Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-1: General - Common rules and rules for buildings

General rules for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works made of timber and/or wood-based panels, either singly or compositely with concrete, steel or other materials. Detailed rules for structural design of buildings.

Eurocode 5: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Holzbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeines - Allgemeine Regeln und Regeln für den Hochbau

(1)P   EN 1995 gilt für die Bemessung und Konstruktion von Hochbauten und Ingenieurbauwerken aus Holz (Vollholz, gesägt, gehobelt oder als Rundholz, Brettschichtholz oder andere Bauprodukte aus Holz für tragende Zwecke, wie z. B. Furnierschichtholz) oder Holzwerkstoffen, die mit Klebstoffen oder mechanischen Verbindungsmitteln zusammengefügt sind. Er erfüllt die Grundsätze und Anforderungen nach EN 1990:2002 an die Sicherheit und die Gebrauchstauglichkeit der Bauwerke und die Bemessungs- und Nachweisverfahren.
(2)P   EN 1995 behandelt nur die Anforderungen an die Tragfähigkeit, die Gebrauchstauglichkeit, die Dauerhaftigkeit und den Feuerwiderstand von Holzbauten. Andere Anforderungen, z. B. hinsichtlich des Wärme- und Schallschutzes, werden nicht behandelt.
(3)   EN 1995 ist vorgesehen für die Verwendung in Verbindung mit den folgenden Normen:
EN 1990:2002, Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung
EN 1991, Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke
ENs für Bauprodukte für Holzbauten
EN 1998, Auslegung von Bauwerken gegen Erdbeben, wenn die Bauten in Erdbebengebieten liegen.
(4)   EN 1995 ist in mehrere Teile gegliedert:
EN 1995-1, Allgemeine Regeln
EN 1995-2, Brücken
(5)   EN 1995-1, Allgemeine Regeln umfasst:
EN 1995-1-1, Allgemeines  Allgemeine Regeln und Regeln für den Hochbau
EN 1995-1-2, Allgemeine Regeln  Tragwerkbemessung für den Brandfall
(6)   EN 1995-2 nimmt Bezug auf die Allgemeinen Regeln in EN 1995-1-1. Die Abschnitte in EN 1995-2 ergänzen die Abschnitte in EN 1995-1-1.

Eurocode 5: Conception et calcul des structures en bois - Partie 1-1 : Généralités - Règles communes et règles pour les bâtiments

1.1   Domaine d’application
1.1.1   Domaine d’application d’EN 1995
(1) EN 1995 s’applique au calcul des bâtiments et ouvrages de génie civil en bois (bois massif, scié, raboté ou sous forme de poteau, bois lamellé collé ou produits structuraux à base de bois, par exemple LVL) ou panneaux à base de bois assemblés avec des adhésifs ou des organes mécaniques. Il est conforme aux principes et exigences relatifs à la sécurité et l’aptitude au service des structures, ainsi qu’aux bases de calcul et vérification données dans EN 1990 :2002.
(2) EN 1995 traite uniquement des exigences relatives à la résistance mécanique, l’aptitude au service, la durabiblité et la résistance au feu des structures en bois. D’autres exigences, par exemple concernant l’isolation thermique ou acoustique, ne sont pas considérées.
(3) EN 1995 est destiné à être utilisé conjointement avec :
EN 1990 :2002 "Eurocode - Bases de calcul des structures"
EN 1991 "Actions sur les structures"
Les EN pour les produits de construction relatifs aux structures en bois
EN 1998 "Calcul des structures pour la résistance aux tremblements de terre », lorsque les structures en bois sont construites dans des régions sismiques.
(4) EN 1995 est divisé en deux parties :
-   EN 1995-1   Généralités
-   EN 1995-2   Ponts
(5) EN 1995-1 "Règles générales" comprend :
-   EN 1995-1-1   Généralités - Règles communes et règles pour les bâtiments
-   EN 1995-1-2   Généralités - Calcul des structures au feu
(6) EN 1995-2 se réfère aux règles communes de EN 1995-1-1. Les articles de EN 1995-2 sont complémentaires aux articles de EN 1995-1.
1.1.2   Domaine d’application d’EN 1995-1-1
(1) EN 1995-1-1 donne des règles générales de calcul pour les structures en bois ainsi que des règles de calcul spécifiques aux bâtiments.
(2) Les sujets suivants sont traités dans EN 1995-1-1:
-   Section 1 :   Généralités
-   Section 2:   Bases de calcul
-   Section 3:   Propriétés des matériaux
-   Section 4:   Durabilité
-   Section 5 :   Bases de l’analyse de structure
-   Section 6 :   Etats limites ultimes
-   Section 7 :   Etats limites de service
-   Section 8:   Assemblages par organes métalliques
-   Section 9:   Composants et sous-systèmes
-   Section 10:   Détails structuraux et contrôle
(3)P EN 1995-1-1 ne traite pas des structures exposées durablement à des températures supérieures à 60°C.

Evrokod 5: Projektiranje lesenih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila in pravila za stavbe

1.1.1   Področje uporabe EN 1995-1-1
(1)   EN 1995-1-1 podaja splošna pravila projektiranja za lesene konstrukcije skupaj z dodatnimi pravili projektiranja za stavbe.
(2)   EN 1995-1-1 vsebuje naslednja poglavja:
Poglavje 1:   Splošno
Poglavje 2:   Osnove projektiranja
Poglavje 3:   Lastnosti materiala
Poglavje 4:   Trajnost
Poglavje 5:   Osnove analize konstrukcij
Poglavje 6:   Mejna stanja nosilnosti
Poglavje 7:   Mejna stanja uporabnosti
Poglavje 8:   Zveze s kovinskimi veznimi sredstvi
Poglavje 9:   Komponente in sestavi
Poglavje 10:   Konstrukcijske zahteve in nadzor
(3)P   EN 1995-1-1 ne obsega projektiranja konstrukcij, ki so dolgotrajno izpostavljene temperaturam nad 60 °C.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Nov-2004
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
24-Nov-2004
Completion Date
24-Nov-2004

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1995-1-1:2005
01-maj-2005
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ENV 1995-1-1:1998

Evrokod 5: Projektiranje lesenih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila in pravila za

stavbe

Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-1: General - Common rules and rules for

buildings
Eurocode 5: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Holzbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeines -
Allgemeine Regeln und Regeln für den Hochbau

Eurocode 5: Conception et calcul des structures en bois - Partie 1-1 : Généralités -

Regles communes et regles pour les bâtiments
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1995-1-1:2004
ICS:
91.010.30 7HKQLþQLYLGLNL Technical aspects
91.080.20 Lesene konstrukcije Timber structures
SIST EN 1995-1-1:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1995-1-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2004
ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.20 Supersedes ENV 1995-1-1:1993
English version
Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-1: General -
Common rules and rules for buildings

Eurocode 5: Conception et calcul des structures en bois - Eurocode 5: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Holzbauten

Partie 1-1 : Généralités - Règles communes et règles pour - Teil 1-1: Allgemeines - Allgemeine Regeln und Regeln für

les bâtiments den Hochbau
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 April 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1995-1-1:2004: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
Contents Page
Foreword 7
SECTION 1 GENERAL 10
1.1 SCOPE 10
1.1.1 Scope of EN 1995 10
1.1.2 Scope of EN 1995-1-1 10
1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES 11
1.3 ASSUMPTIONS 13
1.4 DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION RULES 13
1.5 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 13
1.5.1 General 13
1.5.2 Additional terms and definitions used in this present standard 13
1.6 SYMBOLS USED IN EN 1995-1-1 14
SECTION 2 BASIS OF DESIGN 19
2.1 REQUIREMENTS 19
2.1.1 Basic requirements 19
2.1.2 Reliability management 19
2.1.3 Design working life and durability 19
2.2 PRINCIPLES OF LIMIT STATE DESIGN 19
2.2.1 General 19
2.2.2 Ultimate limit states 19
2.2.3 Serviceability limit states 20
2.3 BASIC VARIABLES 21
2.3.1 Actions and environmental influences 21
2.3.1.1 General 21
2.3.1.2 Load-duration classes 21
2.3.1.3 Service classes 22
2.3.2 Materials and product properties 22
2.3.2.1 Load-duration and moisture influences on strength 22
2.3.2.2 Load-duration and moisture influences on deformations 22
2.4 VERIFICATION BY THE PARTIAL FACTOR METHOD 24
2.4.1 Design value of material property 24
2.4.2 Design value of geometrical data 25
2.4.3 Design resistances 25
2.4.4 Verification of equilibrium (EQU) 25
SECTION 3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 26
3.1 GENERAL 26
3.1.1 Strength and stiffness parameters 26
3.1.2 Stress-strain relations 26

3.1.3 Strength modification factors for service classes and load-duration classes 26

3.1.4 Deformation modification factors for service classes 26
3.2 SOLID TIMBER 26
3.3 GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER 27
3.4 LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER (LVL) 28
3.5 WOOD-BASED PANELS 29
3.6 ADHESIVES 29
3.7 METAL FASTENERS 29
SECTION 4 DURABILITY 30
4.1 RESISTANCE TO BIOLOGICAL ORGANISMS 30
4.2 RESISTANCE TO CORROSION 30
SECTION 5 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 31
5.1 GENERAL 31
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
5.2 MEMBERS 31
5.3 CONNECTIONS 31
5.4 ASSEMBLIES 32
5.4.1 General 32
5.4.2 Frame structures 32
5.4.3 Simplified analysis of trusses with punched metal plate fasteners 33
5.4.4 Plane frames and arches 34
SECTION 6 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES 36
6.1 DESIGN OF CROSS-SECTIONS SUBJECTED TO STRESS IN ONE PRINCIPAL DIRECTION 36
6.1.1 General 36
6.1.2 Tension parallel to the grain 36
6.1.3 Tension perpendicular to the grain 36
6.1.4 Compression parallel to the grain 36
6.1.5 Compression perpendicular to the grain 36
6.1.6 Bending 41
6.1.7 Shear 41
6.1.8 Torsion 42
6.2 DESIGN OF CROSS-SECTIONS SUBJECTED TO COMBINED STRESSES 43
6.2.1 General 43
6.2.2 Compression stresses at an angle to the grain 43
6.2.3 Combined bending and axial tension 43
6.2.4 Combined bending and axial compression 43
6.3 STABILITY OF MEMBERS 44
6.3.1 General 44

6.3.2 Columns subjected to either compression or combined compression and bending44

6.3.3 Beams subjected to either bending or combined bending and compression 45
6.4 DESIGN OF CROSS-SECTIONS IN MEMBERS WITH VARYING CROSS-SECTION OR CURVED
SHAPE 47
6.4.1 General 47
6.4.2 Single tapered beams 47
6.4.3 Double tapered, curved and pitched cambered beams 48
6.5 NOTCHED MEMBERS 52
6.5.1 General 52
6.5.2 Beams with a notch at the support 52
6.6 SYSTEM STRENGTH 53
SECTION 7 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES 55
7.1 JOINT SLIP 55
7.2 LIMITING VALUES FOR DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS 55
7.3 VIBRATIONS 56
7.3.1 General 56
7.3.2 Vibrations from machinery 56
7.3.3 Residential floors 56
SECTION 8 CONNECTIONS WITH METAL FASTENERS 59
8.1 GENERAL 59
8.1.1 Fastener requirements 59
8.1.2 Multiple fastener connections 59
8.1.3 Multiple shear plane connections 59
8.1.4 Connection forces at an angle to the grain 59
8.1.5 Alternating connection forces 61
8.2 LATERAL LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF METAL DOWEL-TYPE FASTENERS 61
8.2.1 General 61
8.2.2 Timber-to-timber and panel-to-timber connections 61
8.2.3 Steel-to-timber connections 63
8.3 NAILED CONNECTIONS 65
8.3.1 Laterally loaded nails 65
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
8.3.1.1 General 65
8.3.1.2 Nailed timber-to-timber connections 67
8.3.1.3 Nailed panel-to-timber connections 70
8.3.1.4 Nailed steel-to-timber connections 70
8.3.2 Axially loaded nails 70
8.3.3 Combined laterally and axially loaded nails 72
8.4 STAPLED CONNECTIONS 72
8.5 BOLTED CONNECTIONS 74
8.5.1 Laterally loaded bolts 74
8.5.1.1 General and bolted timber-to-timber connections 74
8.5.1.2 Bolted panel-to-timber connections 75
8.5.1.3 Bolted steel-to-timber connections 76
8.5.2 Axially loaded bolts 76
8.6 DOWELLED CONNECTIONS 76
8.7 SCREWED CONNECTIONS 77
8.7.1 Laterally loaded screws 77
8.7.2 Axially loaded screws 77
8.7.3 Combined laterally and axially loaded screws 78
8.8 CONNECTIONS MADE WITH PUNCHED METAL PLATE FASTENERS 78
8.8.1 General 78
8.8.2 Plate geometry 78
8.8.3 Plate strength properties 79
8.8.4 Plate anchorage strengths 80
8.8.5 Connection strength verification 80
8.8.5.1 Plate anchorage capacity 80
8.8.5.2 Plate capacity 82
8.9 SPLIT RING AND SHEAR PLATE CONNECTORS 83
8.10 TOOTHED-PLATE CONNECTORS 86
SECTION 9 COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES 89
9.1 COMPONENTS 89
9.1.1 Glued thin-webbed beams 89
9.1.2 Glued thin-flanged beams 91
9.1.3 Mechanically jointed beams 92
9.1.4 Mechanically jointed and glued columns 93
9.2 ASSEMBLIES 93
9.2.1 Trusses 93
9.2.2 Trusses with punched metal plate fasteners 94
9.2.3 Roof and floor diaphragms 95
9.2.3.1 General 95
9.2.3.2 Simplified analysis of roof and floor diaphragms. 95
9.2.4 Wall diaphragms 96
9.2.4.1 General 96
9.2.4.2 Simplified analysis of wall diaphragms – Method A 96
9.2.4.3 Simplified analysis of wall diaphragms – Method B 99

9.2.4.3.1 Construction of walls and panels to meet the requirements of the simplified analysis99

9.2.4.3.2 Design procedure 100
9.2.5 Bracing 102
9.2.5.1 General 102
9.2.5.2 Single members in compression 102
9.2.5.3 Bracing of beam or truss systems 103
SECTION 10 STRUCTURAL DETAILING AND CONTROL 105
10.1 GENERAL 105
10.2 MATERIALS 105
10.3 GLUED JOINTS 105
10.4 CONNECTIONS WITH MECHANICAL FASTENERS 105
10.4.1 General 105
10.4.2 Nails 105
10.4.3 Bolts and washers 105
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
10.4.4 Dowels 106
10.4.5 Screws 106
10.5 ASSEMBLY 106
10.6 TRANSPORTATION AND ERECTION 106
10.7 CONTROL 107
10.8 SPECIAL RULES FOR DIAPHRAGM STRUCTURES 107
10.8.1 Floor and roof diaphragms 107
10.8.2 Wall diaphragms 108
10.9 SPECIAL RULES FOR TRUSSES WITH PUNCHED METAL PLATE FASTENERS 108
10.9.1 Fabrication 108
10.9.2 Erection 108
ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE): BLOCK SHEAR AND PLUG SHEAR FAILURE AT
MULTIPLE DOWEL-TYPE STEEL-TO-TIMBER CONNECTIONS 110
ANNEX B (INFORMATIVE): MECHANICALLY JOINTED BEAMS 112
B.1 SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS 112
B.1.1 Cross-sections 112
B.1.2 Assumptions 112
B.1.3 Spacings 112
B.1.4 Deflections resulting from bending moments 112
B.2 EFFECTIVE BENDING STIFFNESS 114
B.3 NORMAL STRESSES 114
B.4 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS 114
B.5 FASTENER LOAD 114
ANNEX C (INFORMATIVE): BUILT-UP COLUMNS 116
C.1 GENERAL 116
C.1.1 Assumptions 116
C.1.2 Load-carrying capacity 116
C.2 MECHANICALLY JOINTED COLUMNS 116
C.2.1 Effective slenderness ratio 116
C.2.2 Load on fasteners 116
C.2.3 Combined loads 117
C.3 SPACED COLUMNS WITH PACKS OR GUSSETS 117
C.3.1 Assumptions 117
C.3.2 Axial load-carrying capacity 118
C.3.3 Load on fasteners, gussets or packs 119
C.4 LATTICE COLUMNS WITH GLUED OR NAILED JOINTS 119
C.4.1 Assumptions 119
C.4.2 Load-carrying capacity 120
C.4.3 Shear forces 122
ANNEX D (INFORMATIVE): BIBLIOGRAPHY 123
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
Foreword

This European Standard EN 1995-1-1 has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250

“Structural Eurocodes”, the Secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a National Standard, either by publication

of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2005, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2010.
This European Standard supersedes ENV 1995-1-1:1993.
CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Background of the Eurocode programme

In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the

field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the

elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of

harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would

serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would

replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives

of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the

first generation of European codes in the 1980s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of

an agreementTPPT between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the

publication of the Eurocodes to CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them

with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the

provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European

standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products – CPD – and

Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and

equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of

a number of Parts:
EN 1990:2002 Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design
EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design

TPPT Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for

Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil

engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State

and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at

national level where these continue to vary from State to State.
Status and field of application of Eurocodes
The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference
documents for the following purposes:

– as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential

requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement N°1 –

Mechanical resistance and stability – and Essential Requirement N°2 – Safety in case of fire ;

– as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services ;

– as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction products

(ENs and ETAs)

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct

relationship with the Interpretative DocumentsTPPT referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although

they are of a different nature from harmonised product standardsTPPT . Therefore, technical aspects

arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical

Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to

achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the

design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative

nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and

additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.
National Standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode

(including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page

and National foreword, and may be followed by a National annex.

The National annex may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in

the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for

the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned,

i.e.:
– values and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode;
– values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode;
– country specific data (geographical, climatic, etc.), e.g. snow map;

TPPT According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in

interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and

the mandates for harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs.
TPPT According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall:

give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases

and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ;

indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g.

methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ;

serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical

approvals.

The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)

– the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode;

– decisions on the application of informative annexes;

– references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the

Eurocode.

Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for

products

There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for

construction products and the technical rules for worksTPPT . Furthermore, all the information

accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which refer to Eurocodes shall

clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account.

Additional information specific to EN 1995-1-1

EN 1995 describes the Principles and requirements for safety, serviceability and durability of

timber structures. It is based on the limit state concept used in conjunction with a partial factor

method.

For the design of new structures, EN 1995 is intended to be used, for direct application,

together with EN 1990:2002 and relevant Parts of EN 1991.

Numerical values for partial factors and other reliability parameters are recommended as basic

values that provide an acceptable level of reliability. They have been selected assuming that an

appropriate level of workmanship and of quality management applies. When EN 1995-1-1 is

used as a base document by other CEN/TCs the same values need to be taken.
National annex for EN 1995-1-1

This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations with notes indicating

where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing

EN 1995-1-1 should have a National annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to

be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant

country.
National choice is allowed in EN 1995-1-1 through clauses:
2.3.1.2(2)P Assignment of loads to load-duration classes;
2.3.1.3(1)P Assignment of structures to service classes;
2.4.1(1)P Partial factors for material properties;
6.4.3(8) Double tapered, curved and pitched cambered beams;
7.2(2) Limiting values for deflections;
7.3.3(2) Limiting values for vibrations;
8.3.1.2(4) Nailed timber-to-timber connections: Rules for nails in end grain;
8.3.1.2(7) Nailed timber-to-timber connections: Species sensitive to splitting;
9.2.4.1(7) Design method for wall diaphragms;
9.2.5.3(1) Bracing modification factors for beam or truss systems;
10.9.2(3) Erection of trusses with punched metal plate fasteners: Maximum bow;

10.9.2(4) Erection of trusses with punched metal plate fasteners: Maximum deviation.

TPPT see Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
Section 1 General
1.1 Scope
1.1.1 Scope of EN 1995

(1)P EN 1995 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in timber (solid

timber, sawn, planed or in pole form, glued laminated timber or wood-based structural products,

e.g. LVL) or wood-based panels jointed together with adhesives or mechanical fasteners. It

complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures and

the basis of design and verification given in EN 1990:2002.

(2)P EN 1995 is only concerned with requirements for mechanical resistance, serviceability,

durability and fire resistance of timber structures. Other requirements, e.g concerning thermal or

sound insulation, are not considered.
(3) EN 1995 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
EN 1990:2002 Eurocode – Basis of design
EN 1991 “Actions on structures”
EN´s for construction products relevant to timber structures

EN 1998 “Design of structures for earthquake resistance”, when timber structures are built in

seismic regions
(4) EN 1995 is subdivided into various parts:
EN 1995-1 General
EN 1995-2 Bridges
(5) EN 1995-1 “General” comprises:
EN 1995-1-1 General – Common rules and rules for buildings
EN 1995-1-2 General rules – Structural Fire Design

(6) EN 1995-2 refers to the common rules in EN 1995-1-1. The clauses in EN 1995-2

supplement the clauses in EN 1995-1.
1.1.2 Scope of EN 1995-1-1

(1) EN 1995-1-1 gives general design rules for timber structures together with specific design

rules for buildings.
(2) The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1995-1-1:
Section 1: General
Section 2: Basis of design
Section 3: Material properties
Section 4: Durability
Section 5: Basis of structural analysis
Section 6: Ultimate limit states
Section 7: Serviceability limit states
Section 8: Connections with metal fasteners
Section 9: Components and assemblies
Section 10: Structural detailing and control.

(3)P EN 1995-1-1 does not cover the design of structures subject to prolonged exposure to

temperatures over 60°C.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
1.2 Normative references

(1) This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions

of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).
ISO standards:
ISO 2081:1986 Metallic coatings. Electroplated coatings of zinc on iron or steel
ISO 2631-2:1989 Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration. Part 2:
Continuous and shock-induced vibrations in buildings (1 to 80 Hz)
European Standards:
EN 300:1997 Oriented Strand Board (OSB) – Definition, classification and
specifications

EN 301:1992 Adhesives, phenolic and aminoplastic for load-bearing timber structures;

classification and performance requirements

EN 312-4:1996 Particleboards – Specifications. Part 4: Requirements for load-bearing

boards for use in dry conditions

EN 312-5:1997 Particleboards – Specifications. Part 5: Requirements for load-bearing

boards for use in humid conditions

EN 312-6:1996 Particleboards – Specifications. Part 6: Requirements for heavy duty

load-bearing boards for use in dry conditions

EN 312-7:1997 Particleboards – Specifications. Part 7: Requirements for heavy duty

load-bearing boards for use in humid conditions
EN 335-1:1992 Durability of wood and wood-based products – definition of hazard
classes of biological attack. Part 1: General
EN 335-2:1992 Durability of wood and wood-based products – definition of hazard
classes of biological attack. Part 2: Application to solid wood
EN 335-3:1995 Durability of wood and wood-based products – Definition of hazard
classes of biological attack. Part 3: Application to wood-based panels

EN 350-2:1994 Durability of wood and wood-based products – Natural durability of solid

wood. Part 2: Guide to natural durability and treatability of selected wood
species of importance in Europe

EN 351-1:1995 Durability of wood and wood-based products – Preservative treated solid

wood. Part 1: Classification of preservative penetration and retention

EN 383:1993 Timber structures – Test methods. Determination of embedding strength

and foundation values for dowel type fasteners

EN 385:2001 Finger jointed structural timber. Performance requirements and minimum

production requirements

EN 387:2001 Glued laminated timber – Production requirements for large finger joints.

Performance requirements and minimum production requirements

EN 409:1993 Timber structures – Test methods. Determination of the yield moment of

dowel type fasteners – Nails
11
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)

EN 460:1994 Durability of wood and wood-based products – Natural durability of solid

wood – Guide of the durability requirements for wood to be used in
hazard classes
EN 594:1995 Timber structures – Test methods – Racking strength and stiffness of
timber frame wall panels
EN 622-2:1997 Fibreboards – Specifications. Part 2: Requirements for hardboards

EN 622-3:1997 Fibreboards – Specifications. Part 3: Requirements for medium boards

EN 622-4:1997 Fibreboards – Specifications. Part 4: Requirements for softboards
EN 622-5:1997 Fibreboards – Specifications. Part 5: Requirements for dry process
boards (MDF)

EN 636-1:1996 Plywood – Specifications. Part 1: Requirements for plywood for use in dry

conditions

EN 636-2:1996 Plywood – Specifications. Part 2: Requirements for plywood for use in

humid conditions

EN 636-3:1996 Plywood – Specifications. Part 3: Requirements for plywood for use in

exterior conditions
EN 912:1999 Timber fasteners – Specifications for connectors for timber

EN 1075:1999 Timber structures – Test methods. Testing of joints made with punched

metal plate fasteners
EN 1380:1999 Timber structures – Test methods – Load bearing nailed joints
EN 1381:1999 Timber structures – Test methods – Load bearing stapled joints
EN 1382:1999 Timber structures – Test methods – Withdrawal capacity of timber
fasteners
EN 1383:1999 Timber structures – Test methods – Pull through testing of timber
fasteners
EN 1990:2002 Eurocode – Basis of structural design
EN 1991-1-1:2002 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-2: General actions –
Densities, self-weight and imposed loads

EN 1991-1-3 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-3: General actions – Snow

loads

EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-4: General actions – Wind

loads

EN 1991-1-5 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-5: General actions – Thermal

actions

EN 1991-1-6 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-6: General actions – Actions

during execution
EN 1991-1-7 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-7: General actions –
Accidental actions due to impact and explosions

EN 10147:2000 Specification for continuously hot-dip zinc coated structural steel sheet

and strip – Technical delivery conditions

EN 13271:2001 Timber fasteners – Characteristic load-carrying capacities and slip moduli

for connector joints
EN 13986 Wood-based panels for use in construction – Characteristics, evaluation
of conformity and marking
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
EN 1995-1-1:2004 (E)
EN 14080 Timber structures – Glued laminated timber – Requirements

EN 14081-1 Timber structures – Strength graded structural timber with rectangular

cross-section – Part 1, General requirements
EN 14250 Timber structures. Production requirements for fabricated trusses using
punched metal plate fasteners
EN 14279 Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) – Specifications, definitions,
classification and requirements
EN 14358 Timber structures – Fasteners and wood-based products – Calculation of
characteristic 5-percentile value and acceptance criteria for a sample
EN 14374 Timber structures – Structural laminated veneer lumber – Requirements
EN 14544 Strength graded structural timber with round cross-section –
Requirements
EN 14545 Timber structures – Connectors – Requirements
EN 14592 Timber structures – Fasteners – Requirements
EN 26891:1991 Timber structures. Joints made with mechanical fasteners. General
principles for the determination of strength and deformation
characteristics

EN 28970:1991 Timber structures. Testing of joints made with mechanical fasteners;

requirements for wood density (ISO 8970:1989)

NOTE: As long as EN 14250, EN 14081-1, EN 14080, EN 13986, EN 14374, EN 14358, EN 14544, EN

14545 and EN 14592 are not available as European standards, more information may be given in the

National annex.
1.3 Assumptions
(1)P The general assumptions of EN 1990:2002 apply.

(2) Additional requirements for structural detailing and control are given in section 10.

1.4 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules
(1)P The r
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