Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 960: Framework and guidance for gesture interactions (ISO 9241-960:2017)

ISO 9241-960:2017 gives guidance on the selection or creation of the gestures to be used in a gesture interface. It addresses the usability of gestures and provides information on their design, the design process and relevant parameters that are to be considered. In addition, it provides guidance on how gestures should be documented. This document is concerned with gestures expressed by a human and not with the system response generated when users are performing these gestures.
NOTE 1    Specific gestures are standardized within ISO/IEC 14754 and the ISO/IEC 30113 series.
NOTE 2    Input devices such as tablets or spatial gesture recognition devices can capture gestures in 2D or 3D. All human gestures are 3D.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 960: Rahmen und Anleitung zur Gestensteuerung (ISO 9241-960:2017)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 960: Cadre et lignes directrices relatives aux interactions gestuelles (ISO 9241-960:2017)

ISO 9241-960:2017 fournit des lignes directrices pour la sélection ou la création des gestes devant être utilisés dans une interface gestuelle. Il traite de l'utilisabilité des gestes et fournit des informations sur leur conception, le processus de conception et les paramètres pertinents à prendre en compte. En outre, il fournit des lignes directrices relatives à la manière dont il convient de documenter les gestes. Le présent document concerne les gestes effectués par un humain et non la réponse du système générée lorsque les utilisateurs effectuent ces gestes.
NOTE 1    Des gestes spécifiques sont normalisés par l'ISO/IEC 14754 et la série de normes ISO/IEC 30113.
NOTE 2    Les dispositifs d'entrée tels que les tablettes ou les dispositifs de reconnaissance spatiale de gestes peuvent capturer des gestes en 2D ou 3D. Tous les gestes humains sont en 3D.

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 960. del: Okvir in navodila za interakcijo kretenj (ISO 9241-960:2017)

Ta standard podaja smernice za izbiro ali ustvarjanje kretenj, ki se uporabljajo za vmesnike z nadzorom s kretnjami. Obravnava uporabnost kretenj in zagotavlja informacije o oblikovanju kretenj, postopku ter ustreznih parametrih. Poleg tega ta standard podaja smernice o tem, kako je treba dokumentirati kretnje. Standard obravnava kretnje, ki jih izvede človek, in ne obravnava sistemskega odziva, do katerega pride, ko uporabniki izvajajo te kretnje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Oct-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
25-Oct-2017
Completion Date
25-Oct-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
01-februar-2018
(UJRQRPLMDPHGVHERMQHJDYSOLYDþORYHNVLVWHPGHO2NYLULQQDYRGLOD]D
LQWHUDNFLMRNUHWHQM ,62
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 960: Framework and guidance for
gesture interactions (ISO 9241-960:2017)
Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 960: Rahmen und Anleitung zur
Gestensteuerung (ISO 9241-960:2017)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 960: Cadre et lignes directrices

relatives aux interactions gestuelles (ISO 9241-960:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9241-960:2017
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
35.180 Terminalska in druga IT Terminal and other
periferna oprema IT peripheral equipment
SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
EN ISO 9241-960
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.180; 35.180
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 960:
Framework and guidance for gesture interactions (ISO
9241-960:2017)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 960:

960: Cadre et lignes directrices relatives aux Rahmen und Anleitung zur Gestensteuerung (ISO

interactions gestuelles (ISO 9241-960:2017) 9241-960:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 July 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9241-960:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
EN ISO 9241-960:2017 (E)
Contents

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
EN ISO 9241-960:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 9241-960:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

“Ergonomics” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9241-960:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 9241-960:2017 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9241-960
First edition
2017-09
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 960:
Framework and guidance for gesture
interactions
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système —
Partie 960: Cadre et lignes directrices relatives aux interactions
gestuelles
Reference number
ISO 9241-960:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
ISO 9241-960:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
ISO 9241-960:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Need for a standard on gesture usability ......................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Usage................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3 Intentional and unintentional gestures ............................................................................................................................. 3

4.4 Matching gestures and functionality .................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Ergonomics of gestures.................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 Ergonomic constraints and features .................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Device capabilities ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Device constraints ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Guidance in defining gestures ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Process for gesture definition .................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.2 Exploring the design space ..................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.3 Identifying purposes .................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.4 Designing gestures and gesture commands ............................................................................................. 7

6.1.5 Organizing gesture sets .............................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1.6 Evaluating gestures ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.7 Iterating the gesture interface.............................................................................................................................. 8

6.1.8 Documenting gestures ................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1.9 Explaining gestures ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Features of gestures ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 Mapping of gesture commands to functions ............................................................................................ 8

6.2.2 Nested gestures ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Feedback for stroke gestures ................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2.4 Continuous feedback for gesture commands .......................................................................................... 9

6.2.5 Use of feedforward information for stroke gestures ........................................................................ 9

6.2.6 Parameters of gesture commands .................................................................................................................10

6.3 Timing and speed ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 Recognition of a gesture at different speeds.........................................................................................10

6.3.2 Use of the speed of a gesture ..............................................................................................................................10

6.4 Tolerance of gesture interface ................................................................................................................................................10

6.5 Sequences of gestures ....................................................................................................................................................................10

6.5.1 Beginning a gesture ....................................................................................................................................................10

6.5.2 Feedback on gesture initiation .........................................................................................................................10

6.5.3 Completing the purpose of a gesture ..........................................................................................................10

6.5.4 Feedback on gesture completion ....................................................................................................................10

6.5.5 The need for transition between gestures ..............................................................................................11

6.5.6 The effect of transitions between gestures ............................................................................................11

6.5.7 Overlapping gestures ................................................................................................................................................11

6.5.8 State changes .................. .................................................... ..............................................................................................11

6.6 Gesture sets .............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6.2 Purpose of a set of gestures .................................................................................................................................11

6.6.3 Consistency among gestures ..............................................................................................................................11

6.6.4 Discriminability of gestures ................................................................................................................................12

6.6.5 Subsets within a gesture set ...............................................................................................................................12

6.6.6 Alternative subsets within a gesture set ..................................................................................................12

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6.7 Documentation of gestures .......................................................................................................................................................12

6.7.1 Documentation ...............................................................................................................................................................12

6.7.2 Naming a gesture ..........................................................................................................................................................13

6.7.3 Visualization of gestures ........................................................................................................................................13

6.7.4 Textual documentation of a gesture .............................................................................................................13

6.7.5 Describing the purpose of the gesture .......................................................................................................14

6.7.6 Documenting a gesture set ...................................................................................................................................14

6.7.7 Documenting gestures with common movements ..........................................................................14

Annex A (informative) When to use applications of gestures and gesture commands .................................15

Annex B (informative) Taxonomies for documentation of gestures .................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.
A list of all parts in the ISO 9241 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
ISO 9241-960:2017(E)
Introduction

Tactile and haptic interactions are becoming increasingly important as candidate interaction modalities

in computer systems such as special purpose computing environments (e.g. tablets), wearable

technology (e.g. tactile arrays, instrumented gloves), and assistive technologies.

Tactile and haptic devices are being developed in university and industrial laboratories in many

countries. Both the developer and the prospective purchaser of such devices need a means of making

comparisons between competing devices and common design of interactions.

This document focuses on gestures and identification of gesture sets as a specific type of tactile/haptic

interaction. It explains how to describe their features, and what factors to take into account when

defining gestures.

ISO 9241-910 provides a common set of terms, definitions and descriptions of the various concepts

central to designing and using tactile/haptic interactions. It also provides an overview of the range of

tactile/haptic applications, objects, attributes, and interactions.

ISO 9241-920 provides basic guidance (including references to related standards) in the design of

tactile/haptic interactions.

ISO 9241-940 (under preparation) is to provide ways of evaluating tactile/haptic interactions for various

aspects of interaction quality (such as haptic device attributes, logical space design and usability).

vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9241-960:2017(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 960:
Framework and guidance for gesture interactions
1 Scope

This document gives guidance on the selection or creation of the gestures to be used in a gesture

interface. It addresses the usability of gestures and provides information on their design, the design

process and relevant parameters that are to be considered. In addition, it provides guidance on how

gestures should be documented. This document is concerned with gestures expressed by a human and

not with the system response generated when users are performing these gestures.

NOTE 1 Specific gestures are standardized within ISO/IEC 14754 and the ISO/IEC 30113 series.

NOTE 2 Input devices such as tablets or spatial gesture recognition devices can capture gestures in 2D or 3D.

All human gestures are 3D.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9241-910, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 910: Framework for tactile and haptic

interaction
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 9241-910 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
feedforward gesture information

information provided by the gesture interface (3.4) to maintain consistency of a body part’s movement

with predicted single or multiple gesture trajectories

EXAMPLE A gesture might be visualized through inking the trajectory on the display. Several choices of

possible future trajectories can be inked, thereby helping the user to complete the gesture.

Note 1 to entry: Feedforward gestural information improves self-explanation of the gestural interface.

3.2
gesture
movement or posture, of the whole body or parts of the body

Note 1 to entry: Operation of a physical keyboard is not addressed in this document.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 30113-1, 3.1]
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3.3
gesture command

instruction to the system resulting from a gesture input by the user, e.g. select, move, delete

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14574:1999, 4.5]
3.4
gesture interface

user interface that provides information and controls for a user to accomplish specific tasks with the

interactive system by his/her gestures (3.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-171:2008, 3.29 — Modified]
3.5
gesture set
grouping of gestures and their mapping to gesture commands (3.3)

EXAMPLE The conductor of a virtual orchestra uses a gesture set for a music performance.

3.6
intentional gesture
movement of the body or parts of the body to achieve a purpose
3.7
stroke gesture

intentional gesture (3.6) consisting of a movement trajectory of any part of the body

Note 1 to entry: As with other gestures, the definition refers to the movement itself, rather than its effect.

Different gesture commands, including direct manipulation, could be defined for a stroke gesture.

Note 2 to entry: The gesture command is not dependent on the extent of the movement trajectory.

Note 3 to entry: Pressure can be used as a parameter of the gesture.
3.8
direct manipulation

dialogue technique by which the user has the impression of acting directly on objects on the screen; for

example by pointing at them, moving them and/or changing their physical characteristics (or values)

via the use of an input device
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-16:1999, 3.6]
4 General
4.1 Need for a standard on gesture usability

When pointing devices such as the mouse were developed in the 1960s, movement of the human hand

became part of interactive systems. It took until the mid-1980s for the mouse to become standard in the

office context. With the advent of multi-touch displays and 3D cameras, gestures appear to be a highly

usable alternative to a tiny keyboard on a mobile device. The wide use of gestural interfaces makes it

important to consider their usability.
4.2 Usage

Gestures may accompany language in order to strengthen what has been said. Such gestures are

described in linguistics as “deixis” (pronounced “dīk-sis” or “dāk-sis”). The term “deixis” refers to

words such as in “Put that there” which require contextual information provided by pointing in order

to be fully understood. Gestures may convey their own meaning inherent to the actual movement of

some body part and independent of some tangible physical object such as a pen or mouse. When using

a pointing device while gesturing, the information and communication technology (ICT) system often

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SIST EN ISO 9241-960:2018
ISO 9241-960:2017(E)

restricts the movements because of limitations in the ability of the movement-tracking device. Gestures,

like language, are culture-specific and misunderstandings may arise from inappropriate use of them.

4.3 Intentional and unintentional gestures

In designing gesture sets, emphasis is often placed on adopting gestures that are intentional or

unintentional with respect to the system. A typical example of an intentional gesture is pointing at

an object in order to select it, or waving your hand in front of a door to open it. Unintentional gestures

in this context are gestures made for some other purpose (e.g. walking towards an automatic door,

sitting down in the driver seat of a car), or gestures made subconsciously (e.g. body language). Such

unintentional learnable gestures are particularly suited to general situations where the user might not

be trained, when the user must learn the system quickly, or when the user must use the system under

conditions of stress (e.g. time pressure).

Intentionality in gestures could also enable increased discriminability between them, thereby reducing

inadvertent activation. For example, when it is desired not to activate an automatic door, many people

stand still and avoid gesturing in front of the doors, knowing they are prone to open unintentionally.

4.4 Matching gestures and functionality

A gesture is the result of the user’s intention to create a message for a recipient or computer while

mapping it to the movement of the body or parts of the body, typically the upper limbs. Figure 1

illustrates variations of the intention applicable when gestures are expressed to an ICT system. The

user on the left is interacting with a gesture interface on the right, using a selection of gestures from

a gesture set. The user has an intention to transmit, and can make use of posture and movement.

His choice of gestures may be intentional, or unintentional, depending on the situation. The gesture

interface could provide feedback on the system's interpretation of the gesture, or even feedforward

information to aid the user in completing the gesture (see 6.2 for further guidance on gesture features).

There is a continuum between interpreting gestures when controlling physical artefacts, such as

directly manipulating a slider, and interpreting a gesture as some abstract symbol. Another continuum

of mappings exists between matching gesture sets with the functionality of an interactive system

overall and its context of use.

Identification of unintentional gestures is often avoided by requiring the user to signal the start and

end of a gesture explicitly through some technical approach such as touching/releasing a screen with

the fingers. All such touches will be interpreted as intentional gestures.

Mappings should take existing manual operations such as handwriting into account. Simple handwriting

might be applicable to gestural interpretation but, typically, handwritten language is far more complex

than a gesture vocabulary.

The matching process is applicable to user-centred design principles and, therefore, evaluation

methods can be applied. ISO 9241-940 provides guidelines on how to evaluate gestures to be used with

tactile/haptic devices. Some user groups can have special needs. In addressing them, a special set of

gestures might be required, or completely different input alternatives might be needed.

EXAMPLE 1 A multi-touch gestur
...

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