Plastics - Determination of Charpy impact properties - Part 1: Non-instrumented impact test (ISO 179-1:2023)

This document specifies a method for determining the Charpy impact strength of plastics under defined conditions. A number of different types of specimen and test configurations are defined. Different test parameters are specified according to the type of material, the type of test specimen and the type of notch.
The method can be used to investigate the behaviour of specified types of specimen under the impact conditions defined and for estimating the brittleness or toughness of specimens within the limitations inherent in the test conditions. It can also be used for the determination of comparative data from similar types of material.

Kunststoffe - Bestimmung der Charpy-Schlageigenschaften - Teil 1: Nicht instrumentierte Schlagzähigkeitsprüfung (ISO 179-1:2023)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren für die Bestimmung der Charpy-Schlagzähigkeit von Kunststoffen unter festgelegten Bedingungen fest. Eine Anzahl von unterschiedlichen Probekörpertypen und Prüfanordnungen wird festgelegt. Unterschiedliche Prüfbedingungen werden entsprechend dem Werkstofftyp, dem Probekörpertyp und der Kerbart festgelegt.
Das Prüfverfahren kann angewendet werden, um das Verhalten festgelegter Probekörpertypen bei den festgelegten Schlagbedingungen zu untersuchen und die Sprödigkeit oder Zähigkeit von Probekörpern innerhalb der Grenzen der Prüfbedingungen zu beurteilen. Es kann ebenfalls für die Bestimmung von Vergleichsdaten von ähnlichen Werkstofftypen angewendet werden.

Plastiques - Détermination des caractéristiques au choc Charpy - Partie 1: Essai de choc non instrumenté (ISO 179-1:2023)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode de détermination de la résistance au choc Charpy des plastiques dans des conditions définies. De nombreux types d’éprouvettes et de configurations d’essai différents sont définis. Divers paramètres d’essai sont spécifiés selon le type de matière, le type d’éprouvette et le type d’entaille.
La présente méthode peut être utilisée pour l’étude du comportement des types d’éprouvettes spécifiés soumises à des conditions de choc définies et pour l’estimation de la fragilité ou de la ténacité des éprouvettes dans les limites inhérentes aux conditions d’essai. Elle peut également être utilisée pour déterminer des résultats comparatifs propres à des types similaires de matériaux.

Polimerni materiali - Ugotavljanje udarne žilavosti pa Charpyju - 1. del: Preskus udarne žilavosti z neinstrumentalno metodo (ISO 179-1:2023)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jun-2023
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
14-Jun-2023
Completion Date
14-Jun-2023

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
01-september-2023
Polimerni materiali - Ugotavljanje udarne žilavosti pa Charpyju - 1. del: Preskus
udarne žilavosti z neinstrumentalno metodo (ISO 179-1:2023)
Plastics - Determination of Charpy impact properties - Part 1: Non-instrumented impact
test (ISO 179-1:2023)
Kunststoffe - Bestimmung der Charpy-Schlageigenschaften - Teil 1: Nicht instrumentierte
Schlagzähigkeitsprüfung (ISO 179-1:2023)
Plastiques - Détermination des caractéristiques au choc Charpy - Partie 1: Essai de choc
non instrumenté (ISO 179-1:2023)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 179-1:2023
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023


EN ISO 179-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPÉENNE

June 2023
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 83.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 179-1:2010
English Version

Plastics - Determination of Charpy impact properties - Part
1: Non-instrumented impact test (ISO 179-1:2023)
Plastiques - Détermination des caractéristiques au choc Kunststoffe - Bestimmung der Charpy-
Charpy - Partie 1: Essai de choc non instrumenté (ISO Schlageigenschaften - Teil 1: Nicht instrumentierte
179-1:2023) Schlagzähigkeitsprüfung (ISO 179-1:2023)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 May 2023.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this
European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references
concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN
member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by
translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management
Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and
United Kingdom.





EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2023 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 179-1:2023 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
EN ISO 179-1:2023 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 3

2

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
EN ISO 179-1:2023 (E)
European foreword
This document (EN ISO 179-1:2023) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics" in
collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by SIS.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2023, and conflicting national standards
shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2023.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 179-1:2010.
Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards
body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the
following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of
North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and the
United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice
The text of ISO 179-1:2023 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 179-1:2023 without any modification.


3

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 179-1
Third edition
2023-06
Plastics — Determination of Charpy
impact properties —
Part 1:
Non-instrumented impact test
Plastiques — Détermination des caractéristiques au choc Charpy —
Partie 1: Essai de choc non instrumenté
Reference number
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
© ISO 2023

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2023
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on
the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below
or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii
  © ISO 2023 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Principle . 2
5 Apparatus . 3
5.1 Test machine . 3
5.2 Micrometers and gauges . 3
6 Test specimens . 4
6.1 Preparation . 4
6.1.1 Moulding and extrusion compounds . 4
6.1.2 Sheets . 4
6.1.3 Long-fibre-reinforced materials . . 4
6.1.4 Checking . . 6
6.1.5 Notching . 7
6.2 Anisotropy . 7
6.3 Shape and dimensions . 7
6.3.1 Materials not exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture . 7
6.3.2 Materials exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture (e.g. long-fibre-reinforced
materials) . 9
6.4 Number of test specimens . 9
6.5 Span between specimen supports, L . 10
6.6 Conditioning. 10
7 Procedure .11
8 Calculation and expression of results .12
8.1 Unnotched specimens .12
8.2 Notched specimens .12
8.3 Statistical parameters. 12
8.4 Significant figures.12
9 Precision .12
10 Test report .13
Annex A (informative) Additional methods for investigating the influence of surface effects .15
Annex B (informative) Precision data .17
Annex C (informative) Determining the notch tip radius using a CCD microscope .19
Bibliography .22
iii
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).
ISO draws attention to the possibility that the implementation of this document may involve the use
of (a) patent(s). ISO takes no position concerning the evidence, validity or applicability of any claimed
patent rights in respect thereof. As of the date of publication of this document, ISO had not received
notice of (a) patent(s) which may be required to implement this document. However, implementers are
cautioned that this may not represent the latest information, which may be obtained from the patent
database available at www.iso.org/patents. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all
such patent rights.
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to
the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see
www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 2,
Mechanical behavior, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical
Committee CEN/TC 249, Plastics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between
ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 179-1:2010), which has been technically
revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— results of a round robin for unnotched specimens (see Annex B) have been added;
— reference to standard ISO 16012 (see the Bibliography and subclause 5.2) has been added;
— improvements of the micrometers and gauges subclause (see 5.2) have been addressed;
— symbols used in Formulae (1) and (2) have been reviewed and updated.
A list of all parts in the ISO 179 series can be found on the ISO website.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
iv
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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
Introduction
The Charpy impact properties determination method described in the ISO 179 series has a greater
range of applicability than that given in ISO 180 and is more suitable for the testing of materials showing
interlaminar shear fracture or of materials exhibiting surface effects due to environmental factors.
The method is suitable for use with the following range of materials:
— rigid thermoplastic moulding and extrusion materials (including filled and reinforced compounds
in addition to unfilled types) and rigid thermoplastics sheets;
— rigid thermosetting moulding materials (including filled and reinforced compounds) and rigid
thermosetting sheets (including laminates);
— fibre-reinforced thermosetting and thermoplastic composites incorporating unidirectional or
multi-directional reinforcements (such as mats, woven fabrics, woven rovings, chopped strands,
combination and hybrid reinforcements, rovings and milled fibres) or incorporating sheets made
from pre-impregnated materials (prepregs), including filled and reinforced compounds;
— thermotropic liquid-crystal polymers.
Notched samples are not normally suitable for use with rigid cellular materials, long-fibre-reinforced
composites or thermotropic liquid-crystal polymers. In these cases, unnotched samples may be used.
The method is suited to the use of specimens moulded to the chosen dimensions, machined from the
central portion of a standard multipurpose test specimen (see ISO 20753) or machined from finished or
semifinished products such as mouldings, laminates and extruded or cast sheet.
v
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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 179-1:2023(E)
Plastics — Determination of Charpy impact properties —
Part 1:
Non-instrumented impact test
1 Scope
This document specifies a method for determining the Charpy impact strength of plastics under defined
conditions. A number of different types of specimen and test configurations are defined. Different test
parameters are specified according to the type of material, the type of test specimen and the type of
notch.
The method can be used to investigate the behaviour of specified types of specimen under the impact
conditions defined and for estimating the brittleness or toughness of specimens within the limitations
inherent in the test conditions. It can also be used for the determination of comparative data from
similar types of material.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 293, Plastics — Compression moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials
ISO 294-1, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials — Part 1: General
principles, and moulding of multipurpose and bar test specimens
ISO 294-3, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials — Part 3: Small
plates
ISO 295, Plastics — Compression moulding of test specimens of thermosetting materials
ISO 1268-11, Fibre-reinforced plastics — Methods of producing test plates — Part 11: Injection moulding of
BMC and other long-fibre moulding compounds — Small plates
ISO 2818, Plastics — Preparation of test specimens by machining
ISO 10724-1, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermosetting powder moulding compounds
(PMCs) — Part 1: General principles and moulding of multipurpose test specimens
ISO 13802, Plastics — Verification of pendulum impact-testing machines — Charpy, Izod and tensile
impact-testing
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
1
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
3.1
Charpy impact strength of unnotched specimens
a
cU
impact energy absorbed in breaking an unnotched specimen, referred to the original cross-sectional
area of the specimen
2
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in kilojoules per square metre (kJ/m ).
3.2
Charpy impact strength of notched specimens
a
cN
impact energy absorbed in breaking a notched specimen, referred to the original cross-sectional area
of the specimen at the notch, where N = A, B or C, depending on the notch type
Note 1 to entry: See 6.3.1.1.2.
2
Note 2 to entry: It is expressed in kilojoules per square metre (kJ/m ).
3.3
edgewise impact
e
direction of blow parallel to the dimension b, with impact on the narrow longitudinal surface h × l of the
specimen
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1 a) and Figures 2 and 4.
3.4
flatwise impact
f
direction of blow parallel to the dimension h, with impact on the broad longitudinal surface b × l of the
specimen
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1 b) and Figures 3 and 4.
3.5
normal direction of blow
n
impact with the direction of blow normal to the plane of reinforcement
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
3.6
parallel direction of blow
p
impact with the direction of blow parallel to the plane of reinforcement
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
4 Principle
The test specimen, supported near its ends as a horizontal beam, is impacted by a single blow of a
striker, with the line of impact midway between the supports, and bent at a high, nominally constant,
velocity.
In the case of edgewise impact with notched specimens, the line of impact is directly opposite the single
notch [see Figure 1 a) and Figure 2].
The method specifies preferred dimensions for the test specimen. Tests which are carried out on
specimens of different dimensions or with different notches, or specimens which are prepared under
different conditions, can produce results which are not comparable. Other factors, such as the energy
capacity of the apparatus, the impact velocity and the conditioning of the specimens can also influence
2
  © ISO 2023 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
the results. Consequently, when comparative data are required, these factors shall be carefully
controlled and recorded.
The method is not intended to be used as a source of data for design calculations. Information on the
typical behaviour of a material can be obtained, however, by testing at different temperatures, by
varying the notch radius and/or the specimen thickness and by testing specimens prepared under
different conditions.
5 Apparatus
5.1 Test machine
The principles, characteristics and verification of suitable test machines are detailed in ISO 13802.
ISO 13802 describes partial verification and full verification. In the case of full verification, some items
are difficult to verify when the apparatus is assembled. Such verifications are assumed to be incumbent
on the manufacturer.
5.2 Micrometers and gauges
Micrometers and gauges shall allow to determine the relevant dimensions of the test specimens
with an uncertainty not larger than 0,02 mm. For the determination of the dimension b of notched
N
test specimens measuring tips appropriate for the contour of the notch shall be used. For general
information on the determination of test specimen dimensions, see ISO 16012.
a) Edgewise impact b) Flatwise impact
Key
1 direction of blow
2 rod of pendulum
3 test specimen
4 notch
5 support
Figure 1 — Striking edge and support blocks for type 1 test specimen at moment of impact
3
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
6 Test specimens
6.1 Preparation
6.1.1 Moulding and extrusion compounds
Specimens shall be prepared in accordance with the relevant material specification. The specimens
shall be either directly compression moulded in accordance with ISO 293 or ISO 295 or injection
moulded from the material in accordance with ISO 294-1, ISO 294-3 or ISO 10724-1, as appropriate,
or machined in accordance with ISO 2818 from sheet that has been compression or injection moulded
from the compound. Type 1 specimens may be cut from multipurpose test specimens complying with
ISO 20753:—, type A1.
6.1.2 Sheets
Specimens shall be machined from sheets in accordance with ISO 2818.
6.1.3 Long-fibre-reinforced materials
A panel shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 1268-11 or another specified or agreed upon
preparation procedure. Specimens shall be machined in accordance with ISO 2818.
Key
1 direction of blow
Figure 2 — Charpy edgewise impact (e) with single-notched specimen
4
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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
Key
1 direction of blow
Figure 3 — Charpy flatwise impact (f)
5
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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
Key
1 direction of blow
e edgewise
f flatwise
n normal
p parallel
NOTE 1 Edgewise (e) and flatwise (f) indicate the direction of the blow with respect to the specimen
thickness, h, and specimen width, b. Normal (n) and parallel (p) indicate the direction of the blow with respect to
the laminate plane.
NOTE 2 The Charpy “fn” and “ep” tests are used for laminates, while both the Charpy “en” and “ep” tests are
used for other materials. The Charpy “fn” and “fp” tests are used for testing materials exhibiting surface effects.
Figure 4 — Scheme of designations describing the direction of blow
6.1.4 Checking
The specimens shall be free of twist and shall have mutually perpendicular parallel surfaces. The
surfaces and edges shall be free from scratches, pits, sink marks and flash.
The specimens shall be checked for conformity with these requirements by visual observation against
straightedges, set squares and flat plates, and by measuring with micrometer callipers.
6
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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
Specimens showing measurable or observable departure from one or more of these requirements shall
be rejected or machined to proper size and shape before testing.
6.1.5 Notching
6.1.5.1 Machined notches shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 2818. The profile of the cutting
tooth shall be such as to produce in the specimen a notch of the contour and depth as defined in Table 2
and shown in Figure 5, at right angles to its principal axes (see Note).
NOTE The radius of the notch tip can be measured by the method given in Annex C.
6.1.5.2 Specimens with moulded-in notches may be used if specified for the material being tested
(see Note).
NOTE Specimens with moulded-in notches do not give results comparable to those obtained from specimens
with machined notches.
a) Type A b) Type B c) Type C
Radius of notch tip Radius of notch tip Radius of notch tip
r = (0,25 ± 0,05) mm r = (1,00 ± 0,05) mm r = (0,10 ± 0,02) mm
N N N
Figure 5 — Notch types
6.2 Anisotropy
Certain types of sheet or panel material or specimen taken from injection-moulded plates can show
different impact properties, depending on the direction in the plane of the sheet or panel. In such
cases, it is customary to cut groups of test specimens with their major axes respectively parallel and
perpendicular to the direction of some feature of the sheet or panel which is either visible or inferred
from knowledge of the method of manufacture.
6.3 Shape and dimensions
6.3.1 Materials not exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture
6.3.1.1 Moulding and extrusion compounds
6.3.1.1.1 Type 1 test specimens, unnotched or with one of three different types of notch, shall be used
as specified in Tables 1 and 2 and shown in Figures 2 and 5. The notch shall be located at the centre
7
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SIST EN ISO 179-1:2023
ISO 179-1:2023(E)
of the specimen. Type 1 specimens (see Table 1) may be taken from the central part of the type A1
multipurpose test specimen specified in ISO 20753.
e
Table 1 — Specimen types, specimen dimensions and spans between specimen supports
Dimensions in millimetres
a a a
Length Width Thickness Span
Specimen type
l b h L
+05,
1 80 ± 2 10,0 ± 0,2 4,0 ± 0,2
62
−00,
b c d
2 25h 10 or 15 3 20h
b
3 11h or 13h 10,0 ± 0,2 4,0 ± 0,2 6h or 8h
a
The specimen dimensions (thickness, h, width, b, and length, l) are defined by h < b < l.
b
Specimen types 2 and 3 shall be used only for materials described in 6.3.2.
c
10 mm for materials reinforced with a fine structure, 15 mm for those with a large stitch structure
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
01-junij-2022
Polimerni materiali - Ugotavljanje udarne žilavosti pa Charpyju - 1. del: Preskus
udarne žilavosti z neinstrumentalno metodo (ISO/DIS 179-1:2022)
Plastics - Determination of Charpy impact properties - Part 1: Non-instrumented impact
test (ISO/DIS 179-1:2022)
Kunststoffe – Bestimmung der Charpy-Schlageigenschaften – Teil 1: Nicht
instrumentierte Schlagzähigkeitsprüfung (ISO/DIS 179-1:2022)
Plastiques - Détermination des caractéristiques au choc Charpy - Partie 1: Essai de choc
non instrumenté (ISO/DIS 179-1:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 179-1
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022

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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 179-1
ISO/TC 61/SC 2 Secretariat: SAC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2022-04-12 2022-07-05
Plastics — Determination of Charpy impact properties —
Part 1:
Non-instrumented impact test
Plastiques — Détermination des caractéristiques au choc Charpy —
Partie 1: Essai de choc non instrumenté
ICS: 83.080.01
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
Contents Page
Foreword .iv
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 2
3 Terms and definitions . 2
4 Principle . 3
5 Apparatus . 3
5.1 Test machine . 3
5.2 Micrometers and gauges . 3
6 Test specimens . 4
6.1 Preparation . 4
6.1.1 Moulding and extrusion compounds . 4
6.1.2 Sheets . 4
6.1.3 Long-fibre-reinforced materials . . 4
6.1.4 Checking . . 8
6.1.5 Notching . 8
6.2 Anisotropy . 8
6.3 Shape and dimensions . 9
6.3.1 Materials not exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture . 9
6.3.2 Materials exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture (e.g. long-fibre-reinforced
materials) . 10
6.4 Number of test specimens . 10
6.5 Definition of span between specimen supports, L . 11
6.6 Conditioning.12
7 Procedure .12
8 Calculation and expression of results .13
8.1 Unnotched specimens .13
8.2 Notched specimens . 13
8.3 Statistical parameters. 13
8.4 Significant figures. 14
9 Precision .14
10 Test report .14
Annex A (informative) Additional methods for investigating the influence of surface effects .16
Annex B (informative) Precision data .18
Annex C (informative) Determining the notch tip radius using a CCD microscope .20
Bibliography .23
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to
the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see
www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 2,
Mechanical behavior.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 179-1:2010), which has been technically
revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— results of a round robin for unnotched specimens (see Annex B) have been added;
— reference to standard ISO 16012 (see Clause 2 and subclause 5.2) has been added;
— improvements of the micrometers and gauges subclause (see 5.2) have been addressed;
— symbols used in Equations (1) and (2) have been reviewed and updated.
A list of all parts in the ISO 179 series can be found on the ISO website.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
Plastics — Determination of Charpy impact properties —
Part 1:
Non-instrumented impact test
1 Scope
1.1 This part of ISO 179 specifies a method for determining the Charpy impact strength of plastics
under defined conditions. A number of different types of specimen and test configurations are defined.
Different test parameters are specified according to the type of material, the type of test specimen and
the type of notch.
1.2 The method can be used to investigate the behaviour of specified types of specimen under the
impact conditions defined and for estimating the brittleness or toughness of specimens within the
limitations inherent in the test conditions. It can also be used for the determination of comparative data
from similar types of material.
[1]
1.3 The method has a greater range of applicability than that given in ISO 180 and is more suitable
for the testing of materials showing interlaminar shear fracture or of materials exhibiting surface
effects due to environmental factors.
1.4 The method is suitable for use with the following range of materials:
— rigid thermoplastic moulding and extrusion materials (including filled and reinforced compounds
in addition to unfilled types) and rigid thermoplastics sheets;
— rigid thermosetting moulding materials (including filled and reinforced compounds) and rigid
thermosetting sheets (including laminates);
— fibre-reinforced thermosetting and thermoplastic composites incorporating unidirectional or
multi-directional reinforcements (such as mats, woven fabrics, woven rovings, chopped strands,
combination and hybrid reinforcements, rovings and milled fibres) or incorporating sheets made
from pre-impregnated materials (prepregs), including filled and reinforced compounds;
— thermotropic liquid-crystal polymers.
1.5 Notched samples are not normally suitable for use with rigid cellular materials, long-fibre-
reinforced composites or thermotropic liquid-crystal polymers. In these cases, unnotched samples may
be used.
1.6 The method is suited to the use of specimens moulded to the chosen dimensions, machined from
the central portion of a standard multipurpose test specimen (see ISO 3167) or machined from finished
or semifinished products such as mouldings, laminates and extruded or cast sheet.
1.7 The method specifies preferred dimensions for the test specimen. Tests which are carried out
on specimens of different dimensions or with different notches, or specimens which are prepared
under different conditions, might produce results which are not comparable. Other factors, such as
the energy capacity of the apparatus, the impact velocity and the conditioning of the specimens can
also influence the results. Consequently, when comparative data are required, these factors must be
carefully controlled and recorded.
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
1.8 The method should not be used as a source of data for design calculations. Information on the
typical behaviour of a material can be obtained, however, by testing at different temperatures, by
varying the notch radius and/or the specimen thickness and by testing specimens prepared under
different conditions.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 293, Plastics — Compression moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials
ISO 294-1, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials — Part 1: General
principles, and moulding of multipurpose and bar test specimens
ISO 294-3, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials — Part 3: Small
plates
ISO 295, Plastics — Compression moulding of test specimens of thermosetting materials
ISO 1268-11, Fibre-reinforced plastics — Methods of producing test plates — Part 11: Injection moulding of
BMC and other long-fibre moulding compounds — Small plates
ISO 2602, Statistical interpretation of test results — Estimation of the mean — Confidence interval
ISO 2818, Plastics — Preparation of test specimens by machining
ISO 3167, Plastics — Multipurpose test specimens
ISO 10724-1, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermosetting powder moulding compounds
(PMCs) — Part 1: General principles and moulding of multipurpose test specimens
ISO 13802, Plastics — Verification of pendulum impact-testing machines — Charpy, Izod and tensile
impact-testing
ISO 16012, Plastics — Determination of linear dimensions of test specimens
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
Charpy unnotched impact strength
a
cU
impact energy absorbed in breaking an unnotched specimen, referred to the original cross-sectional
area of the specimen
2
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in kilojoules per square metre (kJ/m ).
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
3.2
Charpy notched impact strength
a
cN
impact energy absorbed in breaking a notched specimen, referred to the original cross-sectional area
of the specimen at the notch, where N = A, B or C, depending on the notch type (see 6.3.1.1.2)
2
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in kilojoules per square metre (kJ/m ).
3.3
edgewise impact
e
direction of blow parallel to the dimension b, with impact on the narrow longitudinal surface h × l of the
specimen (see Figure 1, left, and Figures 2 and 4)
3.4
flatwise impact
f
direction of blow parallel to the dimension h, with impact on the broad longitudinal surface b × l of the
specimen (see Figure 1, right, and Figures 3 and 4)
3.5
normal impact
n
impact with the direction of blow normal to the plane of reinforcement
(see Figure 4)
3.6
parallel impact
p
impact with the direction of blow parallel to the plane of reinforcement
(see Figure 4)
4 Principle
The test specimen, supported near its ends as a horizontal beam, is impacted by a single blow of a
striker, with the line of impact midway between the supports, and bent at a high, nominally constant,
velocity.
In the case of edgewise impact with notched specimens, the line of impact is directly opposite the single
notch (see Figure 1, left, and Figure 2).
5 Apparatus
5.1 Test machine
The principles, characteristics and verification of suitable test machines are detailed in ISO 13802.
ISO 13802 describes partial verification and full verification. In the case of full verification, some items
are difficult to verify when the apparatus is assembled. Such verifications are assumed to be incumbent
on the manufacturer.
5.2 Micrometers and gauges
Micrometers and gauges shall allow to determine the relevant dimensions of the test specimens
with an uncertainty not larger than 0,02 mm. For the determination of the dimension b of notched
N
test specimens measuring tips appropriate for the contour of the notch must be used. For general
information on the determination of test specimen dimensions, see ISO 16012.
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
a)  Edgewise impact b)  Flatwise impact
Key
1 direction of blow
2 rod of pendulum
3 test specimen
4 notch
5 support
Figure 1 — Striking edge and support blocks for type 1 test specimen at moment of impact
6 Test specimens
6.1 Preparation
6.1.1 Moulding and extrusion compounds
Specimens shall be prepared in accordance with the relevant material specification. The specimens
shall be either directly compression moulded in accordance with ISO 293 or ISO 295 or injection
moulded from the material in accordance with ISO 294-1, ISO 294-3 or ISO 10724-1, as appropriate,
or machined in accordance with ISO 2818 from sheet that has been compression or injection moulded
from the compound. Type 1 specimens may be cut from multipurpose test specimens complying with
ISO 3167, type A.
6.1.2 Sheets
Specimens shall be machined from sheets in accordance with ISO 2818.
6.1.3 Long-fibre-reinforced materials
A panel shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 1268-11 or another specified or agreed upon
preparation procedure. Specimens shall be machined in accordance with ISO 2818.
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
Key
1 direction of blow
Figure 2 — Charpy edgewise impact (e) with single-notched specimen
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
Key
1 direction of blow
Figure 3 — Charpy flatwise impact (f)
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
Key
1 direction of blow
NOTE 1 Edgewise (e) and flatwise (f) indicate the direction of the blow with respect to the specimen
thickness, h, and specimen width, b. Normal (n) and parallel (p) indicate the direction of the blow with respect to
the laminate plane.
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
NOTE 2 The Charpy “fn” and “ep” tests are used for laminates, while both the Charpy “en” and “ep” tests are
used for other materials. The Charpy “fn” and “fp” tests are used for testing materials exhibiting surface effects.
Figure 4 — Scheme of designations describing the direction of blow
6.1.4 Checking
The specimens shall be free of twist and shall have mutually perpendicular parallel surfaces. The
surfaces and edges shall be free from scratches, pits, sink marks and flash.
The specimens shall be checked for conformity with these requirements by visual observation against
straightedges, set squares and flat plates, and by measuring with micrometer callipers.
Specimens showing measurable or observable departure from one or more of these requirements shall
be rejected or machined to proper size and shape before testing.
6.1.5 Notching
6.1.5.1 Machined notches shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 2818. The profile of the cutting
tooth shall be such as to produce in the specimen a notch of the contour and depth as defined in Table 2
and shown in Figure 5, at right angles to its principal axes (see Note).
NOTE The radius of the notch tip can be measured by the method given in Annex C.
6.1.5.2 Specimens with moulded-in notches may be used if specified for the material being tested
(see Note).
NOTE Specimens with moulded-in notches do not give results comparable to those obtained from specimens
with machined notches.
a)  Type A b)  Type B c)  Type C
Radius of notch tip Radius of notch tip Radius of notch tip
r = (0,25 ± 0,05) mm r = (1,00 ± 0,05) mm r = (0,10 ± 0,02) mm
N N N
Figure 5 — Notch types
6.2 Anisotropy
Certain types of sheet or panel material or specimen taken from injection-moulded plates can show
different impact properties, depending on the direction in the plane of the sheet or panel. In such
cases, it is customary to cut groups of test specimens with their major axes respectively parallel and
perpendicular to the direction of some feature of the sheet or panel which is either visible or inferred
from knowledge of the method of manufacture.
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
6.3 Shape and dimensions
6.3.1 Materials not exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture
6.3.1.1 Moulding and extrusion compounds
6.3.1.1.1 Type 1 test specimens, unnotched or with one of three different types of notch, shall be
used as specified in Tables 1 and 2 and shown in Figures 2 and 5. The notch shall be located at the
centre of the specimen. Type 1 specimens (see Table 1) may be taken from the central part of the type A
multipurpose test specimen specified in ISO 3167.
Table 1 — Specimen types, specimen dimensions and spans between specimen supports
(see Figures 2 and 6)
Dimensions in millimetres
a a a
Length Width Thickness Span
Specimen type
l b h L
+05,
1 80 ± 2 10,0 ± 0,2 4,0 ± 0,2 62
−00,
b c d
2 25h 10 or 15 3 20h
b
3 11h or 13h 10,0 ± 0,2 4,0 ± 0,2 6h or 8h
a
The specimen dimensions (thickness, h, width, b, and length, l) are defined by h < b < l.
b
Specimen types 2 and 3 shall be used only for materials described in 6.3.2.
c
10 mm for materials reinforced with a fine structure, 15 mm for those with a large stitch structure (see 6.3.2.2).
d
Preferred thickness. If the specimen is cut from a sheet or a piece, h shall be equal to the thickness of the sheet or piece,
up to 10,2 mm (see 6.3.1.2)
Table 2 — Method designations, specimen types, notch types and notch dimensions —
Materials not exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture
Dimensions in millimetres
Remaining
Notch tip
Specimen width, b ,
a radius, r N
Method designation Blow direction Notch type N
type at notch tip
(see Figure 5)
(see Figure 2)
b
ISO 179-1/1eA A 0,25 ± 0,05 8,0 ± 0,2
ISO 179-1/1eB B 1,00 ± 0,05 8,0 ± 0,2
Edgewise
ISO 179-1/1eC 1 C 0,10 ± 0,02 8,0 ± 0,2
b
ISO 179-1/1eU Unnotched
c
ISO 179-1/1fU Flatwise Unnotched
a
If specimens are taken from sheet or products, the thickness of the sheet or product shall be added to the designation.
Unreinforced specimens shall not be tested with their machined surface under tension.
b
Preferred method.
c
Especially for the study of surface effects (see 6.3.1.1.3).
6.3.1.1.2 The preferred type of notch is type A (see Table 2 and Figure 5). For most materials,
unnotched specimens or specimens with a single type A notch tested by edgewise impact (see 3.3) are
suitable. If specimens with a type A notch do not break during the test, specimens with a type C notch
shall be used. If information on the notch sensitivity of the material is desired, specimens with notch
types A, B and C shall be tested.
6.3.1.1.3 Unnotched or double-notched specimens tested by flatwise impact (see 3.4) can be used to
study surface effects (see 1.3 and Annex A).
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oSIST prEN ISO 179-1:2022
ISO/DIS 179-1:2022(E)
6.3.1.2 Sheet materials
The recommended value of the thickness, h, is 4 mm. If the specimen is cut from a sheet or a piece taken
from a structure, the thickness of the specimen, up to 10,2 mm, shall be the same as the thickness of the
sheet or the structure.
Specimens taken from pieces thicker than 10,2 mm shall be machined to (10 ± 0,2) mm from one surface,
provided that the sheet is homogeneous in its thickness and contains only one type of reinforcement
uniformly distributed. If unnotched or double-notched specimens are tested by flatwise impact, the
original surface shall be tested under tension.
6.3.2 Materials exhibiting interlaminar shear fracture (e.g. long-fibre-reinforced materials)
6.3.2.1 Unnotched specimens of type 2 or 3 are used. Apart from the thickness, the specimen
dimensions are not specified. The most important parameter is the ratio of the span between the
specimen supports to the specimen dimension in the direction of the blow (see Table 1).
Usually specimens are tested in the normal direction (see Figure 4).
6.3.2.2 “Flatwise normal” testing (see Figure 4): the width of specimen shall be 10 mm for materials
reinforced with a fine structure (thin fabrics and parallel yarns) and 15 mm for materials reinforced
with a large stitch structure (roving fabrics) or an irregularly manufactured structure.
6.3.2.3 “Edgewise parallel” testing (see Figure 4): when testing specimens in the parallel direction,
the specimen dimension perpendicular to the blow direction shall be the thickness of the sheet from
which the specimen was cut.
6.3.2.4 The length, l, of the specimen shall be chosen to give a span-to-thickness ratio, L/h, of 20 for
type 2 specimens and 6 for type 3 specimens although, if the apparatus does not allow a ratio L/h = 6, a
ratio L/h = 8 may be used, especially for thin sheets, as indicated in Table 1.
6.3.2.5 With type 2 specimens, tensile-type failure occurs; with type 3 specimens, interlaminar shear
failure of the sheet usually occurs. The different types of failure which can occur are summarized in
Table 3.
NOTE In some cases (thin-fabric reinforcement), shear failure does not occur. In the case of type 3 specimens,
the fracture
...

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