Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 331: Optical characteristics of autostereoscopic displays (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)

ISO/TR 9241-331:2012 establishes an ergonomic point of view for the optical properties of autostereoscopic displays (ASDs), with the aim of reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on those displays. It gives terminology, performance characteristics and optical measurement methods for ASDs. It is applicable to spatially interlaced autostereoscopic displays (two-view, multi-view and integral displays) of the transmissive and emissive types. These can be implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays, etc.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion — Teil 331: Optische Eigenschaften von autostereoskopischen Displays (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 331: Caractéristiques optiques des écrans autostéréoscopiques (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 331. del: Optične značilnosti avtostereoskopičnih zaslonov (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)

Ta del standarda ISO 9241 vzpostavlja ergonomsko stališče za optične značilnosti avtostereoskopičnih zaslonov (ASD) z namenom zmanjšanja utrujenosti vida zaradi stereoskopičnih slik na teh zaslonih. Podaja terminologijo, značilnosti delovanja in optične merilne metode za ASD. Uporablja se za je za transmisijske in emisijske prostorsko prepletene avtostereoskopične zaslone (dva pogleda, več pogledov, integralni zasloni). Lahko gre za ploske zaslone, projekcijske zaslone itd.

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Publication Date
03-Sep-2013
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
01-november-2013
(UJRQRPLMDPHGVHERMQHJDYSOLYDþORYHNVLVWHPGHO2SWLþQH]QDþLOQRVWL
DYWRVWHUHRVNRSLþQLK]DVORQRY ,6275
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 331: Optical characteristics of
autostereoscopic displays (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)
Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 331: Optische Besonderheiten
autostereoskopischer Displays (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 331: Caractéristiques optiques des

écrans autostéréoscopiques (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
31.120 Elektronske prikazovalne Electronic display devices
naprave
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN ISO/TR 9241-331
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
September 2013
ICS 35.180; 13.180
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 331: Optical
characteristics of autostereoscopic displays (ISO/TR 9241-
331:2012)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 331: Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 331:

Caractéristiques optiques des écrans autostéréoscopiques Optische Besonderheiten autostereoskopischer Displays

(ISO/TR 9241-331:2012) (ISO/TR 9241-331:2012)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 19 August 2013. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 122.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013 (E)
Contents
Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO/TR 9241-331:2012 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159 “Ergonomics” of

the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as CEN ISO/TR 9241-

331:2013 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TR 9241-331:2012 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013 without any

modification.
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 9241-331
First edition
2012-04-01
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 331:
Optical characteristics of
autostereoscopic displays
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système —
Partie 331: Caractéristiques optiques des écrans autostéréoscopiques
Reference number
ISO/TR 9241-331:2012(E)
ISO 2012
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SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 9241-331:2013
ISO/TR 9241-331:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 9241-331:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................ 1

2.2 Human factors ....................................................................................................................................... 3

2.3 Performance characteristics ................................................................................................................ 3

3 Autostereoscopic display technologies ............................................................................................. 5

3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.2 Cues for depth perception .................................................................................................................... 5

3.3 Stereoscopic display classification ..................................................................................................... 7

3.4 Two-view (autostereoscopic) display .................................................................................................. 9

3.5 Multi-view (autostereoscopic) display .............................................................................................. 14

3.6 Integral (autostereoscopic) display ................................................................................................... 22

3.7 Discussion ........................................................................................................................................... 29

3.8 Future work .......................................................................................................................................... 36

4 Performance characteristics .............................................................................................................. 36

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 36

4.2 Crosstalk .............................................................................................................................................. 38

4.3 Visual artefacts .................................................................................................................................... 42

4.4 3D fidelity ............................................................................................................................................. 45

4.5 Future work .......................................................................................................................................... 46

5 Optical measurement methods .......................................................................................................... 46

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 46

5.2 Measurement conditions .................................................................................................................... 47

5.3 Measurement methods ....................................................................................................................... 52

5.4 Future work .......................................................................................................................................... 68

6 Viewing spaces and their analysis .................................................................................................... 68

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 68

6.2 Qualified viewing spaces .................................................................................................................... 69

6.3 Related performance characteristics ................................................................................................ 73

6.4 Analysis methods ................................................................................................................................ 75

6.5 Future work .......................................................................................................................................... 77

7 Further w ork ......................................................................................................................................... 78

Annex A (informative) Overview of the ISO 9241 series ............................................................................... 79

Annex B (informative) Head tracking technology .......................................................................................... 80

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 81

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 9241-331:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 9241-331 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.

ISO 9241 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomic requirements for office work with

visual display terminals (VDTs):
 Part 1: General introduction
 Part 2: Guidance on task requirements
 Part 4: Keyboard requirements
 Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements
 Part 6: Guidance on the work environment
 Part 9: Requirements for non-keyboard input devices
 Part 11: Guidance on usability
 Part 12: Presentation of information
 Part 13: User guidance
 Part 14: Menu dialogues
 Part 15: Command dialogues
 Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogues
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 9241 also consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomics of human-system interaction:

 Part 20: Accessibility guidelines for information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services

 Part 100: Introduction to standards related to software ergonomics [Technical Report]

 Part 110: Dialogue principles
 Part 129: Guidance on software individualization
 Part 143: Forms
 Part 151: Guidance on World Wide Web user interfaces
 Part 154: Interactive voice response (IVR) applications
 Part 171: Guidance on software accessibility
 Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems
 Part 300: Introduction to electronic visual display requirements
 Part 302: Terminology for electronic visual displays
 Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual displays
 Part 304: User performance test methods for electronic visual displays
 Part 305: Optical laboratory test methods for electronic visual displays
 Part 306: Field assessment methods for electronic visual displays
 Part 307: Analysis and compliance test methods for electronic visual displays

 Part 308: Surface-conduction electron-emitter displays (SED) [Technical Report]

 Part 309: Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays [Technical Report]

 Part 310: Visibility, aesthetics and ergonomics of pixel defects [Technical Report]

 Part 331: Optical characteristics of autostereoscopic displays [Technical Report]

 Part 400: Principles and requirements for physical input devices
 Part 410: Design criteria for physical input devices

 Part 411: Evaluation methods for the design of physical input devices [Technical Specification]

 Part 420: Selection of physical input devices
 Part 910: Framework for tactile and haptic interaction
 Part 920: Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions

User-interface elements, requirements, analysis and compliance test methods for the reduction of

photosensitive seizures, ergonomic requirements for the reduction of visual fatigue from stereoscopic images,

and the evaluation of tactile and haptic interactions are to form the subjects of future Parts 161, 391, 392 and

940.
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Introduction

Recent developments in display technologies have made it possible to render highly realistic content on

high-resolution colour displays. The developments include advanced 3D display technologies such as

autostereoscopic displays. The new 3D displays extend the capabilities of applications by giving the user

more-realistic-than-ever perception in various application fields. This is valid not only in the field of leisure but

also in the fields of business and education, and in medical applications.

Nevertheless, 3D displays have display-specific characteristics originating from the basic principles of the

image formation applied for the different 3D display designs. Among negative characteristics are imperfections

that affect the visual quality of the displayed content and the visual experience of the users. These

imperfections can induce visual fatigue for the users, which is one of the image safety issues described in

IWA 3:2005. Nevertheless, it is important for the end user to be able to enjoy of the benefits of the 3D display

without suffering any undesirable biomedical effects. It is therefore necessary that a standardized

methodology be established which characterizes and validates technologies in order to ensure the visual

quality of the displays and the rendered content. The development of such a methodology has to be based on

the human perception and performance in the context of stereoscopic viewing.

The negative characteristics, by nature, originate from both 3D displays and 3D image content. In this part of

ISO 9241, however, attention is focussed only on 3D display, for simplicity of discussion and as a first step.

In ISO 9241-303, performance objectives are described for virtual head-mounted displays (HMDs). This is

closely related to autostereoscopic displays, but not directly applicable to them.

Considering the growing use of autostereoscopic displays, and the need for a methodology for their

characterization in order to reduce visual fatigue caused by them, this Technical Report presents basic

principles for related technologies, as well as optical measurement methods required for the characterization

of the current technologies and for a future International Standard on the subject.

Since this Technical Report deals with display technologies that are in continual development, its content will

be updated if and as necessary. It includes no content intended for regulatory use.

vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 9241-331:2012(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 331:
Optical characteristics of autostereoscopic displays
1 Scope

This part of ISO 9241 establishes an ergonomic point of view for the optical properties of autostereoscopic

displays (ASDs), with the aim of reducing visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images on those displays. It

gives terminology, performance characteristics and optical measurement methods for ASDs.

It is applicable to spatially interlaced autostereoscopic displays (two-view, multi-view and integral displays) of

the transmissive and emissive types. These can be implemented by flat-panel displays, projection displays,

etc.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1 General terms
2.1.1
3D display

display device or system including a special functionality for enabling depth perception

2.1.2
stereoscopic display
3D display where depth perception is induced by binocular parallax

NOTE 1 People perceive depth from the retinal disparity provided by binocular parallax.

NOTE 2 Stereoscopic displays include stereoscopic displays requiring glasses, stereoscopic HMDs and

autostereoscopic displays.
NOTE 3 See ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.5.5, binocular display device.
2.1.3
autostereoscopic display
ASD

stereoscopic display that requires neither viewing aids such as special glasses nor head-mounted apparatus

NOTE Autostereoscopic displays includes two-view displays, multi-view displays and integral displays, as well as

other types of display not discussed in this part of ISO 9241, such as holographic displays and volumetric displays.

2.1.4
two-view display
two-view autostereoscopic display

autostereoscopic display that creates two monocular views with which the left and right stereoscopic images

are coupled
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2.1.5
multi-view display
multi-view autostereoscopic display

autostereoscopic display that creates more than two monocular views with which the stereoscopic images are

coupled

NOTE 1 It becomes an autostereoscopic display when the number of stereoscopic images is increased from two to

more than two.

NOTE 2 Principally, one of multiple stereoscopic images corresponds to one of multiple stereoscopic views, yet not

necessarily excluding one-to-multi correspondence.
2.1.6
integral display
integral autostereoscopic display

autostereoscopic display that is intended to optically reproduce three-dimensional objects in space

NOTE Since, at present, it is not easy to make the optical reproduction perfect, integral displays are not necessarily

free from such factors of undesirable biomedical effect as accommodation-vergence inconsistency (see 3.7, 4.1).

2.1.7
stereoscopic images
set of images with parallax shown on a stereoscopic display
NOTE See 2.1.8.
2.1.8
stereoscopic views
pair of sights provided by a stereoscopic display, which induce stereopsis
NOTE See Figure 1.
Key
1 autostereoscopic display 3 stereoscopic views 5 monocular view (right eye)
2 stereoscopic images 4 monocular view (left eye)

Figure 1 — Relation between stereoscopic images, stereoscopic views and monocular view

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2.1.9
monocular view
one stereoscopic view
NOTE See 2.1.8.
2.1.10
number of views
number of monocular views with which stereoscopic images are coupled
2.2 Human factors
2.2.1
binocular parallax

apparent difference in the direction of a point as seen separately by one eye and by the other, while the head

remains in a fixed position
NOTE 1 See IWA 3:2005, 2.15.

NOTE 2 Binocular parallax is equivalent to the optic angle between the visual axes of both eyes, when they are fixated

to a single point.
2.2.2
visual fatigue

eyestrain or asthenopia, which shows a wide range of visual symptoms, including tiredness, headache and

soreness of the eyes, caused by watching images in a visual display
NOTE 1 Adapted from IWA 3:2005, 2.13.
NOTE 2 See also ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.5.3.
2.2.3
accommodation

adjustment of the optics of an eye to keep an object in focus on the retina as its distance from the eye varies

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.5.1, modified — the Note to the definition has not been included.]

NOTE Adapted from IWA 3:2005, 2.18.
2.2.4
convergence

turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other as the object of fixation moves toward the observer

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.5.10]
NOTE See also IWA 3:2005, 2.19.
2.3 Performance characteristics
2.3.1
3D crosstalk
leakage of an unwanted image data to each eye
2.3.2
interocular crosstalk
leakage of the stereoscopic image(s) from one eye to the other
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2.3.3
interocular luminance difference
difference in luminance between stereoscopic views
2.3.4
interocular chromaticity difference
difference in chromaticity between stereoscopic views
2.3.5
interocular contrast difference
difference in contrast between stereoscopic views
2.3.6
3D moiré

periodical irregularity of luminance or chromaticity in space or angular directions on a 3D display

2.3.7
pseudoscopic images
pseudo-stereoscopic images
set of images with inverted parallax shown on a stereoscopic display
2.3.8
3D image resolution
spatial resolution of the image with depth shown on a stereoscopic display

NOTE The term “spatial resolution” refers to horizontal and vertical resolution, as shown in the ISO 9241 300 series.

2.3.9
qualified viewing space
QVS

autostereoscopic displays space for the eye in which image(s) is observed at an acceptable level of visual

fatigue
NOTE 1 See also ISO 9241-302, 3.5.42.

NOTE 2 QVS is defined separately for each eye as the measurement result is unambiguous and equally valid for all

observers, whereas the measured QBVS and QSVS results as such are only valid for people with average eye separation.

NOTE 3 This term still needs discussion, because “monocular” viewing space is insufficient for determining the

characteristics of autostereoscopic displays that require “binocular” viewing.
2.3.10
qualified binocular viewing space
QBVS

space in which images on a stereoscopic display are observed by both eyes at an acceptable level of visual

fatigue

NOTE 1 This term is based on the concept that there should be space where visual fatigue caused by pseudo-

stereoscopy is small enough.

NOTE 2 This term still needs discussion, because it is not clear whether there can exist a space larger than QSVS,

which would still satisfy the visual fatigue requirements.
2.3.11
qualified stereoscopic viewing space
QSVS

space in which images on a stereoscopic display induce stereopsis at an acceptable level of visual fatigue

NOTE This term is based on the concept that there should be space where visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic

images is small enough.
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3 Autostereoscopic display technologies
3.1 General

In this clause, technological features of autostereoscopic displays are described. Firstly, information for people

to perceive depth provided by autostereoscopic displays is explained. This is essential for understanding the

basics of autostereoscopic display technologies. Secondly, the autostereoscopic displays are classified

according to their technological aspects. Three different display technologies are presented based on their

principles, structures and features. Finally, to establish optical measurement methods for evaluating visual

fatigue caused by these autostereoscopic displays, the related matters are discussed in the light of both,

ergonomics and technologies.
3.2 Cues for depth perception

People usually perceive the three-dimensional visual world based on retinal images of two eyes. The cues for

such depth perception are not only binocular cues but also monocular cues. These cues are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 — Classification of depth cues
Binocular Monocular
Absolute depth Convergence/Binocular parallax Accommodation
Motion parallax
Relative depth Binocular disparity Motion disparity
Pictorial depth cues
Pictorial depth cues
Geometrical perspective
Relative/familiar size
Shading/Shadow
Occlusion
Texture
Aerial perspective, etc.

For autostereoscopic displays, the device itself provides binocular and monocular parallax as absolute

distance cues, and binocular and monocular disparity as relative depth cues. Binocular parallax is presented

as interocular differences in apparent direction of a target, while binocular disparity is presented as in relative

position of retinal images of two different objects. Both concepts are shown in Figure 2.

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Key
1 Vieth Muller circle 5 image for left eye O fixated object
6 right eye L left eye image
2 binocular parallax 
LOR
3 display surface 7 left eye R right eye image
4 image for right eye B target object
dd  binocular disparity
BR BL
Figure 2 — Binocular parallax and disparity

If an object, (e.g. object “O” in Figure 2a), is fixated by the two eyes, the apparent direction of the object

relative to the right eye is different from the direction relative to the left eye. This difference is called binocular

parallax. Moreover in Figure 2a, when the other object, such as “B”, exist, the apparent gap between the two

objects “O” and “B” is different in the views of the left and the right eye (see Figure 2b). This difference

originates in binocular parallax. This difference, binocular disparity, is described as the difference in angle

between d and d as shown in Figure 2.
BL BR

In Figure 2, the circle connecting three points, two nodes of the eyes and the fixation point “O”, is the Vieth-

Müller circle, which is the theoretical horopter. Any point on the horopter builds up its retinal image on

corresponding points of the two retinae, thus are viewed single. Therefore, none of the points on the circle

produce binocular disparity with each other including the fixated point “O”. The actual horopter, or empirical

horopter, has been measured, and is known as slightly different in its shape from the theoretical horopter.

Motion parallax and disparity are caused when different images are observed from different positions. As the

head moves from left to right, the absolute and relative positions of object images change, which creates

motion parallax and disparity, respectively, as shown in Figure 3.
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Key
4 right eye position at time T1 B target object
1 motion parallax 
M12
2 image position at time T1 5 right eye position at time T2 O fixated object
3 image position at time T2 6 head movement
dd  motion disparity
MM12
Figure 3 — Motion parallax and disparity

When an object (e.g. object “O” in Figure 3) is fixated by a single eye during head movements, the apparent

direction of th
...

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