Safety of toys - Part 8: Age determination guidelines (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 provides guidelines for the determination of the lowest age at which children start playing with toys in specific toy sub-categories and is primarily directed to manufacturers and agencies that evaluate the compliance of toys with safety standards.
This Technical Report can also be used as a reference to determine the appropriateness of toys by earliest age, for use by distributors, institutions, and organizations involved with child play, as well as by paediatric institutions, teachers, other professionals that use toys in their routine activities, and consumers.
The age at which children develop different abilities is unique for each individual child. These guidelines illustrate the age ranges during which a typical child has developed certain abilities.
Although age grading has safety implications, these guidelines are not intended to address specific safety requirements. Specific safety requirements for toys can be found in the ISO 8124 series of toy safety standards (and in other regional toy safety standards and regulations). As an example, such standards will restrict the presence of small parts and small balls in toys intended for certain age groups, due to the choking hazard.
These age determination guidelines are based on the advice of experts and traditional play patterns of children; they might differ from national or regional regulations or directives that classify a toy, or category of toy, as being intended for a different age.
Annex B gives details on how information on electronic toys and electronics in toys was considered in the development of these age determination guidelines.

Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Teil 8: Leitlinien zur Alterseinstufung (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

Sécurité des jouets - Partie 8: Lignes directrices pour la détermination de l'âge (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

L'ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 fournit des lignes directrices dans des sous-catégories spécifiques de jouets pour la détermination de l'âge minimum auquel les enfants commencent à jouer avec des jouets des sous-catégories spécifiques de jouets. Ce rapport s'adresse principalement aux fabricants et aux organismes qui évaluent la conformité des jouets aux normes de sécurité.
L'ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 peut également servir de référence pour déterminer l'adéquation des jouets avec l'âge le plus bas, aux distributeurs, aux institutions et aux organismes impliqués dans le jeu des enfants, ainsi qu'aux instituts pédiatriques, aux enseignants, aux autres professionnels qui utilisent des jouets dans leurs activités quotidiennes, et enfin aux consommateurs.
L'âge auquel les enfants développent différentes capacités est propre à chaque enfant. Ces lignes directrices illustrent les tranches d'âge pendant lesquelles un enfant aura normalement développé certaines capacités.
Bien que le classement par âge ait des implications en matière de sécurité, ces lignes directrices ne visent pas à couvrir des exigences de sécurité spécifiques. Les exigences de sécurité spécifiques relatives aux jouets sont fournies dans la série ISO 8124 de normes sur la sécurité des jouets (et dans d'autres normes et réglementations locales portant sur la sécurité des jouets). Par exemple, ces normes limitent la présence de petits éléments et de petites balles dans les jouets destinés à certains groupes d'âge, en raison du danger d'étouffement.
Ces lignes directrices pour la détermination de l'âge reposent sur des avis de spécialistes et sur les habitudes de jeu traditionnelles des enfants; elles peuvent diverger de la réglementation ou des directives nationales ou locales classifiant un jouet, ou une catégorie de jouets, comme étant destiné à un âge différent.
L'Annexe B détaille la façon dont les informations sur les jouets électroniques et l'électronique dans les jouets ont été prises en compte dans l'élaboration de ces lignes directrices.

Varnost igrač - 8. del: Smernice za določitev starosti (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

To tehnično poročilo podaja smernice za določitev najnižje starosti, pri kateri se otroci začnejo igrati z igračami posameznih podkategorij, ki ga primarno uporabljajo proizvajalci in agencije, ki ocenjujejo skladnost igrač z varnostnimi standardi.
To tehnično poročilo se lahko uporablja tudi kot referenca pri ugotavljanju primernosti igrač v povezavi z najnižjo starostjo uporabnikov. Uporabljajo ga lahko distributerji, ustanove in organizacije, ki se ukvarjajo z otroško igro, ter tudi pediatrične ustanove, učitelji, drugi strokovnjaki, ki uporabljajo igrače pri svojih dejavnostih, in potrošniki.
Starost, pri kateri otroci razvijejo različne sposobnosti, je odvisna od posameznega otroka. Te smernice prikazujejo starostne skupine, v katerih otrok običajno razvije določene sposobnosti. Čeprav je pri določanju primernosti za določeno starostno skupino upoštevana tudi varnost, te smernice ne zajemajo specifičnih varnostnih zahtev. Specifične varnostne zahteve za igrače so zajete v skupini standardov ISO 8124 za varnost igrač (ter v ostalih regionalnih standardih in predpisih za varnost igrač). Takšni standardi na primer omejujejo prisotnost majhnih delcev in majhnih kroglic pri igračah, namenjenih za določeno starostno skupino, zaradi nevarnosti zadušitve.
Te smernice za določanje starosti temeljijo na nasvetih strokovnjakov in tradicionalnih vzorcih igre
otrok; lahko se razlikujejo od nacionalnih ali regionalnih predpisov ali direktiv, ki klasificirajo igračo ali kategorijo igrač, primernih za različne starosti.
Dodatek B določa podrobnosti, kako so podatki o elektronskih igračah in elektroniki v igračah upoštevani pri razvoju teh smernic za določanje starosti.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Feb-2016
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
17-Feb-2016
Completion Date
17-Feb-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
01-julij-2016
9DUQRVWLJUDþGHO6PHUQLFH]DGRORþLWHYVWDURVWL ,6275
Safety of toys - Part 8: Age determination guidelines (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Teil 8: Leitlinien zur Alterseinstufung (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

Sécurité des jouets - Partie 8: Lignes directrices pour la détermination de l'âge (ISO/TR

8124-8:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
ICS:
97.200.50 ,JUDþH Toys
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
CEN ISO/TR 8124-8
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
February 2016
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 97.200.50
English Version
Safety of toys - Part 8: Age determination guidelines
(ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

Sécurité des jouets - Partie 8: Lignes directrices pour la Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Teil 8: Leitlinien zur

détermination de l'âge (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016) Alterseinstufung (ISO/TR 8124-8:2016)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 23 October 2015. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 52.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 181

“Safety of toys" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 52 “Safety of toys” the secretariat of

which is held by DS.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

Information regarding the age classification of specific toys within the scope of the EU Toy Safety

Directive can be found in the European Commission Guidance Documents, which are available on their

website.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 8124-8
Second edition
2016-02-01
Safety of toys —
Part 8:
Age determination guidelines
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 8: Lignes directrices pour la détermination de l’âge
Reference number
ISO/TR 8124-8:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
ISO/TR 8124-8:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Guidelines .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Children with starting ages birth to under 4 months ............................................................................................ 2

3.1.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour

of children with starting ages birth to under 4 months ................................................................. 2

3.1.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................... 3

3.2 Children with starting ages 4 months to under 8 months ................................................................................. 3

3.2.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 4 months to under 8 months ............................................................ 3

3.2.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................... 4

3.3 Children with starting ages 8 months to under 12 months ............................................................................. 5

3.3.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 8 months to under 12 months......................................................... 5

3.3.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................... 5

3.4 Children with starting ages 12 months to under 18 months .......................................................................... 6

3.4.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 12 months to under 18 months ..................................................... 6

3.4.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................... 7

3.5 Children with starting ages 18 months to under 24 months .......................................................................... 8

3.5.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 18 months to under 24 months ..................................................... 8

3.5.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................... 8

3.6 Children with starting ages 24 months to under 36 months .......................................................................... 9

3.6.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 24 months to under 36 months ..................................................... 9

3.6.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................10

3.7 Children with starting ages 3 years to under 4 years .........................................................................................11

3.7.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 3 years to under 4 years ....................................................................11

3.7.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................12

3.8 Children with ages starting 4 years to under 6 years .........................................................................................14

3.8.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 4 years to under 6 years ....................................................................14

3.8.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................15

3.9 Children with starting ages 6 years to under 8 years .........................................................................................16

3.9.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 6 years to under 8 years ....................................................................16

3.9.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................17

3.10 Children with starting ages 8 years to under 14 years .....................................................................................18

3.10.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of

children with starting ages 8 years to under 14 years .................................................................18

3.10.2 Recommended toy sub-categories ................................................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Toy classification system, description of categories, and sub-

categories of toys ...............................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Considerations regarding electronic toys .......................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 8124-8:2014), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 8124 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of toys:

— Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
— Part 2: Flammability
— Part 3: Migration of certain elements

— Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

— Part 5: Determination of total concentration of certain elements in toys
— Part 6: Certain phthalate esters in toys and children’s products
— Part 7: Requirements and test methods for finger paints
— Part 8: Age determination guidelines [Technical Report]
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 8124-8:2016(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 8:
Age determination guidelines
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides guidelines for the determination of the lowest age at which children

start playing with toys in specific toy sub-categories and is primarily directed to manufacturers and

agencies that evaluate the compliance of toys with safety standards.

This Technical Report can also be used as a reference to determine the appropriateness of toys by earliest

age, for use by distributors, institutions, and organizations involved with child play, as well as by paediatric

institutions, teachers, other professionals that use toys in their routine activities, and consumers.

The age at which children develop different abilities is unique for each individual child. These guidelines

illustrate the age ranges during which a typical child has developed certain abilities.

Although age grading has safety implications, these guidelines are not intended to address specific

safety requirements. Specific safety requirements for toys can be found in the ISO 8124 series of toy

safety standards (and in other regional toy safety standards and regulations). As an example, such

standards will restrict the presence of small parts and small balls in toys intended for certain age

groups, due to the choking hazard.

These age determination guidelines are based on the advice of experts and traditional play patterns

of children; they might differ from national or regional regulations or directives that classify a toy, or

category of toy, as being intended for a different age.

Annex B gives details on how information on electronic toys and electronics in toys was considered in

the development of these age determination guidelines.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
age group

children that are all within a specified age range defined by the motor and cognitive development and

behaviour of children
Note 1 to entry: Extracted from Reference [4].
2.2
category
type or group of toys that children use that comprises the play category

Note 1 to entry: The following are the play categories according to the purposes and functions of the toy:

— sensorimotor activities - first age;
— toys for physical activities;
— toys for intellectual activities;
— toys that reproduce the technical world;
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— toys for the development of feelings and empathy;
— toys for creative activities;
— toys for social relationships.
Note 2 to entry: See References [1] and [2].

Note 3 to entry: In addition to the original classification, new sub-categories have been included to take into

account the continued evolution of the toy market (see Annex A).
2.3
gross motor skills

activities of the large muscles of the body, related to functions of sustaining head positions, sitting,

walking and running
2.4
fine motor skills

clenching motion activities of the hands, such as gripping, clasping and pincer movements as well as

fine movements used for drawing and writing
2.5
starting age

first age at which it is appropriate for a child to play with a specific type of toy

Note 1 to entry: At very young ages, “play” can be considered as the interaction between a caregiver and a child,

where the caregiver is using the toy to entertain or get the attention of the child such as with a rattle. It is only

after further development that the child can actually play with the toy.

Note 2 to entry: For the purposes of this guidance document, a range of starting ages is presented for various

sub-categories of toys. The age range covers the first day of the lowest age to the day prior to the highest age in

the range. For example, a starting age range of 4 months to under 8 months would be from the day that the child

becomes 4 months old until the end of the day prior to the child becoming 8 months old.

Note 3 to entry: When a starting age is mentioned for specific categories of toys, it does not mean that all the toys

belonging to that category are to be classified as suitable for that age. The number of pieces, dimensions, level of

detail and realism, and special functions of the specific toy can change/increase the intended age.

3 Guidelines
3.1 Children with starting ages birth to under 4 months

3.1.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of children with

starting ages birth to under 4 months

Usually, the following development and behaviour can be observed in children with starting ages birth

to under 4 months.

— Do not yet have the motor abilities required to play with toys; they are only used as objects for

exploration and entertainment rather than for play.

— Do not yet have the ability to interact with books due to the lack of physical, cognitive and visual

abilities required for this activity.

— Are attracted by multi-sensory elements and are able to recognize their parents; have sucking and

breastfeeding reflex, but are unable to sit up by themselves; have abrupt, uncontrolled and limited

motions. They touch, grab, hold, press and shake anything in their hands unaware of the strength

in their arms.

— Around 3 months, they are capable of grabbing (reflex grasp) and holding objects (whether

suspended or not). They detect, explore and feel objects with their hands and mouth.

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— The learning process occurs through the senses and reflexes by assimilating reactions to stimuli

and repetitive motions.

— The auditory system is functioning at the time of birth, but it needs neurological maturation and

sensory experiences for the hearing functions to develop fully. Children demonstrate a lot of

sensitivity to ambient sounds due to their immaturity and lack of experience. From birth, children

begin to react to sounds and human speech. By around 2 months, most babies get quiet when they

hear familiar voices. By 3 months, they locate and respond to sounds and make vocalizations that

could be related to sensations associated with bathing and eating.

— They turn the head towards a sound and are attracted by objects that emit sounds that are known

to them as being a part of their routine.

— Vision development is progressive. At birth, the eye focus of the child is best at about 20 cm. After

1 month, children are able to focus on objects up to 30 cm away, and by 3 months they can see

some meters ahead. Visual acuity upon birth is from 2,5 % to 5 %, and improves to near 20 % up

to the third month.

— Are attracted by bright colours such as yellow and red although they cannot clearly distinguish

between them. At the age of 2 months, the primary colour receptors are developed and they can

distinguish between contrasts and the primary colours blue, red, and yellow.
3.1.2 Recommended toy sub-categories
The toy sub-categories in Table 1 are recommended for this age group.

Table 1 — Sub-categories of toys for children from birth to under 4 months of age

Sub-category Starting age Description and examples of appropriate toys
1.01 0 months + Rattles and rings

1.03 0 months + Mobiles, with or without sound – toys with miscellaneous figures and

shapes to be mounted above the crib and intended to be out of the reach of the
child

1.47 0 months + Musical boxes – toys to be mounted on or near a crib with handle or button

for adult activation

1.04 2 months + Crib gyms and playmats – mats with simple play features or activities; may

include overhead structures that may have dangling objects intended for the
child to reach, grasp, or hit

1.13 2 months + Simple dolls and animals – soft-stuffed dolls and animals made of fabric or

plush with or without clothes and fixed details which cannot be removed

1.05 3 months + Cradle and playpen toys – balls, characters attached to cribs, strollers, or

enclosures

1.09 3 months + Squeeze toys – constructed of soft material, with or without internal rattle

or noise feature
1.25 3 months + Cloth and similar soft material balls and geometric forms
3.2 Children with starting ages 4 months to under 8 months

3.2.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of children with

starting ages 4 months to under 8 months

Usually, the following development and behaviour can be observed in children with starting ages 4

months to under 8 months.

— Are attracted by multi-sensory elements and have increasing interest in the environment

surrounding them. Are in the oral phase and teeth begin to appear. Have natural involuntary

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motions. The learning process still occurs through the senses, especially the mouth, and reflexes,

by assimilating reactions to stimuli and repetitive motions.

— Continue with hearing development and already use their visual and motor abilities to play with

other people. Are capable of interacting with toys and objects. Begin to be aware of the existence

and permanence of objects (objects continue to exist even when out of sight). Imitate simple motions

and gestures.

— Are perfectly capable of locating sounds. Engage in vocal games that emphasize repetition of a same

syllable like “mamama”, “papapa”, from 4 months on. Start interacting with the adult to develop

language games with the child in which words are spoken in a repetitive way. Enjoy songs and sounds.

From 4 to 6 months, they are more sensitive to sounds, and react to changes in voice tones and sounds.

— Use the limbs to move, rolling onto their sides, launching themselves forwards and backwards. Have

greater ability to position themselves on the floor to play, start sitting by themselves, and crawling

between 5 and 6 months.

— Have low gross and fine motor coordination, as well as involuntary motions of the limbs. The fine

motor coordination of hands is still developing. Grab objects with the palm of hands (primitive

grasping). Grab strongly, extend the palm of their hand to reach objects, and are capable of

transferring objects from one hand to another.

— Have a progressive development of motions, such as holding, grabbing, pressing, shaking, pulling

and throwing objects onto the floor. Grabbing and holding are totally mastered around 6 months.

They are capable of turning thick pages clumsily.

— At around 6 months, visual acuity and colour receptors are almost equal to that of an adult. They are

attracted by red and yellow colours and printed patterns.
3.2.2 Recommended toy sub-categories
The toy sub-categories in Table 2 are recommended for this age group.

Table 2 — Sub-categories of toys for children starting ages 4 months to under 8 months

Sub-category Starting age Description and examples of appropriate toys
1.02 4 months + Teethers and teething rings

1.07 4 months + Activity playboards – boards that are attached to the crib with various play

features such as miscellaneous coloured shapes, shatterproof mirrors, spin-
ners that rattle, buttons to push, parts that slide on guides, doors that open
1.11 4 months + Bath toys – animals, small boats, and floating objects
1.45 4 months + Balls or cylinders – clear material with visible contents
1.17 5 months + Simple blocks, nesting toys, and stacking toys
1.12 6 months + Simple books made of textiles or plastic

1.20 6 months + Simple push/pull rolling toys (without cord or handle) which make

sounds and/or have coloured lights – wheeled animals or vehicles

1.48 6 months + Simple keyboards or hand-held toys with buttons that activate lights

and sounds
1.18 6 months + Simple ball and track toys
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3.3 Children with starting ages 8 months to under 12 months

3.3.1 Aspects related to the motor and cognitive development, and behaviour of children with

starting ages 8 months to under 12 months

Usually, the following development and behaviour can be observed in children with starting ages 8

months to under 12 months.

— May be anxious in case of the mother’s (or father’s) absence or in the presence of strangers. They

become attached to objects (blanket, plush toy, etc.), which provide comfort and a sense of security.

Start the development of imitative behaviours and are able to recognize and imitate voices, songs

and sounds. They can repeat songs and sounds after hearing a number of repetitions.

— From 8 months, their babbling is similar to the sounds of their mother tongue. They start to imitate

some actions that are familiar to them with the use of materials or toys, like cradling a doll (it is the

first phase of symbolization), and understand the meaning of some gestures (kiss, goodbye, and

come here). Start to express themselves by gestures (such as extending and contracting the hand

when they want something), however, they still only recognize what is in their immediate field

of vision. During this age range, they start to verbalize their first words and associate them with

actions, but they limit themselves to the knowledge of their immediate surroundings. Therefore,

intentional verbal and physical communication is already occurring. They are still attracted by

elements that stimulate the senses.

— Start to relate objects to their intended purposes and have full awareness of an object’s existence

and permanence (continue to be aware of them even when out of sight). Are able to turn the pages

of a book with more ease, understand simple cause and effect relationships, and are more aware of

themselves. They begin to have a notion of heights and the dangers of falls.

— They have better body balance, interest in the movement and placement of objects (balance, motion),

and also greater refinement and ability of movement. Have interest in exploring the environment,

can crawl and sit unaided. Remain standing and make their first steps with support.

— Have muscle control and more developed fine motor coordination. Primitive clenching is more

coordinated (holding, pincer grip) and are able to play instruments with the fingers (usually the

forefinger). Use the forefinger with the purpose of pointing out objects and people.

— Are able to hold two objects simultaneously, but cannot coordinate them. Objects remain in their

hands for longer time and they grab and beat the objects with more frequency. They practice their

fine motor skills by grabbing, pushing, pulling, pressing, clapping, caressing, nudging, shaking and

scribbling. They are capable of scribbling with crayons and felt-tipped pens, but are not able to draw

or write effectively.
3.3.2 Recommended toy sub-categories
The toy sub-categories in Table 3 are recommended for this age group.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 8124-8:2016
ISO/TR 8124-8:2016(E)

Table 3 — Sub-categories of toys for children starting ages 8 months to under 12 months

Sub-category Starting age Description and examples of appropriate toys

1.14 8 months + Roly-poly toys, bop-punching toys, and pop-up action toys – figures and

animals that rock in a to-and-fro motion, made of rigid or inflatable plastic,
jack in the box, push-down spinning toys
1.16 8 months + Books with thick (chunky) pages
1.35 8 months + Soft materials in various shapes for stacking

1.31 9 months + Learn to walk toys (walk behind) – wheeled unit with a solid base and han-

dle to support the child in the early stages of walking
5.02 9 months + Dolls, imagina
...

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