5.13.2 Movement of the injection piston ......................................................................................................24

6 Verification of the safety requirements and/or protective measures ............................................24

7 Information for use..............................................................................................................................25

7.1 General.................................................................................................................................................25

7.2 Signals and warning devices .............................................................................................................25

7.3 Accompanying documents.................................................................................................................25

7.3.1 Instruction handbook..........................................................................................................................25

7.4 Marking.................................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Examples .....................................................................................................................29

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC............................................................................................41

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................42

Figures

Figure A.1 — Example of a hot chamber diecasting machine (can be manufactured with a horizontal or a

vertical die closing system) .........................................................................................................................29

Figure A.2 — Example of a horizontal cold-chamber diecasting machine (can be manufactured with a

horizontal or a vertical die closing system) .................................................................................................29

Figure A.3 — Example of a vertical cold-chamber diecasting machine with vertical shot-end (can be

manufactured with a horizontal or a vertical die closing system)................................................................30

Figure A.4 — Examples of mechanical hazards and danger zones ..................................................................30

Figure A.5 — Examples of danger zones for metal spraying at horizontal cold-chamber machines.................31

Figure A.6 — Examples of danger zones for metal spraying at vertical cold-chamber machines with vertical

shot-end.......................................................................................................................................................31

Figure A.7 — Examples of danger zones for metal spraying at hot-chamber machines...................................32

Figure A.8 — Distance between the guard and machine frame according to 5.2.2.1........................................32

Figure A.9 — Example of guarding the hazardous area of a diecasting cell .....................................................33

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)

Figure A.10 — Example for a closing safety device with positively actuated hydraulic valve, see 5.3.5.1 a)... 34

Figure A.11 — Example for a closing safety device with positively actuated pilot valve, see 5.3.5.1 b) .......... 35

Figure A.12 — Example for a closing safety device with positively actuated limit switch which drives the shut-

off valve, see 5.3.5.1 c) .............................................................................................................................. 36

Figure A.13 — Example for a closing safety device with positively actuated limit switch which drives a pilot

valve, see 5.3.5.1 c) ................................................................................................................................... 37

Figure A.14 — Example of safety related control system with closing safety device for closing units, see

5.3.5.1 d)..................................................................................................................................................... 38

Figure A.15 — Example of safety related control system with closing safety device for closing units, see

5.3.5.1 d)..................................................................................................................................................... 39

Figure A.16 — Example of additional requirements on the hydraulic control of machines with vertical closing

movement against pressure peaks and gravity (for electrical interlocking and monitoring, see Figures

A.10 to A.15................................................................................................................................................ 40

Tables

Table 1 — Methods of verification ..................................................................................................................... 24

Table 1 (continued) ............................................................................................................................................ 25

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN 869:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 202 “Foundry machinery”,

the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2007, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by March 2007.
This document supersedes EN 869:1997

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this standard.

An assessment of the foreseeable risks arising from the use of the machinery was carried out when this

standard was drafted by CEN/TC 202/WG 1, comprising experts from the following countries: Germany, Italy,

Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)
Introduction
This document is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and hazardous events are

covered are indicated in the scope of this document. When provisions of this type C standard are different

from those which are stated in type A or B standards, the provisions of this type C standard take precedence

over the provisions of the other standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the

provisions of this type C standard.
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the safety requirements for pressure metal diecasting units.

It applies to pressure diecasting machines and to the interfaces with the following ancillary equipment:

 die,
 melting, holding and dosing furnaces (see EN 746-1),
 metal feeding equipment,
 inserting and removal devices,
 spraying appliances,
 heat exchanger for the die.
This ancillary equipment itself is not covered.
Additional risks arising from the material being cast are not covered.

This standard does not apply to low pressure diecasting machines and/or gravity diecasting machines.

This standard deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to pressure

diecasting machines when used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably

foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Clause 4). It provides the requirements to be met by the manufacturer

to ensure the safety of persons and property during transport, commissioning, use, de-commissioning and

maintenance periods, as well as in the event of foreseeable failures or malfunctions that can occur in the

equipment.

This document is not applicable to pressure metal diecasting units/machinery which are manufactured before

the date of its publication as EN.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 294:1992, Safety of machinery — Safety distance to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper

limbs
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)

EN 349, Safety of machinery — Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body

EN 418, Safety of machinery - Emergency stop equipment, functional aspects - Principles for design

EN 574:1996, Safety of machinery — Two-hand control devices — Functional aspects — Principles for design

EN 614-1, Safety of machinery - Ergonomic design principles - Part 1: Terminology and general principles

EN 614-2, Safety of machinery — Ergonomic design principles — Part 2: Interactions between the design of

machinery and work tasks

EN 894-1, Safety of machinery — Ergonomic requirements for the design of displays and control actuators —

Part 1: General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators

EN 894-2, Safety of machinery — Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control

actuators — Part 2: Displays

EN 894-3, Safety of machinery — Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control

actuators — Part 3: Control actuators

EN 953:1997, Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for the design and construction of fixed

and movable guards

EN 954-1:1996, Safety of machinery — Safety related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles

for design

EN 982, Safety of machinery - Safety requirements for fluid power systems and their components – Hydraulics

EN 983, Safety of machinery - Safety requirements for fluid power systems and their components -

Pneumatics

EN 999, Safety of machinery — The positioning of protective equipment in respect of approach speeds of

parts of the human body

EN 1088:1995, Safety of machinery — Interlocking devices associated with guards - Principles for design and

selection
EN 1265, Noise test code for foundry machines and equipment

EN 13861, Safety of machinery — Guidance for the application of ergonomics standards in the design of

machinery

EN 1760-2, Safety of machinery - Pressure sensitive protective devices - Part 2: General principles for the

design and testing of pressure sensitive edges and pressure sensitive bars

EN 60204-1:1997, Safety of machinery — Electrical equipment of machines — Part 1: General requirements

(IEC 60204-1:1997).

EN 61310-1, Safety of machinery — Indication, marking and actuation — Part 1: Requirements for visual,

auditory and tactile signals (IEC 61310-1:1995)

EN 61310-2, Safety of machinery - Indication, marking and actuation - Part 2: Requirements for marking (IEC

61310-2:1995)

EN ISO 11688-1, Acoustics — Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and

equipment — Part 1: Planning (ISO/TR 11688-1:1995)
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)

EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 1: Basic

terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003)

EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 2: Technical

principles (ISO 12100-2:2003)

EN ISO 14122-1, Safety of machinery — Permanent means of access to machinery — Part 1: Choice of a

fixed means of access between two levels (ISO 14122-1:2001)

EN ISO 14122-2, Safety of machinery - Permanent means of access to machinery - Part 2: Working platforms

and walkways (ISO 14122-2:2001)

EN ISO 14122-3, Safety of machinery - Permanent means of access to machinery - Part 3: Stairs, stepladders

and guard-rails (ISO 14122-3:2001)
ISO 7000, Graphical symbols for use on equipment - Index and synopsis
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 12100-1:2003 and the following

apply.

NOTE Definitions used in EN and ISO standards referred to in this document are also valid for this document.

3.1
casting
to cast a component/product by the use of pressure diecasting
3.2
diecasting

a process in which molten metal is injected into a die and held under pressure until complete solidification

3.3
diecasting machine

a machine that injects molten metal under high pressure into a parted die which is connected to the platens of

the machine
3.4
diecasting unit

a diecasting machine, together with ancillary equipment, which form a complete production unit

3.5
ancillary equipment

devices which automatically carry out process functions additional to those of the diecasting machine itself,

e. g., feeding the metal, removing the castings, spraying the die
3.6
metal
the material being cast
3.7
hot-chamber diecasting machine

diecasting machine having the shot sleeve and plunger submerged in the molten metal of the furnace (see

Figure A.1)
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)
3.8
cold-chamber diecasting machine

diecasting machine where molten metal is delivered to the shot sleeve in measured amounts from a separate

furnace
3.9
horizontal cold-chamber diecasting machine

cold-chamber diecasting machine with the shot sleeve mounted horizontally (see Figure A.2)

3.10
vertical cold-chamber diecasting machine

cold-chamber diecasting machine with the shot sleeve mounted vertically (see Figure A.3)

3.11
die closing system

assembly which opens and closes the die and holds the die against the force exerted on the metal during

injection and solidification
3.12
injection system

assembly which forces metal from the shot sleeve into the die and applies pressure to the metal during

solidification
3.13
ejector system
assembly which ejects castings from the die cavity
3.14
core puller
assembly which controls movements of cores
3.15
automatic tie bar puller

device for automatically pulling tie bars in order to facilitate die set-up procedure

3.16
automatic ejector coupler

device for automatically coupling the ejector plate of the machine with the ejector device of the die

3.17
automatic die clamper
device for automatically clamping the die to the platens of the machine
3.18
fixed platen
platen to which the fixed die-half and the metal injection system are connected
3.19
moving platen
platen to which the moving die-half is connected
3.20
cylinder platen (also known as thrust platen, reaction platen, rear platen)
platen to which the die closing mechanism and the closing cylinder are connected
3.21
tie bar
bars which carry the locking load and guide the moving platen
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)
3.22
injection drive
system, e. g., hydraulic, which moves the plunger and applies force to it
3.23
shot sleeve

cylindrical container of a cold-chamber diecasting machine in which pressure is applied to molten metal

3.24
plunger

piston which forces metal from the shot sleeve into the die and applies pressure to the metal during

solidification
3.25
plunger rod
rod which joins the plunger to the injection drive
3.26
gooseneck (hot-chamber diecasting machine)

that part of an injection system (containing the shot sleeve and metal flow channel) which is submerged in

molten metal
3.27
nozzle
connection between the gooseneck and the fixed die-half
3.28
slug

metal surplus which solidifies in the cold-chamber shot sleeve and is ejected with the casting

3.29
ejector plate
part which transmits movement to the ejector device of the die
3.30
ejector rod

part which joins the ejector plate of the machine to the ejector device of the die

3.31
die area
area between fixed platen and moving platen
3.32
die closing mechanism area
area between moving platen and cylinder platen
3.33
injection drive area
area between fixed platen and shot cylinder
3.34
closing safety device

device, actuated by the movable guard, which prevents the die from closing if a failure occurs in the control

system
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
EN 869:2006 (E)
3.35
setting

operating mode where any step in the process can be selected and hand operated in any sequence (e. g., to

perform individual steps of the process (not necessarily in operating cycle sequence), e. g., like changing a

die)
3.36
manual

operating mode where the individual steps in the machine cycle are hand initiated in a predetermined order

(e. g., to perform individual steps of the process (only in the sequence which is fixed by the program), e. g.,

like to finish the casting cycle or to run the casting cycle in order to examine or to look for faults)

3.37
semi-automatic

operating mode where each cycle is hand initiated but thereafter automatically proceeds to completion (e. g.,

to produce castings in which at least one of the steps of the process which is performed outsid

...

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