Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals - Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness (ISO 4498:2010)

ISO 4498:2010 specifies methods of hardness testing of sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals.
Procedure 1 determines the apparent hardness of the whole material.
Procedure 1
applies to sintered metal materials which have either not been subjected to any heat treatment, or which have been heat treated in such a way that the hardness is essentially uniform to a depth of at least 5 mm below the surface,
applies to the surfaces of sintered metal materials which have been treated in such a way that the hardness is not uniform in the section to a depth of 5 mm below the surface,
therefore applies to materials in which the hardness is obtained essentially by surface enrichment by carbon, or by carbon and nitrogen (for example, by carburizing, carbonitriding, nitrocarburizing or sulphidizing), and
applies to materials which have been induction hardened.
Procedure 2 determines the microhardness of the metal phase.
Procedure 2
applies to all types of sintered metal materials,
is used, in particular, to determine the hardness profile of case‑hardened or carbonitrided materials in accordance with the method described in ISO 4507, and
also applies to any sintered metallic materials which have been subjected to surface treatments such as electrodeposited plating, chemical coating, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), physical vapour deposition (PVD), laser, ion bombardment, etc. To determine the microhardness of treated surfaces, Procedure 2 applies.

Sintermetalle, ausgenommen Hartmetalle - Bestimmung der Sinterhärte und der Mikrohärte (ISO 4498:2010)

Diese Internationale Norm legt Verfahren zur Prüfung der Härte von metallischen Sinterwerkstoffen,
ausgenommen Hartmetalle, fest.
1.2 Durch Verfahren 1 wird die Sinterhärte des ganzen Werkstoffes bestimmt.
Verfahren 1
⎯ gilt für metallische Sinterwerkstoffe, die entweder keiner Wärmebehandlung ausgesetzt oder einer
solchen Wärmebehandlung unterzogen wurden, dass ihre Härte bis in eine Tiefe von mindestens 5 mm
unterhalb der Oberfläche im Wesentlichen gleichförmig ist;
⎯ gilt für die Oberflächen von metallischen Sinterwerkstoffen, die so behandelt wurden, dass ihre Härte im
Schliff bis in eine Tiefe von 5 mm unterhalb der Oberfläche nicht gleichförmig ist;
⎯ gilt daher für Werkstoffe, bei denen die Härte im Wesentlichen durch Anreicherung der Oberfläche mit
Kohlenstoff oder Kohlenstoff und Stickstoff (z. B. durch Aufkohlen, Carbonitrieren, Nitrocarburieren oder
Sulfonitrocarburieren) erzielt wurde;
⎯ gilt für Werkstoffe, die induktionsgehärtet wurden.
1.3 Durch Verfahren 2 wird die Mikrohärte der Metallphase bestimmt.
Verfahren 2
⎯ gilt für alle Arten von metallischen Sinterwerkstoffen;
⎯ wird insbesondere zur Bestimmung des Härteprofils von einsatzgehärteten oder carbonitrierten Werkstoffen
nach dem in ISO 4507 beschriebenen Verfahren angewendet;
⎯ gilt auch für metallische Sinterwerkstoffe, die Oberflächenbehandlungen unterzogen wurden wie Galvanisieren,
chemische Beschichtung, CVD-Verfahren, PVD-Verfahren, Laser, Ionenbeschuss, usw. Für die
Bestimmung der Mikrohärte von behandelten Oberflächen gilt Verfahren 2.
ANMERKUNG Es sollte jedoch beachtet werden, dass über eine Anzahl von Faktoren im Bereich der Mikrohärteprüfung
international noch keine Einigung erzielt wurde. Dennoch sind die nach Verfahren 2 festgelegten Parameter von
hinreichender Bedeutung, um ein erhebliches Maß an Übereinstimmung bei den in der Praxis im großen Umfang
angewandten Techniken zu ermöglichen.

Matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs - Détermination de la dureté apparente et de la microdureté (ISO 4498:2010)

L'ISO 4498:2010 spécifie les méthodes d'essai de la dureté des matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs.
Le mode opératoire 1 détermine la dureté apparente de l'ensemble du matériau.
Le mode opératoire 1
s'applique aux matériaux métalliques frittés qui n'ont été soumis à aucun traitement thermique, ou qui ont subi un traitement thermique tel que leur dureté soit essentiellement uniforme jusqu'à une profondeur d'au moins 5 mm au-dessous de la surface,
s'applique aux surfaces des matériaux métalliques frittés qui ont subi un traitement tel que leur dureté ne soit pas uniforme sur une section de profondeur de 5 mm au-dessous de la surface,
s'applique par conséquent aux matériaux dont la dureté est obtenue essentiellement par enrichissement de la surface en carbone ou carbone et azote (par exemple cémentation, carbonitruration, nitrocarburation ou sulfuration), et
s'applique aux matériaux qui ont été trempés par induction.
Le mode opératoire 2 détermine la microdureté de la phase métallique.
Le mode opératoire 2
s'applique à tous les types de matériaux métalliques frittés,
est spécialement utilisé pour déterminer le profil de dureté des matériaux cémentés ou carbonitrurés, conformément à la méthode décrite dans l'ISO 4507, et
s'applique également à tout matériau métallique fritté qui a été soumis à un traitement de surface tel que le revêtement électrolytique, le revêtement chimique, le dépôt chimique en phase vapeur (CVD), le dépôt physique en phase vapeur (PVD), le laser, le bombardement ionique, etc. Le mode opératoire 2 s'applique en vue de la détermination de la microdureté des surfaces traitées.

Sintrane kovine brez trdin - Določevanje trdote in mikrotrdote (ISO 4498:2010)

Ta mednarodni standard določa metode preskušanja trdote sintranih kovin brez trdnin. Postopek 1 določa navidezno trdoto celotnega materiala. Postopek 1 – velja za sintrane kovine, ki niso bile toplotno obdelane ali ki so bile toplotno obdelane na takšen način, da je trdota enakomerna po globini vsaj 5 mm pod površino, - velja za površine sintranih kovin, ki so bile obdelane na takšen način, da trdota ni enakomerna v prerezu globine 5 mm pod površino, - zato velja za materiale, pri katerih je trdota predvsem posledica površinske obogatitve z ogljikom ali ogljikom in dušikom (na primer z ogljičenjem, karbonitridiranjem, nitrokarburiranjem ali sulfidizacijo), in – velja za materiale, ki so bili indukcijsko utrjeni. Postopek 2 določa mikrotrdoto kovinske faze.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jun-2010
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
25-Aug-2010

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Metallische Sinterwerkstoffe, ausgenommen Hartmetalle - Bestimmung der Sinterhärte und der Mikrohärte (ISO 4498:2010)Matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs - Détermination de la dureté apparente et de la microdureté (ISO 4498:2010)Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals - Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness (ISO 4498:2010)77.160Metalurgija prahovPowder metallurgy77.040.10Mehansko preskušanje kovinMechanical testing of metalsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN ISO 4498:2010SIST EN ISO 4498:2010en,fr01-september-2010SIST EN ISO 4498:2010SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN ISO 4498:20071DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 4498:2010
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN ISO 4498
June 2010 ICS 77.160; 77.040.10 Supersedes EN ISO 4498:2007English Version

Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals - Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness (ISO 4498:2010)

Matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs - Détermination de la dureté apparente et de la microdureté (ISO 4498:2010)

Sintermetalle, ausgenommen Hartmetalle - Bestimmung der Sinterhärte und der Mikrohärte (ISO 4498:2010) This European Standard was approved by CEN on 26 May 2010.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN ISO 4498:2010: ESIST EN ISO 4498:2010

EN ISO 4498:2010 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3 SIST EN ISO 4498:2010

EN ISO 4498:2010 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN ISO 4498:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119 "Powder metallurgy". This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2010, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2010. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN ISO 4498:2007. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Endorsement notice The text of ISO 4498:2010 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 4498:2010 without any modification.

SIST EN ISO 4498:2010
SIST EN ISO 4498:2010
Reference numberISO 4498:2010(E)© ISO 2010

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO4498Second edition2010-06-15Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals — Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness Matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs — Détermination de la dureté apparente et de la microdureté

SIST EN ISO 4498:2010

ISO 4498:2010(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

ISO 2010 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

+ 41 22 749 01 11 Fax
+ 41 22 749 09 47 E-mail
copyright@iso.org Web
www.iso.org Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
SIST EN ISO 4498:2010

ISO 4498:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii Contents Page Foreword............................................................................................................................................................iv Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................2 3 Apparatus...............................................................................................................................................2 4 Sampling and preparation of test pieces............................................................................................2 5 Test procedures.....................................................................................................................................3 5.1 Procedure 1 — Determination of apparent hardness........................................................................3 5.2 Procedure 2 — Determination of microhardness..............................................................................4 6 Expression of results............................................................................................................................6 6.1 Apparent hardness................................................................................................................................6 6.2 Microhardness.......................................................................................................................................6 7 Repeatability and reproducibility.........................................................................................................6 7.1 Vickers apparent hardness..................................................................................................................6 7.2 Rockwell apparent hardness................................................................................................................6 7.3 Vickers microhardness.........................................................................................................................6 7.4 Precision statement..............................................................................................................................6 8 Test report..............................................................................................................................................7 Annex A (normative)

Test conditions and test loads as well as symbols and designations for microhardness values...........................................................................................................................8 Annex B (informative)

Repeatability and reproducibility..............................................................................10 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................12

SIST EN ISO 4498:2010

ISO 4498:2010(E) iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 4498 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119, Powder metallurgy, Subcommittee SC 3, Sampling and testing methods for sintered metal materials (excluding hardmetals). This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 4498:2005), of which it constitutes a minor revision. SIST EN ISO 4498:2010

ISO 4498:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v Introduction Sintered metal materials generally have a porous structure. Therefore, they can be understood as composite metal/pore materials. That is why this International Standard describes two procedures to determine their hardness: ⎯ Procedure 1 for the macrohardness (this is the apparent hardness); ⎯ Procedure 2 for the microhardness (this is the hardness of the metallic phase only). Tests in Procedure 1 determine Vickers, Brinell and/or Rockwell macrohardnesses; their acronyms are: HV, HBW and HR. These tests determine the apparent hardness (macrohardness) of the materials because indentations generally include both the solid phase and a number of pores. The usual test forces applied to an indenter are from 10 N to 2 000 N. The apparent hardness value is often used as an expression of the mechanical strength of the material as a whole; it is usually lower than that of a solid material of the same composition and metallurgical condition. However, this does not imply that the functional characteristics (for example wear resistance) are necessarily inferior to those of an equivalent full-density material. The apparent hardness is a macrostructural property. It characterizes the material taken as a whole. Tests in Procedure 2 determine the Vickers and/or Knoop microhardnesses of the material; their acronyms are: HVa and HKa1). The usual test forces applied to an indenter are from 0,147 N to 1,960 N for Vickers, and 0,981 N for Knoop. The microhardness is a microstructural property used to control chemical composition, heat treatment or surface treatment. For these purposes, it is necessary to ensure that hardness test indentations are small enough not to include any visible pores, but only the solid phase.

1) Where a is the test load, in kilograms. SIST EN ISO 4498:2010
SIST EN ISO 4498:2010

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4498:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1 Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals — Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness 1 Scope 1.1 This International Standard specifies methods of hardness testing of sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals. 1.2 Procedure 1 determines the apparent hardness of the whole material. Procedure 1 ⎯ applies to sintered metal materials which have either not been subjected to any heat treatment, or which have been heat treated in such a way that the hardness is essentially uniform to a depth of at least 5 mm below the surface, ⎯ applies to the surfaces of sintered metal materials which have been treated in such a way that the hardness is not uniform in the section to a depth of 5 mm below the surface,

⎯ therefore applies to materials in which the hardness is obtained essentially by surface enrichment by carbon, or by carbon and nitrogen (for example by carburizing, carbonitriding, nitrocarburizing or sulfidizing), and ⎯ applies to materials which have been induction hardened. 1.3 Procedure 2 determines the microhardness of the metal phase. Procedure 2 ⎯ applies to all types of sintered metal materials, ⎯ is used, in particular, to determine the hardness profile of case-hardened or carbonitrided materials in accordance with the method described in ISO 4507, and ⎯ also applies to any sintered metallic materials which have been subjected to surface treatments such as electrodeposited plating, chemical coating, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), physical vapour deposition (PVD), laser, ion bombardment, etc. To determine the microhardness of treated surfaces, Procedure 2 applies. NOTE However, an international agreement has not yet been reached on a number of factors involved in microhardness testing. Nevertheless, the parameters defined in Procedure 2 are important enough to enable a considerable measure of standardization of extensively used practices. SIST EN ISO 4498:2010

ISO 4498:2010(E) 2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 4507, Sintered ferrous materials, carburized or carbonitrided — Determination and verification of case-hardening depth by a micro-hardness test ISO 4516, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests ISO 6506-1, Metallic materials — Brinell hardness test — Part 1: Test method ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) 3 Apparatus Procedure 1: Vickers, Brinell and Rockwell hardness testing machines and test methods meeting the requirements of ISO 6506-1, ISO 6507-1 and ISO 6508-1, respectively. Procedure 2: Vickers and Knoop microhardness testing machines and test methods meeting the requirements of ISO 4516. 4 Sampling and preparation of test pieces 4.1 Since the apparent hardness of a sintered material is affected by density, which can vary throughout a part, the position of the hardness indentations, for the purpose of quality control, shall be agreed between the parties. 4.2 The sintered metal surface shall be clean, smooth and flat to obtain well-defined hardness indentations. Test samples will have anvil-support surfaces filed or ground flat wherever practicable, so as to prevent burrs from affecting results. This is particularly important when determining Vickers and Brinell hardness. Emery paper of 180 to 240 grit is acceptable for grinding. It is generally found sufficient to clean the surface with a suitable solvent. If not, the surface may be lightly polished, provided that laboratory measurements have shown that the influence of such polishing is insignificant. NOTE This polishing can be carried out, for example, by using metallographic paper or a 6 µm diamond paste. 4.3 Microhardness can be measured either on the surface of a part or on a cross-section of the part normal to the surface. For microhardness determinations, it is necessary to ensure that the surface is smooth enough to allow measurement of the indentation diagonal length accurately. The sampl

...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.62)',6Metallische Sinterwerkstoffe, ausgenommen Hartmetalle - Bestimmung der Sinterhärte und der Mikrohärte (ISO/FDIS 4498:2010)Matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs - Détermination de la dureté apparente et de la microdureté (ISO/FDIS 4498:2010)Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals - Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness (ISO/FDIS 4498:2010)77.160Metalurgija prahovPowder metallurgy77.040.10Mehansko preskušanje kovinMechanical testing of metalsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:FprEN ISO 4498kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010en,fr01-april-2010kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
FINAL DRAFT
FprEN ISO 4498
February 2010 ICS 77.160 Will supersede EN ISO 4498:2007English Version

Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals - Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness (ISO/FDIS 4498:2010) Matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs - Détermination de la dureté apparente et de la microdureté (ISO/FDIS 4498:2010)

Metallische Sinterwerkstoffe, ausgenommen Hartmetalle - Bestimmung der Sinterhärte und der Mikrohärte (ISO/FDIS 4498:2010) This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for unique acceptance procedure. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/SS M11.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. FprEN ISO 4498:2010: EkSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

FprEN ISO 4498:2010 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3 kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

FprEN ISO 4498:2010 (E) 3 Foreword This document (FprEN ISO 4498:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119 "Powder metallurgy". This document is currently submitted to the Unique Acceptance Procedure. This document will supersede EN ISO 4498:2007. Endorsement notice The text of ISO/FDIS 4498:2010 has been approved by CEN as a FprEN ISO 4498:2010 without any modification.

kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010
kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010
Please see the administrative notes on page iii

RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TOSUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICHTHEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORT-ING DOCUMENTATION. IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ONOCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THELIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE INNATIONAL REGULATIONS.

Reference numberISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E)© ISO 2010 FINAL DRAFT ISO/TC 119/SC 3 Secretariat: DIN Voting begins on: 2010-02-25 Voting terminates on: 2010-04-25

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS4498Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals — Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness Matériaux métalliques frittés, à l'exclusion des métaux-durs — Détermination de la dureté apparente et de la microdureté

kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

ISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

Copyright notice This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as permitted under the applicable laws of the user's country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract from it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured. Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

+ 41 22 749 01 11 Fax
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copyright@iso.org Web

www.iso.org Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement. Violators may be prosecuted.

ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

ISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING This Minor Revision has been developed within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and processed under the ISO-lead mode of collaboration as defined in the Vienna Agreement. This final draft is hereby submitted to a parallel two-month approval vote in ISO and three-month UAP vote in CEN. Positive votes shall not be accompanied by comments. Negative votes shall be accompanied by the relevant technical reasons.

kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

ISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E) iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved Contents Page Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................v Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................vi 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................2 3 Apparatus...............................................................................................................................................2 4 Sampling and preparation of test pieces............................................................................................2 5 Test procedures.....................................................................................................................................3 5.1 Procedure 1 — Determination of apparent hardness........................................................................3 5.2 Procedure 2 — Determination of microhardness...............................................................................4 6 Expression of results............................................................................................................................6 6.1 Apparent hardness................................................................................................................................6 6.2 Microhardness.......................................................................................................................................6 7 Repeatability and reproducibility.........................................................................................................6 7.1 Vickers apparent hardness...................................................................................................................6 7.2 Rockwell apparent hardness................................................................................................................6 7.3 Vickers microhardness.........................................................................................................................6 7.4 Precision statement...............................................................................................................................6 8 Test report..............................................................................................................................................7 Annex A (normative)

Test conditions and test loads as well as symbols and designations for microhardness values...........................................................................................................................8 Annex B (informative)

Repeatability and reproducibility..............................................................................10 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................12

kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

ISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 4498 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119, Powder metallurgy, Subcommittee SC 3, Sampling and testing methods for sintered metal materials (excluding hardmetals). This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 4498:2005), of which it constitutes a minor revision. kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

ISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E) vi © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved Introduction Sintered metal materials generally have a porous structure. Therefore, they can be understood as composite metal/pore materials. That is why this International Standard describes two procedures to determine their hardness: ⎯ Procedure 1 for the macrohardness (this is the apparent hardness); ⎯ Procedure 2 for the microhardness (this is the hardness of the metallic phase only). Tests in Procedure 1 determine Vickers, Brinell and/or Rockwell macrohardnesses; their acronyms are: HV, HB and HR. These tests determine the apparent hardness (macrohardness) of the materials because indentations generally include both the solid phase and a number of pores. The usual test forces applied to an indenter are from 10 N to 2 000 N. The apparent hardness value is often used as an expression of the mechanical strength of the material as a whole; it is usually lower than that of a solid material of the same composition and metallurgical condition. However, this does not imply that the functional characteristics (for example wear resistance) are necessarily inferior to those of an equivalent full-density material. The apparent hardness is a macrostructural property. It characterizes the material taken as a whole. Tests in Procedure 2 determine the Vickers and/or Knoop microhardnesses of the material; their acronyms are: HVa and HKa1). The usual test forces applied to an indenter are from 0,147 N to 1,960 N for Vickers, and 0,981 N for Knoop. The microhardness is a microstructural property used to control chemical composition, heat treatment or surface treatment. For these purposes, it is necessary to ensure that hardness test indentations are small enough not to include any visible pores, but only the solid phase.

1) Where a is the test load, in kilograms. kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E) © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1 Sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals — Determination of apparent hardness and microhardness 1 Scope 1.1 This International Standard specifies methods of hardness testing of sintered metal materials, excluding hardmetals. 1.2 Procedure 1 determines the apparent hardness of the whole material. Procedure 1 ⎯ applies to sintered metal materials which have either not been subjected to any heat treatment, or which have been heat treated in such a way that the hardness is essentially uniform to a depth of at least 5 mm below the surface, ⎯ applies to the surfaces of sintered metal materials which have been treated in such a way that the hardness is not uniform in the section to a depth of 5 mm below the surface,

⎯ therefore applies to materials in which the hardness is obtained essentially by surface enrichment by carbon, or by carbon and nitrogen (for example by carburizing, carbonitriding, nitrocarburizing or sulfidizing), and ⎯ applies to materials which have been induction hardened. 1.3 Procedure 2 determines the microhardness of the metal phase. Procedure 2 ⎯ applies to all types of sintered metal materials, ⎯ is used, in particular, to determine the hardness profile of case-hardened or carbonitrided materials in accordance with the method described in ISO 4507, and ⎯ also applies to any sintered metallic materials which have been subjected to surface treatments such as electrodeposited plating, chemical coating, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), physical vapour deposition (PVD), laser, ion bombardment, etc. To determine the microhardness of treated surfaces, Procedure 2 applies. NOTE However, an international agreement has not yet been reached on a number of factors involved in microhardness testing. Nevertheless, the parameters defined in Procedure 2 are important enough to enable a considerable measure of standardization of extensively used practices. kSIST FprEN ISO 4498:2010

ISO/FDIS 4498:2010(E) 2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 4507, Sintered ferrous materials, carburized or carbonitrided — Determination and verification of case-hardening depth by a micro-hardness test ISO 4516, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests ISO 6506-1, Metallic materials — Brinell hardness test — Part 1: Test method ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) 3 Apparatus Procedure 1: Vickers, Brinell and Rockwell hardness testing machines and test methods meeting the requirements of ISO 6506-1, ISO 6507-1 and ISO 6508-1, respectively. Procedure 2: Vickers and Knoop microhardness testing machines and test methods meeting the requirements of ISO 4516. 4 Sampling and preparation of test pieces 4.1 Since the apparent hardness of a sintered material is affected by density, which can vary throughout a part, the position of the hardness indentations, for the purpose of quality control, shall be agreed between the parties. 4.2 The sintered metal surface shall be clean, smooth and flat to obtain well-defined hardness indentations. Test samples will have anvil-support surfaces filed or ground flat wherever practicable, so as to prevent burrs from affecting results. This is particularly important when determining Vickers and Brinell hardness. Emery paper of 180 to 240 grit is acceptable for grinding. It is generally found sufficient to clean the surface with a suitable solvent. If not, the surface may be lightly polished, provided that laboratory measurements have shown that the influence of such polishing is insignificant. NOTE Thi

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