Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 39: Binder content by ignition

This document describes a test method for the determination of the binder content of samples of bituminous mixtures by ignition. As such, it is an alternative to the more traditional method of extracting the binder using solvents. The method can be used for evaluation of mixture composition because the remaining aggregate can be used for determining aggregate gradation and density, provided excessive breakdown of the aggregate particles does not occur at the temperature reached. The results can be used for process control or checks on the compliance of mixtures. However, the need for calibration of a mixture, either on the complete mixture or on each of its component materials separately, before an analysis can be carried out makes this method easier to use with regularly used mixtures rather than with an extensive range of different mixtures from different aggregate sources. The test method is equally suitable for the analysis of mixtures containing unmodified or modified binders because the method has to be calibrated for each mixture being checked when calibration on mixtures is used. In case of doubt/dispute, the determination of the calibration value based on laboratory-prepared bituminous mixtures (see A.1 and A.2) is the reference method.

Asphalt - Prüfverfahren für Heißasphalt - Teil 39: Bindemittelgehalt durch Thermoanalyse

Dieses Dokument beschreibt ein Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Bindemittelgehaltes von Asphalt-Proben durch Thermoanalyse. Als solches stellt es eine Alternative zum eher traditionellen Verfahren der Bindemittelextraktion mit Lösemitteln dar. Das Verfahren kann zur Bewertung der Mischgutzusammensetzung verwendet werden, weil die verbleibenden Gesteinskörnungen zur Bestimmung der Korngrößenverteilung der Gesteinskörnungen und der Dichte verwendet werden können, vorausgesetzt, dass bei der erreichten Temperatur kein übermäßiger Zerfall der Gesteinskörnungen auftritt. Die Ergebnisse können zur Prozesssteuerung oder zur Überprüfung der Übereinstimmung von Mischgütern mit Anforderungen verwendet werden. Durch die Notwendigkeit, das Mischgut als Ganzes oder seine Bestandteile einzeln zu kalibrieren, bevor eine Analyse durchgeführt werden kann, eignet sich dieses Verfahren eher für die Anwendung auf regelmäßig verwendete Mischgüter als auf eine ganze Reihe verschiedener Mischgüter mit Gesteinskörnungen unterschiedlicher Herkunft. Das Prüfverfahren ist ebenso geeignet für die Analyse von Mischgütern mit nicht modifizierten oder modifizierten Bindemitteln, weil es für jedes zu überprüfende Mischgut zu kalibrieren ist, sofern eine Kalibrierung an Mischgütern durchgeführt wird. In Zweifels- oder Streitfällen gilt die Bestimmung des
Kalibrierwertes auf der Grundlage von im Labor hergestellten Asphalt-Mischgütern (siehe A.1 und A.2) als
Referenzverfahren.

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 39: Détermination de la teneur en liant par calcination

Le présent document décrit les procédures à suivre pour la détermination de la teneur en liant d’échantillons
de mélanges bitumineux par calcination. Comme telle, il représente une alternative à la méthode plus
traditionnelle d’extraction de liant au moyen de solvants. La méthode peut être utilisée pour l’évaluation de la
composition d’un mélange, les granulats résultants pouvant servir à déterminer la granularité et la masse
volumique du granulat à condition que les grains n’aient pas subi d’éclatements excessifs à cause de la
température atteinte. Les résultats peuvent être utilisés pour la maîtrise de la fabrication ou pour des
vérifications de conformité des mélanges. Toutefois, la nécessité de calibrer un mélange, soit sur le mélange
complet, soit séparément sur chacun de ses matériaux constitutifs, avant de réaliser une analyse rend cette
méthode préférable pour des mélanges utilisés régulièrement, plutôt que pour des familles de mélanges
comportant des composants d’origines variées. La méthode d’essai est applicable également pour des
mélanges comportant des liants modifiés ou non, le calibrage étant effectué pour chaque mélange à analyser.
En cas de doute ou de litige, la détermination du facteur de calibrage fondé sur des mélanges bitumineux
préparés en laboratoire (voir A.1 et A.2) est la procédure de référence.

Bitumenske zmesi - Preskusne metode za vroče asfaltne zmesi - 39. del: Ugotavljanje deleža veziva z vžigom

Ta dokument opisuje preskusno metodo za ugotavljanje deleža veziva v vzorcih bitumenskih zmesi z vžigom. Ta metoda se lahko uporablja namesto tradicionalnejše metode ekstrakcije veziva s topili. Metodo je mogoče uporabiti za vrednotenje sestave zmesi, ker je preostali agregat mogoče uporabiti za določanje gradacije in gostote agregata, če pri doseženi temperaturi ne pride do presežnega razpadanja delcev agregata. Rezultate je mogoče uporabiti za kontrolo procesa ali preverjanje skladnosti zmesi. Vendar je ta metoda zaradi potrebe po umerjanju zmesi, in sicer končne zmesi ali ločenih kompozitnih materialov, pred analizo enostavnejša za uporabo pri redno uporabljenih zmeseh kot pri širšem sklopu različnih zmesi različnih agregatnih virov. Preskusna metoda je prav tako ustrezna za analizo zmesi, ki vsebujejo nemodificirana ali modificirana veziva, ker jo je treba umeriti za vsako zmes, ki se preverja, kadar se umerjanje uporablja pri zmeseh. V primeru dvoma ali spora je referenčna metoda določanje vrednosti za umerjanje na osnovi laboratorijsko pripravljenih bitumenskih zmesi (glejte A.1 in A.2).

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
05-Jun-2012
Withdrawal Date
25-Feb-2020
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
26-Feb-2020

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Asphalt - Prüfverfahren für Heißasphalt - Teil 39: Bindemittelgehalt durch ThermoanalyseMélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 39: Détermination de la teneur en liant par calcinationBituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 39: Binder content by ignition93.080.20Materiali za gradnjo cestRoad construction materialsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 12697-39:2012SIST EN 12697-39:2012en,fr,de01-september-2012SIST EN 12697-39:2012SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 12697-39:20051DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 12697-39:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 12697-39
June 2012 ICS 93.080.20 Supersedes EN 12697-39:2004English Version

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 39: Binder content by ignition

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 39: Détermination de la teneur en liant par calcination

Asphalt - Prüfverfahren für Heißasphalt - Teil 39: Bindemittelgehalt durch Thermoanalyse This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 April 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 12697-39:2012: ESIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................31 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................72 Normative references ............................................................................................................................73 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................74 Principle ..................................................................................................................................................85 Apparatus ...............................................................................................................................................85.1 Furnace ...................................................................................................................................................86 Preparatory treatment of laboratory samples of bituminous mixtures......................................... 107 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 107.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 107.2 Test procedure for furnace with internal balance (Method A) ....................................................... 117.3 Procedure for furnace without internal balance (Method B) .......................................................... 128 Calculation ........................................................................................................................................... 128.1 Method A .............................................................................................................................................. 128.2 Method B .............................................................................................................................................. 139 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 1410 Precision data ..................................................................................................................................... 14Annex A (normative)

Calculation of calibration value .................................................................................. 15A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15A.2 Calibration based on laboratory-prepared bituminous mixtures .................................................. 15A.3 Calibration based on parallel analysis with extraction methods ................................................... 16A.4 Calibration based on dry analysis of constituent aggregate ......................................................... 16Annex B (informative)

Aggregate grading ..................................................................................................... 19Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 20 SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 12697-39:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 227 “Road materials”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2012. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 12697-39:2004. The significant technical changes made to EN 12697-39:2004 include the following: a) The need for calibration of a mixture is clarified in the scope; b) The definitions for precision concepts are removed; c) Minor clarifications in the principle; d) The nesting of baskets is clarified in the equipment; e) The tolerance on the temperature of the oven is widened; f) The maximum weight requirements of the external balance are corrected; g) The note that the calibration value based on dry analysis of constituent aggregate can only be regarded as an estimate is deleted; h) The catch pan to be placed in the furnace with the sample baskets is added; i) Note added that the mass of the sample baskets and catch pan need not be measured if the binder content is to be calculated using the mass loss directly; j) In Annex A, the total binder load is limited to 150 g; k) Precision added to Annex B. This European Standard is one of a series of standards for Bituminous mixtures as listed below: EN 12697-1, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 1: Soluble binder content EN 12697-2, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 2: Determination of particle size distribution EN 12697-3, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 3: Bitumen recovery: Rotary evaporator EN 12697-4, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 4: Bitumen recovery: Fractionating column EN 12697-5, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 5: Determination of the maximum density SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 4 EN 12697-6, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 6: Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens EN 12697-7, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 7: Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens by gamma rays EN 12697-8, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 8: Determination of void characteristics of bituminous specimens EN 12697-10, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 10: Compactability EN 12697-11, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 11: Determination of the affinity between aggregate and bitumen EN 12697-12, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 12: Determination of the water sensitivity of bituminous specimens EN 12697-13, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 13: Temperature measurement EN 12697-14, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 14: Water content EN 12697-15, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 15: Determination of the segregation sensitivity EN 12697-16, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 16: Abrasion by studded tyres EN 12697-17, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 17: Particle loss of porous asphalt specimen EN 12697-18, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 18: Binder drainage EN 12697-19, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 19: Permeability of specimen EN 12697-20, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 20: Indentation using cube or cylindrical specimens (CY) EN 12697-21, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 21: Indentation using plate specimens EN 12697-22, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 22: Wheel tracking EN 12697-23, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 23: Determination of the indirect tensile strength of bituminous specimens EN 12697-24, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 24: Resistance to fatigue EN 12697-25, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 25: Cyclic compression test EN 12697-26, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 26: Stiffness EN 12697-27, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 27: Sampling EN 12697-28, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 28: Preparation of samples for determining binder content, water content and grading EN 12697-29, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 29: Determination of the dimensions of a bituminous specimen SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 5 EN 12697-30, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 30: Specimen preparation by impact compactor EN 12697-31, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 31: Specimen preparation by gyratory compactor EN 12697-32, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 32: Laboratory compaction of bituminous mixtures by vibratory compactor EN 12697-33, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 33: Specimen prepared by roller compactor EN 12697-34, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 34: Marshall test EN 12697-35, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 35: Laboratory mixing EN 12697-36, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 36: Determination of the thickness of a bituminous pavement EN 12697-37, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 37: Hot sand test for the adhesivity of binder on precoated chippings for HRA EN 12697-38, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 38: Common equipment and calibration EN 12697-39, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 39: Binder content by ignition EN 12697-40, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 40: In-situ drainability EN 12697-41, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 41: Resistance to de-icing fluids EN 12697-42, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 42: Amount of coarse foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt EN 12697-43, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 43: Resistance to fuel EN 12697-44, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 44: Crack propagation by semi-circular bending test EN 12697-45, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 45: Saturation ageing tensile stiffness (SATS) conditioning test EN 12697-46, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 46: Low temperature cracking and properties by uniaxial tension tests EN 12697-47, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 47: Determination of the ash content of natural asphalts prEN 12697-48, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 48: Interlayer bonding1) prEN 12697-49, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 49: Determination of friction after polishing1) SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 6 prEN 12697-50, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 50: Scuffing resistance of surface course1)

WARNING — The temperature of the oven and the different accessories is extremely high during the ignition method. Special care shall be taken when handling the equipment and the samples baskets etc. should be placed, shielded and marked in a way that helps ensure any unpremeditated contact is avoided. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

1) In preparation. SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 7 1 Scope This document describes a test method for the determination of the binder content of samples of bituminous mixtures by ignition. As such, it is an alternative to the more traditional method of extracting the binder using solvents. The method can be used for evaluation of mixture composition because the remaining aggregate can be used for determining aggregate gradation and density, provided excessive breakdown of the aggregate particles does not occur at the temperature reached. The results can be used for process control or checks on the compliance of mixtures. However, the need for calibration of a mixture, either on the complete mixture or on each of its component materials separately, before an analysis can be carried out makes this method easier to use with regularly used mixtures rather than with an extensive range of different mixtures from different aggregate sources. The test method is equally suitable for the analysis of mixtures containing unmodified or modified binders because the method has to be calibrated for each mixture being checked when calibration on mixtures is used. In case of doubt/dispute, the determination of the calibration value based on laboratory-prepared bituminous mixtures (see A.1 and A.2) is the reference method. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 12597, Bitumen and bituminous binders — Terminology EN 12697-1, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 1: Soluble binder content EN 12697-14, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 14: Water content EN 12697-27, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 27: Sampling EN 12697-28, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 28: Preparation of samples for determining binder content, water content and grading 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 binder covers both bitumen and bituminous binder as described in EN 12597 3.2 corrected binder content calculated binder content after correction by the calibration value in order to compensate for components in the asphalt material itself that, due to the high temperatures during ignition, could give rise to misinterpretations 3.3 calibration value mean difference between the actual and measured binder contents for a particular bituminous mixture, in per cent, as measured from three samples Note 1 to entry: The calibration value is a specific, material-dependent value that normally results from a loss of mass during the ignition from constituents in the mixture other than the binder. The principle of the binder content by ignition is based upon a pre-determination of the corrections for the constituents used in the mixture, primarily the aggregate. Note 2 to entry: Mineral aggregates will show varying losses of mass during the test depending on their origin (petrographic composition). Examples of components that give rise to high corrections are limestone, hydrated lime and cellulose fibres. SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 8 Note

3 to entry: Methods for determining the calibration values are given in Annex A (normative). 3.4 target temperature temperature to which the furnace would raise the sample in the test without the rise in temperature due to the exothermic reaction of burning the binder Note 1 to entry: The target temperature (usually 540 °C) is determined during the calibration. 3.5 test completion time time from when the temperature in the furnace returns to the target temperature, after the initial rise above that temperature, to when the test is completed with the sample having nominally reached constant mass Note 1 to entry: If a furnace with an internal balance is used, the completion time is when the loss of mass between individual readings taken at 1 min intervals for three consecutive minutes is less than a constant mass limit. If a furnace without an internal balance is used, the completion time is when the change in the mass of the sample after further ignition for 15 min is less than a constant mass limit. 4 Principle The test method determines the binder content of bituminous mixtures by ignition of the mixture in a furnace. The corrected binder content is obtained by a calculation that includes a calibration term. Calibration terms are determined for particular asphalt mixtures or aggregates. Two test methods are described: Method A utilises a furnace with an internal balance; Method B permits the use of a furnace and external balance. Re-determination (re-calibration or re-calculation depending on the calibration method chosen from Annex A) shall be undertaken for each significant change in the mixture, including changes in the constituent materials or their proportions. NOTE 1 The ignition process should have a controlled rise in temperature in order to avoid excessive heating of the mineral aggregate which can break down the aggregate particles depending on the petrographic composition. NOTE 2 The calculation of the calibration value based on parallel analysis with extraction methods (A.1 and A.3) is appropriate for mixtures for which the intended proportions of the constituent materials are not known. 5 Apparatus 5.1 Furnace. 5.1.1 Furnace, capable of burning all the binder with the features detailed in 5.1.2 to 5.1.6 for Method A and 5.1.2 to 5.1.4 for Method B. NOTE 1 The temperature required to burn all the binder will depend on the technology used and is determined as part of the calibration procedure (see Annex A). NOTE 2 The furnace should not have to operate at its maximum capacity in order to allow flexibility and to ensure long service. 5.1.2 Sample chamber, having an internal capacity capable of taking the sample without touching the sides and with the maximum dimensions not greater than twice the minimum dimensions. NOTE Larger chamber sizes may expedite testing by allowing larger sample basket(s) (and thus the material to be tested can be placed in thinner layers). 5.1.3 Automatic lock, that shall not allow the door to be opened until the completion of the test procedure, and a warning system to indicate the end of the pre-programmed temperature cycle. SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 9 5.1.4 System for reducing furnace emissions, by which the furnace shall be vented into a hood or to the outside and which, when properly set up, shall permit no noticeable odours escaping into the laboratory.

The furnace shall have a fan with the capability to pull sufficient air through the furnace to expedite the test and to reduce the escape of smoke into the laboratory. NOTE 1 The method for reducing furnace emissions can comprise a filter and a post combustion chamber that is designed to eliminate the toxic residues produced by burning the binder. NOTE 2 If mechanical ventilation is used, the air flow should be adjusted so as not to affect the operation of the equipment (e.g. a forced air extraction system may result in a loss of fines and the generation of fumes from the furnace). 5.1.5 Internal balance, capable of detecting mass variations of ± 0,1 g in the sample within the baskets.

The balance shall be thermally isolated from the furnace chamber. 5.1.6 Data collection system and a warning system, which shall be capable of being set to a value such that the loss in mass between individual readings taken at 1 min intervals for three consecutive minutes at end of the pre-programmed temperature cycle is not higher than the values stated in Table 1. 5.2 Metal baskets, manufactured from perforated sheet of tempered stainless steel or other suitable material that permits adequate air flow through the sample and retains the majority of the sample throughout the test.

The dimensions shall be specified by the furnace manufacturer to provide the maximum surface area for the sample while still providing sufficient room to safely load and unload the sample. The baskets shall be capable of being nested. 5.3 Catch pan, made of stainless steel with dimensions sized to accommodate the metal baskets specified in 5.2. 5.4 Oven, with convection or forced draft, capable of maintaining a temperature of (110 ± 5) °C in the vicinity of the samples. 5.5 External balance, capable of weighing the mass of trays plus the catch pan and the test sample according to Table 1 to ± 0,1 g. 5.6 Safety equipment, including safety glasses or face shield, high temperature gloves, and long sleeved jacket. 5.7 Heat-resistant surface, capable of withstanding 650 °C and able to act as a heat sink that can speed the cooling of the sample baskets, and protective cage, capable of completely surrounding the sample baskets and preventing accidental physical contact with them. NOTE An appropriate sign warning of the danger of ‘Very Hot Surfaces’ should be attached to the protective cage. 5.8 Pan, larger than the sample basket(s), for transferring samples after ignition. 5.9 Spatulas. 5.10 Bowls. 5.11 Wire brushes. SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 10 6 Preparatory treatment of laboratory samples of bituminous mixtures 6.1 Sampling shall be performed in accordance with EN 12697-28 to achieve a sample size as given in Table 1. The mass of the sample in the baskets during the test shall be the same as the mass used for the calibration to ± 100 g. Table 1 — Size of sample Nominal maximum aggregate size Mass of sample Maximum constant mass limit mm g g 4 1 000 to 1 400 0,15 5,6 or 6,3 or 8 or 10 1 000 to 1 600 0,15 11,2 or 12,5 or 14 or 16 1 000 to 1 700 0,20 20 or 22,4 1 000 to 2 400 0,25 31,5 1 000 to 3 000 0,30 40 or 45 1 000 to 4 000 0,40 NOTE 1 When the mass of the test specimen exceeds the capacity of the equipment used, the test specimen may be divided into suitable increments, tested, and the results combined by weighted average for calculation of the corrected binder content. NOTE 2 Large samples of fine mixtures tend to result in incomplete ignition of the binder. 6.2 The sample shall be dried to constant mass in an oven at (110 ± 5) °C unless it is known that the sample does not contain water. Alternatively, the water content shall be determined in accordance with EN 12697-14 for later correction. NOTE If a damp sample is tested, the water content will be driven off and could be counted as binder if no correction is made. 7 Procedure 7.1 General 7.1.1 Obtain the calibration value in accordance with Annex A for the specific mixture to be analysed either directly or from records. The calibration procedure (or re-calculation for calibration based on dry analysis of constituent aggregate) shall be carried out with a mixture before undertaking any acceptance testing, and repeated at regular intervals. It shall also be carried out each time there is a significant change in the mixture design. A significant change is classified as being:  a change of source for any component material (particularly recycled asphalt pavement); and/or  a change in the proportion of the component materials (other than the binder or recycled asphalt pavement) by 10 % or more of their original proportion; and/or  a change in the proportion of any recycled asphalt pavement by 5 % or more of the original proportion; and/or  a change of target binder content by 0,5 % or more. NOTE 1 The calculation of the calibration value based on parallel analysis with extraction methods (A.1 and A.3) is appropriate for mixtures for which the intended proportions of the constituent materials are not known.

NOTE 2 The analysis method by ignition may be affected by the type of aggregate in the mixture. SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 11 NOTE 3 Mineral aggregate (and organic fibres) will show varying losses of mass during the test depending on their origin (petrographic composition). Examples of components that give rise to high corrections are limestone, hydrated lime and cellulose fibres. The calibration value for these components can be measured by determination on a bitumen/filler mortar (A.4). 7.1.2 The test shall be carried out using the same equipment used in the calibration, including furnace and sample baskets. 7.1.3 Pre-heat the ignition furnace. Record the furnace temperature at the start of the test. 7.1.4 Continue the procedure in accordance with either 7.2 (Method A) for furnaces with an internal balance or 7.3 (Method B) for furnaces without an internal balance. NOTE When required, the aggregate grading can be determined in accordance with Annex B after the binder content has been obtained. 7.2 Test procedure for furnace with internal balance (Method A) 7.2.1 Weigh the sample at a temperature of (110 ± 5) °C on the external balance and record the sample mass Ws,w, in grams, to the nearest 0,1 g. 7.2.2 Place the available sample baskets in the catch pan in turn and without any appreciable loss of temperature. Distribute the relevant proportion of the sample as evenly as possibly over each sample basket before placing the next. Take care to keep the material away from the edges of the sample baskets. Use a spatula or trowel to level the sample. NOTE To ensure consistent results, the temperature of the test portion after determining Ws,w should not be allowed to cool from 110 °C for more than 3 min before loading into the furnace. 7.2.3 Weigh to 0,1 g and record the mass of the sample, sample basket(s) and catch pan Wt+s, in grams, on the external balance. 7.2.4 Place the sample baskets and catch pan in the furnace ensuring that they are not in contact with either the furnace wall or any temperature probe or other protrusion inside the furnace. Run the appropriate ignition programme after the oven has been pre-heated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 7.2.5 Allow the test to continue until the balance indicator displays show that the sample mass has stabilised and so that the range of 3 consecutive weighings, taken at 1 min intervals, is within the constant mass limit in Table 1. Remove the sample baskets, placing them on the heat-resistant surface, immediately covering with the heat guard and allow to cool to approximately room temperature to permit safe handling. NOTE 1 Failure of the furnace scale to stabilise may indicate that the sample baskets are in contact with the furnace wall. NOTE 2 The cooling time for samples removed from the furnace is dependent primarily on sample size and dispersion in the baskets. The time taken to cool to approximately room temperature is unlikely to be less than 30 min. 7.2.6 Record the loss of mass Wloss, in grams, from the internal balance. Then weigh and record the mass of the sample, sample baskets and catch pan Wt+a, in grams, to 0,1 g on the external balance. NOTE Wt+a need not be measured if B is to be calculated using Wloss directly, but B should be calculated using Ws and Wa whenever used for reference purposes because the internal balance measures the mass loss at elevated temperature. SIST EN 12697-39:2012

EN 12697-39:2012 (E) 12 7.3 Procedure for furnace without internal balance (Method B) 7.3.1 Weigh to 0,1 g and record the mass of the sample basket(s) and catch pan Wt, in grams, at room temperat

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