Furniture - Seating - Test methods for the determination of strength and durability

This European Standard specifies test methods for the determination of strength and durability of the structure of all types of seating without regard to use, materials, design/construction or manufacturing process.
This European Standard does not apply to children’s highchairs, table mounted chairs and bath seats which are covered by other European Standards.
Test methods for the assessment of ageing, degradation, ergonomics and electrical functions are not included.
The test methods are not intended to assess the durability of upholstery materials, such as upholstery filling materials and upholstery covers.
This European Standard does not include any requirements. Requirements for different end uses can be found in other Standards.

Möbel - Sitzmöbel - Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung der Festigkeit und Dauerhaltbarkeit

Diese Europäische Norm legt Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung der Festigkeit und Dauerhaltbarkeit für alle Arten von Sitzmöbel-Konstruktionen fest, ohne Berücksichtigung von Werkstoffen, Gestaltung/Konstruktion oder Herstellungsverfahren.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für Kinderhochstühle, Tisch-Hängesitze und Badesitze, die durch andere Europäische Normen abgedeckt werden.
Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung von Alterung, Qualitätsminderung, Ergonomie und elektrischer Funktion sind nicht enthalten.
Die Prüfverfahren sind nicht dazu vorgesehen, die Dauerhaltbarkeit von Polsterungen und Bezügen zu bewerten.
Diese Europäische Norm enthält keine Anforderungen. Die Anforderungen für verschiedene Verwendungs-bereiche sind in anderen Normen enthalten.

Ameublement - Sièges - Méthodes d'essais pour la détermination de la résistance et de la durabilité

La présente Norme européenne décrit des méthodes d'essai pour la détermination de la résistance et de la durabilité de la structure de tous les types de sièges indépendamment de l'usage prévu, de la nature des matériaux, de la conception, de la construction et du procédé de fabrication.
La présente Norme européenne ne s'applique pas aux chaises hautes d'enfants, aux chaises de table ni aux sièges de bain, qui sont couverts par d'autres normes européennes.
Les méthodes d'essai relatives à l'évaluation du vieillissement, de la dégradation, de l’ergonomie et des fonctions électriques ne sont pas incluses dans la présente norme.
Les méthodes d'essai décrites ne sont pas destinées à être utilisées pour évaluer la durabilité des matériaux de capitonnage tels que les matériaux de garnissage et les revêtements.
La présente Norme européenne n'inclut aucune exigence. Les exigences en fonction de l'usage final sont stipulées dans les normes correspondantes.

Pohištvo - Sedežno pohištvo - Preskusne metode za ugotavljanje trdnosti in trajnosti

Ta evropski standard določa preskusne metode za trdnost in trajnost strukture sedežnega pohištva vseh vrst, pri čemer se ne upoštevajo uporaba, materiali, oblika/gradnja in postopek izdelave. Ta evropski standard ne velja za otroške visoke stole, otroške stole za hranjenje za pritrditev na mizo in kopalne sedeže, ki so obravnavani v okviru drugih evropskih standardov. Preskusne metode za ugotavljanje staranja, razgradnje in električnega delovanja niso vključene. Namen preskusnih metod ni ugotavljanje trajnosti tapetniških materialov, kot so tapetniški polnilni materiali in materiali za prevleke. Ni nujno, da so vsi preskusi veljavni za vse vrste sedežnega pohištva. Ta evropski standard ne vključuje zahtev. Zahteve za različne načine uporabe so navedene v drugih standardih.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jul-2012
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Due Date
04-Mar-2018
Completion Date
31-Jul-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Pohištvo - Sedežno pohištvo - Preskusne metode za ugotavljanje trdnosti in trajnostiMöbel - Sitzmöbel - Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung der Festigkeit und DauerhaltbarkeitMobilier domestique - Sièges - Méthodes d'essais pour la détermination de la résistance et la durabilitéFurniture - Seating - Test methods for the determination of strength and durability97.140PohištvoFurnitureICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1728:2012SIST EN 1728:2012en,fr,de01-november-2012SIST EN 1728:2012SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1728:20021DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1728:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1728
July 2012 ICS 97.140 Supersedes EN 1728:2000English Version

Furniture - Seating - Test methods for the determination of strength and durability

Ameublement - Sièges - Méthodes d'essais pour la détermination de la résistance et de la durabilité

Möbel - Sitzmöbel - Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung der Festigkeit und Dauerhaltbarkeit This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 June 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 1728:2012: ESIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)

Contents Page 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................52 Normative references ............................................................................................................................53 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................54 General test conditions .........................................................................................................................64.1 Preliminary preparation ........................................................................................................................64.2 Application of forces .............................................................................................................................64.3 Tolerances ..............................................................................................................................................66 Test procedures - Chairs other than Work Chairs .......................................................................... 166.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 166.2 Determination of seat and back loading points ............................................................................... 176.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 176.2.2 Seating with a back rest ..................................................................................................................... 176.2.3 Seating without a back rest ............................................................................................................... 176.3 Determination of Back Angle ............................................................................................................. 196.4 Seat static load and back static load test ........................................................................................ 206.5 Seat Front Edge Static Load .............................................................................................................. 226.6 Vertical load on back rests ................................................................................................................ 226.7 Horizontal forward static load test on back rests ........................................................................... 236.8 Foot rest static load test .................................................................................................................... 236.9 Leg rest static load test ...................................................................................................................... 236.10 Arm rest sideways static load test .................................................................................................... 246.11 Arm rest downwards static load test ................................................................................................ 246.12 Headrest static load test .................................................................................................................... 256.13 Vertical upwards static load on arm rests ....................................................................................... 266.13.1 Seating which may be moved when occupied ................................................................................ 266.13.2 Stacking seating ................................................................................................................................. 266.14 Vertical static load on auxiliary writing surfaces ............................................................................ 266.15 Leg forward static load test ............................................................................................................... 266.16 Leg sideways static load test ............................................................................................................ 276.17 Combined seat and back durability test ........................................................................................... 286.18 Seat front edge durability test ........................................................................................................... 306.19 Durability test on seating with a multi-position back rest .............................................................. 316.20 Arm rest durability test ...................................................................................................................... 316.21 Foot rest durability test ...................................................................................................................... 316.22 Auxiliary writing surfaces durability test ......................................................................................... 326.23 Tipping seat operation ....................................................................................................................... 326.24 Seat impact test .................................................................................................................................. 326.25 Back impact test ................................................................................................................................. 336.26 Arm rest impact test ........................................................................................................................... 346.27 Drop tests ............................................................................................................................................ 356.27.1 Drop test for multiple seat units ........................................................................................................ 356.27.2 Drop test for stacking seating ........................................................................................................... 366.27.3 Drop test from the height of a table .................................................................................................. 376.28 Backward fall test ............................................................................................................................... 386.29 Castor and chair base durability ....................................................................................................... 386.30 Rolling resistance of the unloaded chair ......................................................................................... 397 Test procedures - Work Chairs ......................................................................................................... 39SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 397.2 Loading points ..................................................................................................................................... 407.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 407.2.2 Loading point A ................................................................................................................................... 407.2.3 Loading point B ................................................................................................................................... 407.2.4 Loading point C ................................................................................................................................... 417.2.5 Loading point D ................................................................................................................................... 417.2.6 Loading point E ................................................................................................................................... 417.2.7 Loading point F .................................................................................................................................... 417.2.8 Loading point G ................................................................................................................................... 427.2.9 Loading point H ................................................................................................................................... 427.2.10 Loading point J .................................................................................................................................... 427.3 Combined seat and back static load test .......................................................................................... 427.4 Seat front edge static load test .......................................................................................................... 437.5 Arm rest downward static load test – central ................................................................................... 437.6 Arm rest downward static load test – front ...................................................................................... 447.7 Arm rest sideways static load test .................................................................................................... 457.8 Foot rest static load test ..................................................................................................................... 457.9 Seat and back durability ..................................................................................................................... 457.10 Arm rest durability ............................................................................................................................... 467.11 Swivel test ............................................................................................................................................ 467.12 Foot rest durability .............................................................................................................................. 467.13 Castor and chair base durability ........................................................................................................ 467.14 Rolling resistance of the unloaded chair .......................................................................................... 478 Test procedures – Loungers .............................................................................................................. 478.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 478.2 Seat and back static load test ............................................................................................................ 478.3 Additional seat and leg rest static load test ..................................................................................... 478.4 Seat and back durability test .............................................................................................................. 488.4.1 Seat and back durability test procedure ........................................................................................... 488.4.2 Additional seat durability test procedure ......................................................................................... 498.5 Durability test on back rest mechanism ........................................................................................... 508.6 Arm rest downwards static load test ................................................................................................. 508.7 Arm rest durability test ....................................................................................................................... 508.8 Impact test ............................................................................................................................................ 508.9 Lifting test for mobile loungers ......................................................................................................... 52Annex A (normative)

Seat loading pad data .................................................................................................. 54Annex B (informative)

Arm rest loading pad details ..................................................................................... 57 SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)

Foreword This document (EN 1728:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 207 “Furniture”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 1728:2000. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below.  All test methods for seating used in European Standards for furniture have been collated in one document. The document now contains methods that were previously listed in EN 581-2, Outdoor furniture, EN 1335-3, Office work chair, and EN 15373, Non-domestic seating.  A static load test for headrests has been included.  Wherever possible test methods have been simplified and clarified for ease of use. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

SIST EN 1728:2012
EN 1728:2012 (E)

1 Scope This European Standard specifies test methods for the determination of strength and durability of the structure of all types of seating without regard to use, materials, design/construction or manufacturing process. This European Standard does not apply to children’s highchairs, table mounted chairs and bath seats which are covered by other European Standards. Test methods for the assessment of ageing, degradation, ergonomics and electrical functions are not included. The test methods are not intended to assess the durability of upholstery materials, such as upholstery filling materials and upholstery covers. This European Standard does not include any requirements. Requirements for different end uses can be found in other Standards. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 7619-2:2010, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic  Determination of indentation hardness  Part 2: IRHD pocket meter method 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 structure load bearing parts of furniture such as the frame, seat, back and arm supports and suspension 3.2 leg rest extension of the seat area intended to support the legs of the user Note 1 to entry: A leg rest might or might not be permanently attached to the structure of the item of seating. 3.3 foot rest part intended to support the feet of the user and which assists the user getting on or off an item of seating

Note 1 to entry: A foot rest might or might not be permanently attached to the structure of the item of seating. 3.4 work chair chair, with or without arm rests, for use by one adult in the office or home office (for example working with a computer), whose upper part, which includes the seat and back, is supported on a single column and can rotate in the horizontal plane and is at least adjustable in height SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)

3.5 back rest element that supports the back of the user higher than 100 mm above the seat loading point 3.6 arm rest length distance between vertical lines through the front and rear edges of the arm rest 4 General test conditions 4.1 Preliminary preparation The furniture shall be tested as delivered. Knock-down furniture shall be assembled according to the instructions supplied. If the instructions allow the furniture to be assembled or combined in different ways, the most adverse combination shall be used for each test. Knock-down fittings shall be tightened before testing. Further tightening shall not take place unless specifically required by the manufacturer. For seating that is designed to be fixed to the structure of a building, the unit shall be mounted according to the manufacturer’s instructions to a structure representative of the service installation. This structure shall be sufficiently strong and stiff to eliminate the possibility of it affecting the results of the test. Unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer, the sample for test shall be stored in indoor ambient conditions for at least 24 h immediately prior to testing. The tests shall be carried out at indoor ambient conditions. However, if during a test the temperature is outside the range 15°C to 25°C, the maximum and/or minimum temperature shall be recorded in the test report. 4.2 Application of forces The test forces in durability and static load tests shall be applied sufficiently slowly to ensure that negligible dynamic load is applied. The forces in durability tests shall be applied sufficiently slowly to ensure that kinetic heating does not occur. Unless otherwise stated, static forces shall be maintained for (10 ± 2) s. Unless otherwise stated, durability forces shall be maintained for (2 ± 1) s. The forces may be replaced by masses. The relationship 10 N = 1 kg shall be used. 4.3 Tolerances Unless otherwise stated, the following tolerances are applicable to the test equipment:  Forces:

± 5 % of the nominal force;  Velocities: ± 5 % of the nominal velocity;  Masses:

± 1 % of the nominal mass;  Dimensions: ± 1 mm of the nominal dimension;  Angles:

± 2o of the nominal angle. SIST EN 1728:2012
EN 1728:2012 (E)

The accuracy for the positioning of loading pads and impact plates shall be 5 mm. NOTE For the purposes of uncertainty measurement, test results are not considered to be adversely affected when the above tolerances are met. 5 Test equipment and apparatus The equipment shall not inhibit deformation nor cause unnatural deformation of the unit/component, i.e. it shall be able to move so that it can follow the deformation of the unit/component during testing. All loading pads shall be capable of pivoting in relation to the direction of the applied force. The pivot point shall be as close as practically possible to the load surface. If a loading pad tends to slide, use a slip resistant material between the loading pad and the foam for loading pads (5.8). The tests may be applied to any suitable device because results are dependent only upon correctly applied forces and not upon the apparatus. Exceptions include cases of impact tests where the apparatus described in 5.9 and 5.10 shall be used and the arm rest durability test where the apparatus described in 5.11 shall be used. 5.1 Loading point template, consisting of two shaped members (see Figure 1) fastened together by a pivot at one end.

The contours of the shaped surfaces are so devised as to sink into the upholstery. For this purpose, the loading point template, with an additional mass applied at the seat loading point, shall be 20 kg +1 kg, - 0 kg. The apparatus is marked as shown in Figure 2. SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)
Scale: 1 square = 20 mm Key 1 Top
4 Seat load
7 Front 2 Rear
5 Back load
8 Bottom 3 Back portion

6 Seat portion Figure 1 — Loading surface curves for seat and back loading point template SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres

Key 1 Typical section 2 Mark to fix 90º 3 Straight edge for the determination of seat or back inclination A

Seat load (chairs) B

Back load (chairs) C Seat load (stools) Figure 2 — Loading point template So that the template can be positioned easily with the two members at 90° to each other, a line is drawn on the back portion. 5.2 Floor,

which is horizontal, flat and rigid with a smooth surface. For the back and arm rest impact tests (6.25 and 6.26), the drop (6.27) and the backwards fall test (6.28), the floor shall be faced with a 2 mm thick layer of rubber with a tests hardness of (85 ± 10) IRHD according to ISO 7619-2:2010. 5.3 Stops. SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)

Stops are used to prevent the item from sliding but not tilting no higher than 12 mm, except in cases where the design of the item necessitates the use of higher stops, in which case the lowest that will prevent the item from moving shall be used. 5.4 Seat loading pad, which is a naturalistically shaped rigid indenter with a hard, smooth surface having overall dimensions within the limits shown in Figure 3. For details of design, see Annex A. Dimensions in millimetres

Key 1 Seat loading point Figure 3 — Seat loading pad – Overall dimensions SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)

5.5 Smaller seat loading pad, which is a rigid circular object 200 mm in diameter, the loading surface of which has a convex spherical curvature of 300 mm radius with a 12 mm front edge radius (see Figure 4). Dimensions in millimetres

Figure 4 — Smaller seat loading pad
SIST EN 1728:2012
EN 1728:2012 (E)

5.6 Back loading pad, which is a rigid rectangular object 200 mm high and 250 mm wide, the loading surface of which is curved across the width of the pad with a convex cylindrical curvature of 450 mm radius and with a 12 mm radius on all front edges (see Figure 5). Dimensions in millimetres

Figure 5 — Back loading pad

5.7 Local loading pad, which is a rigid cylindrical object 100 mm in diameter, with a flat face and a 12 mm edge radius.

SIST EN 1728:2012
EN 1728:2012 (E)

5.8 Foam for use with loading pads. A layer of flexible foam with a bulk density of (120 ± 25) kg/m3, 25 mm or 10 mm thick. The foam shall be attached to the loading pads or alternatively positioned between the loading pad and the test structure. 5.9 Seat impactor.

The seat impactor is shown in Figure 6. The impactor is comprised of the following elements. 5.9.1 Circular body. The circular body is 200 mm in diameter, separated from the striking surface by helical compression springs and free to move relative to it on a line perpendicular to the plane of the central area of the striking surface. The body and associated parts minus the springs shall have a mass of (17 ± 0,1) kg and the whole apparatus, including mass, springs and striking surface, shall have a mass of (25 ± 0,1) kg. 5.9.2 Springs. The springs shall be such that the nominal spring rate of the combined spring system is (7 ± 2) N/mm and the total friction resistance of the moving parts is less than 1 N. The spring system shall be compressed to an initial force of (1 040 ± 5) N (measured statically) and the amount of spring compression movement available from the initial compression point to the point where the springs become fully closed shall be not less than 60 mm. 5.9.3 Striking surface. The striking surface shall be a rigid circular object, 200 mm in diameter, the face of which has a convex spherical curvature of 300 mm radius with a 12 mm front edge radius. SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)
Key 1 Joint of lifting device not inhibiting free fall Figure 6 — Seat impactor

5.10 Impact hammer, with a cylindrical pendulum head having a mass of 6,5 kg, supported from a pivot by a steel tube of 38 mm in diameter and with a wall thickness of 2 mm.

The pendulum arm shall be pivoted by a low friction bearing (see Figure 7). SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres

Key 1 Pendulum head, steel mass 6,4 kg 2 Hard wood 3 Rubber (50 ± 10) IRHD according to ISO 7619-2:2010 4 Pendulum arm, length 950; steel tube ∅ 38 x 2; mass 2 kg ± 0,2 kg 5 Pivot point Mass of assembly 1 + 2 + 3 = (6,5 ± 0,07) kg Figure 7 — Impact hammer 5.11 Arm rest durability test apparatus, capable of applying a cyclic force simultaneously to both arm rests of a seat.

SIST EN 1728:2012
EN 1728:2012 (E)

The forces shall be applied through an arm rest loading device in principle operating as shown in Figure 8. The apparatus shall be capable of applying forces at varying angles to the vertical. It shall be adjustable both vertically and horizontally, and set as specified in 6.20. The apparatus shall be capable of freely following the deformation of the arm rests during testing. The length of the loading pad shall be 100 mm with the force acting through the centre of its length. Dimensions in millimetres

Key F Force Figure 8 — Arm rest durability test – Arm rest loading device 5.12 Test surface for castor testing, which is a horizontal, flat smooth and rigid steel surface. 5.13 Test weights drop test, which are discs with a mass of 10 kg each, diameter 350 mm and a thickness of 48 mm. 6 Test procedures - Chairs other than Work Chairs 6.1 General Unless otherwise specified, the tests shall be carried out in the configuration most likely to cause failure. If a test cannot be carried out as specified in this standard, e.g. because a loading pad cannot be used for the application of a force due to the design of a product, the test shall be carried out as far as possible as specified. SIST EN 1728:2012

EN 1728:2012 (E)

Except in the case of test 6.13, a layer of foam (5.8) shall be positioned between the loading pads and the test structure. 6.2 Determination of seat and back loading points 6.2.1 General The seat and back loading points shall be determined using the template as specified in 5.1 in the manner specified in 6.2.2 or 6.2.3. In some cases, it may not be possible to determine the loading points by means of the template. In such cases, the seat loading point shall be 175 mm forward of the seat/back junction, or at the point closest to this that allows the seat force to be applied. Where the geometry of the seat does not allow the back force to be applied at the point defined by the above method, the force shall be applied at the nearest point (up or down the back). The bending moment (back force, N x seat to back loading point distance, m) shall remain constant. If the number of seats in the item is not obvious, divide the total seat length (in mm) by 600 mm and round to the nearest whole number to determine the number of seats. Divide the total seat length into seats of equal length. 6.2.2 Seating with a back rest For seating with adjustable back rests, set the back rest to its most upright position. Adjust the template such that the angle between the seat and back portions is 90º. Position the loaded template (5.1) on the centreline of the seat as far towards the rear as

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