Workplace exposure - General requirements for the performance of procedures for the measurement of chemical agents

This European Standard specifies general requirements for the performance of procedures for the determination of the concentration of chemical agents in workplace atmospheres as required by the Chemical Agents Directive 98/24/EC (see reference [9]). The requirements given apply to all measuring procedures, irrespective of the physical form of the chemical agent (gas, vapour, airborne particles), the sampling method and the analytical method used.
This European Standard is applicable to
-   all steps of a measuring procedure,
-   measuring procedures with separate sampling and analysis steps, and
-   direct-reading devices.

Exposition am Arbeitsplatz - Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit von Verfahren zur Messung chemischer Arbeitsstoffe

Diese Europäische Norm legt allgemeine Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit von Messverfahren zur Bestimmung der Konzentration chemischer Arbeitsstoffe in der Arbeitsplatzatmosphäre fest, wie seitens der Richtlinie über chemische Arbeitsstoffe 98/24/EG (siehe Literaturhinweis [7]) gefordert. Diese Anforderungen gelten für alle Messverfahren, unabhängig vom physikalischen Zustand des chemischen Arbeitsstoffes (Gas, Dampf, luftgetragene Partikel), vom Probenahmeverfahren und vom eingesetzten Analyseverfahren. Diese Europäische Norm gilt für
- alle Schritte eines Messverfahrens,
- Messverfahren mit voneinander unabhängigen Probenahme- und Analyseschritten, und
- direkt anzeigende Messgeräte.

Exposition sur les lieux de travail - Exigences générales concernant les performances des procédures de mesure des agents chimiques

La présente Norme européenne stipule les exigences générales de performances pour les procédures
servant à déterminer la concentration des agents chimiques dans les atmosphères des lieux de travail comme
demandé dans la Directive relative aux agents chimiques 98/24/CE (voir référence [7]). Ces exigences sont
applicables à toutes les procédures de mesure, indépendamment de la forme physique de l’agent chimique
(gaz, vapeur, particules en suspension dans l'air), de la méthode de prélèvement ou d’analyse employée.
La présente Norme européenne est applicable :
- à toutes les étapes d’une procédure de mesure ;
- aux procédures de mesure pour lesquelles le prélèvement et l’analyse sont deux étapes distinctes ; et
- aux dispositifs à lecture directe.

Izpostavljenost na delovnem mestu - Splošne zahteve za izvajanje meritev kemičnih agensov

Ta evropski standard določa splošne zahteve za izvajanje meritev kemičnih agensov v ozračju na delovnem mestu v skladu z zahtevami Direktive Sveta 98/24/ES o kemičnih dejavnikih (glejte sklic [9]). Podane zahteve se nanašajo na vse merilne postopke, ne glede na fizično obliko kemičnega agensa (plin, para, lebdeči delci) ter uporabljeno metodo vzorčenja in analitično metodo.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za:
– vse faze merilnega postopka,
– merilne postopke z ločenimi fazami vzorčenja in analize ter
– naprave, ki omogočajo neposredno odčitavanje.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
20-Oct-2015
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
17-Mar-2021

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.PHULWHYExposition am Arbeitsplatz - Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit von Verfahren zur Messung chemischer ArbeitsstoffeExposition sur les lieux de travail - Exigences générales concernant les performances des procédures de mesure des agents chimiquesWorkplace exposure - General requirements for the performance of procedures for the measurement of chemical agents13.040.30Kakovost zraka na delovnem mestuWorkplace atmospheresICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 482:2012+A1:2015SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016en,fr,de01-januar-2016SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 482:2012+A1
October
t r s w ICS
s uä r v rä u r Supersedes EN
v z tã t r s tEnglish Version

Workplace exposure æ General requirements for the performance of procedures for the measurement of chemical agents Exposition sur les lieux de travail æ Exigences générales concernant les performances des procédures de mesure des agents chimiques

Exposition am Arbeitsplatz æ Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit von Verfahren zur Messung chemischer Arbeitsstoffe This European Standard was approved by CEN on

{ March
t r s t and includes Amendment
s approved by CEN on
s w August
t r s wä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey andUnited Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s w CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

v z tã t r s t ªA sã t r s w ESIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7 4 Classification ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration ............................................ 7 4.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space ........................ 7 4.4 Measurements for comparison with (occupational exposure) limit values and periodic measurements ................................................................................................................................ 7 5 Performance requirements ......................................................................................................................... 7 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 5.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration ............................................ 8 5.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space ........................ 8 5.4 Measurements for comparison with limit values and periodic measurements ....................... 8 5.4.1 Unambiguity ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 5.4.2 Selectivity ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 5.4.3 Averaging time ................................................................................................................................................. 8 5.4.4 Measuring range .............................................................................................................................................. 9 5.4.5 Expanded uncertainty ................................................................................................................................... 9 5.4.6 Chemical agents with low limit values .................................................................................................... 9 5.5 Composite procedures .................................................................................................................................. 9 5.6 Transport and storage ................................................................................................................................... 9 5.7 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................................................ 10 5.8 Description of measuring procedure .................................................................................................... 10 5.9 Dimension of result ..................................................................................................................................... 10 5.10 Additional requirements ........................................................................................................................... 10 6 Test method ................................................................................................................................................... 10 7 Validation report .......................................................................................................................................... 11 Annex A (informative)

Structure of a method description ......................................................................... 12 Annex B (informative)

Calculation of uncertainty of measurement....................................................... 13 B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 B.2 Uncertainty associated with sampled air volume or mass uptake ............................................ 14 B.2.1 Pumped sampling......................................................................................................................................... 14 B.2.1.1 Sources of uncertainty ................................................................................................................................ 14 B.2.1.2 Flow rate measurement ............................................................................................................................. 14 B.2.1.3 Pump flow stability ...................................................................................................................................... 15 SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 3 B.2.1.4 Sampling time ................................................................................................................................................ 16 B.2.2 Diffusive sampling ........................................................................................................................................ 16 B.2.2.1 Sources of uncertainty ................................................................................................................................ 16 B.2.2.2 Uptake rate...................................................................................................................................................... 16 B.2.2.3 Sampling time ................................................................................................................................................ 16 B.3 Uncertainty associated with sampling efficiency .............................................................................. 16 B.3.1 Pumped sampling methods for gases and vapours .......................................................................... 16 B.3.2 Diffusive sampling methods for gases and vapours ......................................................................... 17 B.3.3 Aerosol sampling methods ........................................................................................................................ 17 B.3.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17 B.3.3.2 Closeness of matching with the required sampling convention(s) ............................................ 17 B.3.3.3 Uncertainty components for aerosol samplers – Estimates for general use ........................... 17 B.3.3.4 Efficiency of the collection substrate ..................................................................................................... 18 B.3.3.4.1 Filter materials ...................................................................................................................................... 18 B.3.3.4.2 Foams ........................................................................................................................................................ 18 B.4 Uncertainty associated with sample storage and transportation ............................................... 18 B.4.1 Sample storage .............................................................................................................................................. 18 B.4.2 Transportation .............................................................................................................................................. 18 B.4.2.1 Gas samples and vapour samples ........................................................................................................... 18 B.4.2.2 Aerosol samples ............................................................................................................................................ 18 B.5 Uncertainty associated with method recovery for gases and vapours ..................................... 18 B.6 Uncertainty associated with analytical recovery for airborne particles and mixtures of airborne particles and vapour ............................................................................................................ 19 B.7 Uncertainty associated with method variability for gases and vapours .................................. 19 B.8 Uncertainty associated with analytical variability for airborne particles and mixtures of airborne particles and vapour ......................................................................................... 19 B.9 General equation for combination of uncertainty components .................................................. 20 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 21

SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 482:2012+A1:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 137 “Assessment of workplace exposure to chemical and biological agents”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by April 2016. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 2015-08-15. This document supersedes !EN 482:2012". The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags !". !deleted text" According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 5 Introduction National laws and regulations based on European Directives require the assessment of the potential exposure of a worker to chemical agents in workplace atmospheres. One way of assessing such exposure is to measure the concentration of a chemical agent in the air in the worker's breathing zone. The procedures used for such measurements should give reliable and valid results, so that when compared with set occupational exposure limit values, a correct decision can be made, for instance, as to whether the exposure level is acceptable or control measures need to be applied. !Because of their importance in the process of exposure assessment, it is required that the measuring procedures fulfil some general requirements which are given in this document. Specific European Standards have been prepared for different types of measuring procedures and measuring devices. These include European Standards for airborne particle samplers (EN 13205-1), diffusive samplers (EN 838), pumped samplers (EN 1076), detector tubes (EN ISO 17621), sampling pumps (EN ISO 13137), metals and metalloids (EN 13890), mixtures of airborne particles and vapour (EN 13936) and direct reading instruments (EN 45544 (all parts)). In these specific European Standards, additional requirements have been included for the procedure or device in question, so that the general requirements of this document are not compromised. Where no specific European Standard exists, only the general requirements apply." Performance requirements are given in this document for unambiguity, selectivity, averaging time, measuring range and expanded uncertainty for minimum specified measuring ranges. These requirements are intended to apply under environmental conditions present at the workplace. However, because a wide range of environmental conditions are encountered in practice, this document specifies requirements that have to be fulfilled by measuring procedures when tested under prescribed laboratory conditions. It is the user's responsibility to choose the appropriate procedures or devices that meet the requirements of this document. One way of doing this is to obtain information or confirmation from the provider of a procedure or the manufacturer of a device. Type-testing or, more generally, assessment of the performance of procedures or devices, can be undertaken by the manufacturer, user, test house or research and development laboratory, as is most appropriate. A number of existing procedures for workplace measurements have either been tested over a part of the required minimum measuring range, but not over the entire range, or have not been tested for all environmental influences and potential interferences. If these partially validated procedures meet the performance requirements of this European Standard, they can be used at present. Nevertheless these procedures should be tested over the full ranges as soon as is reasonably practicable. If there is no measuring procedure for a chemical agent which meets the requirements of this document, a procedure should be used whose performance is closest to the specified requirements. SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 6 1 Scope !This European Standard specifies general requirements for the performance of procedures for the determination of the concentration of chemical agents in workplace atmospheres as required by the Chemical Agents Directive 98/24/EC (see reference [9]). The requirements given apply to all measuring procedures, irrespective of the physical form of the chemical agent (gas, vapour, airborne particles), the sampling method and the analytical method used." This European Standard is applicable to — all steps of a measuring procedure, — measuring procedures with separate sampling and analysis steps, and — direct-reading devices. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. !EN 481, Workplace atmospheres - Size fraction definitions for measurement of airborne particles EN 838, Workplace exposure - Procedures for measuring gases and vapours using diffusive samplers - Requirements and test methods EN 1076, Workplace exposure - Procedures for measuring gases and vapours using pumped samplers - Requirements and test methods EN 1540, Workplace exposure - Terminology EN 13205-1, Workplace exposure - Assessment of sampler performance for measurement of airborne particle concentrations - Part 1: General requirements EN 13890, Workplace exposure - Procedures for measuring metals and metalloids in airborne particles - Requirements and test methods EN 13936, Workplace exposure - Procedures for measuring a chemical agent present as a mixture of airborne particles and vapour - Requirements and test methods EN 45544 (all parts), Workplace atmospheres — Electrical apparatus used for the direct detection and direct concentration measurement of toxic gases and vapours EN ISO 13137, Workplace atmospheres — Pumps for personal sampling of chemical and biological agents — Requirements and test methods (ISO 13137) EN ISO 17621, Workplace atmospheres — Short term detector tube measurement systems — Requirements and test methods (ISO 17621) ISO 78-2, Chemistry — Layouts for standards — Part 2: Methods of chemical analysis" SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 7 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1540 apply. 4 Classification 4.1 General In this document, measurements are classified according to their purpose. These classifications are based upon the measurement strategy laid down in EN 689. 4.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration are performed to obtain relatively crude quantitative information on exposure levels. Such information is used to identify potential health hazards, and to estimate the risk to health based on the likely severity of harm and the probability of its occurrence. These measurements can also determine if the exposure is significantly below or significantly above the (occupational exposure) limit value. 4.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space are used to: a) provide information on the likely pattern of the concentration of chemical agents in the air, b) identify locations and periods of elevated exposure, c) provide information on the location and intensity of emission sources, and d) estimate the effectiveness of ventilation or other technical measures. 4.4 Measurements for comparison with (occupational exposure) limit values and periodic measurements Measurements for comparison with (occupational exposure) limit values are used to obtain results of known uncertainty for the average concentration of a chemical agent in the air in a worker’s breathing zone. Periodic measurements are used to determine whether exposure conditions have changed since the measurements for comparison with limit values were performed, or whether control measures remain effective. NOTE Since the composition of the workplace atmosphere will have been investigated during the initial occupational exposure assessment, it might be appropriate for periodic measurements to use procedures with lower selectivity. 5 Performance requirements 5.1 General Performance requirements for measuring procedures depend on the purpose for which they are used. The performance requirements for screening measurements are less stringent than for measurements for the comparison with limit values and periodic measurements. Therefore, the performance requirements for screening measurements in 5.2 and 5.3 are only given in general terms. SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 8 5.2 Screening measurements of time weighted average concentration The measurement procedures shall have: a) adequate selectivity for the chemical agent (see 4.2), b) averaging time less than or equal to the limit value reference period, c) measuring range that includes the limit value, and d) expanded uncertainty that is fit for purpose (see 4.2). 5.3 Screening measurements of variation of concentration in time and/or space The measuring procedures shall have: a) adequate selectivity for the chemical agent (see 4.3), b)

5 min; for variation of concentration in space

¶ 15 min), c) measuring range that is fit for purpose (see 4.3), and d) expanded uncertainty that is fit for purpose (see 4.3). 5.4 Measurements for comparison with limit values and periodic measurements 5.4.1 Unambiguity A measuring procedure shall produce an unambiguous result for the concentration of the chemical agent being measured in the specified measuring range, i.e. an analytically determined value shall correspond to one concentration only. 5.4.2 Selectivity The measuring procedure shall contain appropriate information about the nature and magnitude of any interference. NOTE Selectivity requirements vary from case to case, depending on what is known in advance about the workplace air. If the identity of all contaminants present is not known in advance then the measuring procedure will need to have a high selectivity. If the identity of all contaminants is known prior to measurement and there are no interferents present, then it might be possible to use a measurement procedure with a low selectivity. Procedures for measuring chemical agents present as airborne particles shall prescribe a method for sampling the particle size fraction, as defined in EN 481, for which the limit value for the chemical agent is set. If different limit values are set for different species of a chemical agent, then the measuring procedure shall determine the individual species concerned. 5.4.3 Averaging time The averaging time is equal to the sampling time, which shall be less than or equal to the limit value reference period. SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 9 5.4.4 Measuring range The measuring range of the procedure or instrument shall cover at least the concentrations from 0,1 times to 2 times the limit value for long-term measurements, and from 0,5 times to 2 times the limit value for short-term measurements. !NOTE For limit values see reference [10]." 5.4.5 Expanded uncertainty The requirements for expanded uncertainty are given in Table 1. Table 1 — Expanded uncertainty requirements for measurements for comparison with limit values and periodic measurements reference period measuring range relative expanded uncertainty relative expanded uncertainty (mixtures of airborne particles and vapour) short-term (e.g. 15 min) 0,5 times to 2 times

limit value
¶ 50 %
¶ 50 % long-term 0,1 times to < 0,5 times limit value
¶ 50 %
¶ 50 % long-term 0,5 times to 2 times limit value
¶ 30 %

¶ 50 % NOTE Variation of exposure to chemical agents in the workplace can be significantly greater than indicated by the uncertainty of a single measurement calculated according to this European Standard. This is due to the temporal and spatial variability of workplace exposure. ! 5.4.6 Chemical agents with low limit values In exceptional cases, the limit value of a chemical agent can be so low that at present no measuring procedure is available which meets the requirements given in 5.4.4 and 5.4.5. Until a measuring procedure which fulfils these requirements is available, a measuring procedure should be used whose performance is closest to the specified requirements. NOTE

A list of published measuring procedures is available from GESTIS Analytical methods database [11] which is updated regularly. These measuring procedures are rated according to their compliance with this European Standard and EN 838, EN 1076, EN 13890 and EN 13936." 5.5 Composite procedures The performance requirements detailed in 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 shall be fulfilled for the whole measuring procedure even if the measuring procedure consists of several distinct steps, e.g. sampling, transport and storage, sample preparation and analysis. In the latter case, each step of the measuring procedure may be tested individually as an alternative to testing the measuring procedure as a whole. 5.6 Transport and storage Transport and storage of samples, if appropriate, shall be carried out in such a way that the physical and chemical integrity is maintained between sampling and analysis. SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 10 5.7 Environmental conditions !The effect of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure) on the performance of the method shall be tested in the laboratory." Performance requirements concerning unambiguity, selectivity, expanded uncertainty, minimum measuring range and averaging time shall be fulfilled under the conditions likely to be encountered in the workplace. NOTE

It is not practicable to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of environmental influences in the field and therefore laboratory tests are specified in this document. However, field tests can provide valuable information on the performance of measurement methods. The range of environmental conditions under which the performance requirements of 5.2 to 5.5 are fulfilled shall be specified in the measuring procedure. 5.8 Description of measuring procedure The measuring procedure shall be documented in accordance with ISO 78-2. An example for the structure of a method description is given in Annex A. The description shall contain all necessary information to perform the measuring procedure, including information about the attainable expanded uncertainty, measuring range, averaging time, interferences and environmental or other conditions that can influence the performance of the measuring procedure. If correction factors are applied, e.g. for a known and explainable bias due to environmental influences, these shall be justified in the measuring procedure. 5.9 Dimension of result The final measurement result shall be expressed in the same units as those of the limit value. This can be achieved directly or by means of a suitable conversion. This requirement is not obligatory for screening measurements of the variation of concentration in time and/or space. 5.10 Additional requirements !In addition to the requirements given in 5.2 to 5.9, further requirements specified in EN 838, EN 1076, EN ISO 13137, EN ISO 17621, EN 13205-1, EN 13890, EN 13936 and EN 45544 shall be met for particular types of measuring procedures and devices, as appropriate." 6 Test method 6.1 Estimate the expanded uncertainty of results obtained using the measuring procedure by carrying out the tests prescribed in the relevant European Standard(s) specific to the type of procedure or device concerned, as listed in Clause 2. Carry out measurements at the lower and upper ends of the measuring range specified in Table 1, and for at least one intermediate concentration. Prepare at least six replicate samples for each set of tests and analyse the samples under repeatability conditions. !Calculate the expanded uncertainty, expressed as a percentage, according to the following procedure (see e.g. references [12], [13], [14] and ISO/IEC Guide 98-3):" a) specify the measurand; b) identify all possible sources of uncertainty; c) quantify the random sampling uncertainty usr and non-random sampling uncertainty usnr; SIST EN 482:2012+A1:2016

EN 482:2012+A1:2015 (E) 11 d) quantify the random analytical uncertainty uar and non-random analytical uncertainty uanr; e) calculate the combined random standard uncertainty ucr according to Formula (1) and the combined non-random standard uncertainty ucnr according to Formula (2): rrr22csauuu=+ (1) nrnrnr22csauuu=+ (2)

f) calculate the combined standard uncertainty uc according to Formula (3
...

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