Petroleum products - Determination of the ignition quality of diesel fuels - Cetane engine method (ISO 5165:2020)

This document establishes the rating of diesel fuel oil in terms of an arbitrary scale of cetane numbers (CNs) using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, indirect injected diesel engine. The CN provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuel oil in compression ignition engines. The CN is determined at constant speed in a pre-combustion chamber-type compression ignition test engine. However, the relationship of test engine performance to full scale, variable speed and variable load engines is not completely understood.
This document is applicable for the entire scale range from 0 CN to 100 CN but typical testing is in the range of 30 CN to 65 CN. An interlaboratory study executed by CEN in 2013 (10 samples in the range 52,4 CN to 73,8 CN)[3] confirmed that paraffinic diesel from synthesis or hydrotreatment, containing up to a volume fraction of 7 % fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), can be tested by this test method and that the precision is comparable to conventional fuels.
This test can be used for unconventional fuels such as synthetics or vegetable oils. However, the precision for those fuels has not been established and the relationship to the performance of such materials in full-scale engines is not completely understood.
Samples with fluid properties that interfere with the gravity flow of fuel to the fuel pump or delivery through the injector nozzle are not suitable for rating by this method.
NOTE    This document specifies operating conditions in SI units but engine measurements are specified in inch-pound units or Fahrenheit because these are the historical units used in the manufacture of the equipment, and thus some references in this document include these and other non-SI units in parenthesis.

Mineralölerzeugnisse - Bestimmung der Zündwilligkeit von Dieselkraftstoffen - Cetan-Verfahren mit dem CFR-Motor (ISO 5165:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt die Bewertung von Dieselkraftstoff mittels einer willkürlichen Skala von Cetanzahlen (CN) unter Verwendung eines genormten Dieselmotors folgender Charakteristik fest: Viertakt-Einzylinder-Motor mit variablem Verdichtungsverhältnis und indirekter Einspritzung. Die CN stellt einen Maßstab zur Bestimmung der Zündwilligkeit von Dieselkraftstoff in Selbstzündungsmotoren dar. Sie wird in einem Selbstzündungs-Prüfmotor mit Vorkammer bei konstanter Geschwindigkeit bestimmt. Die Korrelation des Leistungsverhaltens des Prüfmotors zu dem von Vollmotoren bei variabler Geschwindigkeit und variabler Last ist jedoch nicht vollständig bekannt.
Dieses Dokument ist im gesamten Skalenbereich von 0 CN bis 100 CN anwendbar, die übliche Prüfung liegt jedoch im Bereich von 30 CN bis 65 CN. Ein Ringversuch, durchgeführt von CEN im Jahr 2013 (10 Proben im Bereich von 52,4 CN bis 73,8 CN) [3], hat bestätigt, dass paraffinischer Dieselkraftstoff aus Synthese  oder Hydrierungsverfahren, der Fettsäuremethylester (FAME, en: fatty acid methyl ester) mit einem Volumenanteil bis zu 7 % enthält, mit diesem Prüfverfahren geprüft werden kann und dass die Präzision mit der herkömmlicher Kraftstoffe vergleichbar ist.
Diese Prüfung kann auch für unkonventionelle Kraftstoffe, wie z. B. synthetische Produkte oder Pflanzenöle, verwendet werden. Jedoch wurde die Präzision für diese Kraftstoffe nicht ermittelt und die Korrelation des Leistungsverhaltens solcher Produkte in Vollmotoren ist nicht vollständig bekannt.
Proben mit Flüssigkeitseigenschaften, die den Schwerkraftzufluss des Kraftstoffs zur Kraftstoffpumpe oder die Zuführung durch die Einspritzdüse stören, sind zur Bewertung nach diesem Verfahren nicht geeignet.
ANMERKUNG Dieses Dokument legt die Betriebsbedingungen in SI Einheiten fest, die Motorenmaße sind jedoch in Inch-Pfund-Maßeinheiten oder Fahrenheit festgelegt, da diese historischen Einheiten bei der Herstellung des Prüfgeräts verwendet werden; dies hat zur Folge, dass einige Verweisungen in diesem Dokument diese und andere Nicht-SI-Einheiten in Klammern enthalten.

Produits pétroliers - Détermination de la qualité d'inflammabilité des carburants pour moteurs diesel - Méthode cétane (ISO 5165:2020)

Le présent document spécifié une méthode de détermination de la qualité d'inflammabilité des carburants pour moteurs diesel, exprimés sur une échelle arbitraire d'indice de cétane (IC), en utilisant un moteur monocylindre diesel à injection indirecte fonctionnant selon un cycle quatre temps et à taux de compression variable. L'indice de cétane est déterminé à vitesse de rotation constante, sur un moteur d'essai à allumage par compression et à préchambre de combustion. Cependant, la relation entre la performance obtenue sur moteur d'essai et le comportement sur moteur de taille réelle, à régime de rotation et charge variable, n'est pas complètement comprise.
Le présent document s'applique dans la gamme d'indices de cétane (IC) allant de 0 à 100, mais les essais classiques se font entre 30 et 65 d'IC. Une étude interlaboratoires, réalisée par le CEN en 2013 (10 échantillons dans l'intervalle 52,4 ? 73,8 d'IC) [3], a confirmé que les diesel paraffiniques produits par synthèse ou par hydrotraitement, d'une teneur en esters méthyliques d'acides gras s'élevant jusqu'à 7 % (V/V), pouvaient être soumis à essai suivant cette méthode d'essai et que la fidélité est comparable aux carburants conventionnels.
Cet essai peut être utilisé pour des carburants non conventionnels comme des produits de synthèse ou des huiles végétales. Toutefois, la fidélité pour ces produits n'a pas été établie et la relation n'est pas complètement comprise entre la performance de ses produits et le comportement sur moteur de taille réelle.
Les échantillons dont les propriétés de fluide interféreraient avec l'écoulement par gravité entre le réservoir et la pompe ou avec le débit au travers du nez de l'injecteur, ne peuvent être soumis à essai selon cette méthode.
NOTE       Le présent document définit les conditions opératoires en unités S.I. mais les mesures du moteur sont définies en pouces (in) ou en degrés Fahrenheit car ce sont les unités historiques utilisées pour la construction de l'équipement, et certaines des références du présent document donnent ainsi ces unités et d'autres non S.I. entre parenthèses.

Naftni proizvodi - Ugotavljanje kakovosti vžiga dizelskih goriv - Cetansko število po motorni metodi (ISO 5165:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
05-Aug-2020
Completion Date
05-Aug-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
01-oktober-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 5165:2018

Naftni proizvodi - Ugotavljanje kakovosti vžiga dizelskih goriv - Cetansko število

po motorni metodi (ISO 5165:2020)

Petroleum products - Determination of the ignition quality of diesel fuels - Cetane engine

method (ISO 5165:2020)

Mineralölerzeugnisse - Bestimmung der Zündwilligkeit von Dieselkraftstoffen - Cetan-

Verfahren mit dem CFR-Motor (ISO 5165:2020)

Produits pétroliers - Détermination de la qualité d'inflammabilité des carburants pour

moteurs diesel - Méthode cétane (ISO 5165:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 5165:2020
ICS:
75.160.20 Tekoča goriva Liquid fuels
SIST EN ISO 5165:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
EN ISO 5165
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.20 Supersedes EN ISO 5165:2018
English Version
Petroleum products - Determination of the ignition quality
of diesel fuels - Cetane engine method (ISO 5165:2020)

Produits pétroliers - Détermination de la qualité Mineralölerzeugnisse - Bestimmung der Zündwilligkeit

d'inflammabilité des carburants pour moteurs diesel - von Dieselkraftstoffen - Cetan-Verfahren mit dem CFR-

Méthode cétane (ISO 5165:2020) Motor (ISO 5165:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 July 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 5165:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
EN ISO 5165:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
EN ISO 5165:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 5165:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 28 "Petroleum

and related products, fuels and lubricants from natural or synthetic sources" in collaboration with

Technical Committee CEN/TC 19 “Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of

petroleum, synthetic and biological origin.” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 5165:2018.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 5165:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 5165:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5165
Fifth edition
2020-07
Petroleum products — Determination
of the ignition quality of diesel fuels —
Cetane engine method
Produits pétroliers — Détermination de la qualité d'inflammabilité
des carburants pour moteurs diesel — Méthode cétane
Reference number
ISO 5165:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
ISO 5165:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
ISO 5165:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Reagents and reference materials ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Test engine assembly ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Instrumentation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Reference fuels dispensing equipment .............................................................................................................................. 7

6.4 Injector nozzle tester ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Special maintenance tools ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Sampling and sample preparation .................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Basic engine and instrument settings and standard operating conditions ............................................8

8.1 Installation of engine equipment and instrumentation ...................................................................................... 8

8.2 Engine speed ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.3 Valve timing ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.4 Valve lift ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.5 Fuel pump timing .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.6 Fuel pump inlet pressure ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.7 Direction of engine rotation ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.8 Injection timing ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.9 Injector nozzle opening pressure ........................................................................................................................................... 9

8.10 Injection flow rate ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.11 Injector coolant passage temperature ................................................................................................................................ 9

8.12 Valve clearances ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.13 Oil pressure ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.14 Oil temperature ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.15 Cylinder jacket coolant temperature ................................................................................................................................10

8.16 Intake air temperature ..................................................................................................................................................................10

8.17 Basic ignition delay ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

8.18 Cylinder jacket coolant level.....................................................................................................................................................10

8.19 Engine-crankcase lubricating oil level .............................................................................................................................10

8.20 Crankcase internal pressure .....................................................................................................................................................10

8.21 Exhaust back-pressure ..................................................................................................................................................................10

8.22 Exhaust and crankcase breather system resonance ............................................................................................10

8.23 Piston over-travel ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

8.24 Belt tension .............................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.25 Injector opening or release pressure ................................................................................................................................11

8.26 Injector spray pattern ....................................................................................................................................................................11

8.27 Indexing handwheel reading ...................................................................................................................................................11

8.27.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.27.2 Basic setting of variable compression plug ...........................................................................................11

8.27.3 Setting handwheel micrometer drum and scale ................................................................................11

8.27.4 Setting handwheel reading ..................................................................................................................................11

8.28 Basic compression pressure .....................................................................................................................................................12

8.29 Fuel pump lubricating oil level...............................................................................................................................................12

8.30 Fuel pump timing gear-box oil level ..................................................................................................................................12

8.31 Setting instrumentation reference pickups ................................................................................................................13

8.32 Setting injector pickup gap ........................................................................................................................................................13

9 Engine qualification .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
ISO 5165:2020(E)

9.1 Engine conformity .............................................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Checking performance on check fuels .............................................................................................................................13

9.3 Check in the case of nonconformity ...................................................................................................................................13

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.2 Sample introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................14

10.3 Fuel flow rate .........................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.4 Fuel injection timing .......................................................................................................................................................................14

10.5 Ignition delay .........................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.6 Equilibration ..........................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.7 Handwheel reading ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

10.8 Reference fuel no. 1 ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

10.9 Reference fuel no. 2 ..........................................................................................................................................................................15

10.10 Number of blends of reference fuels .................................................................................................................................16

10.11 Repeat readings ...................................................................................................................................................................................16

11 Calculation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

12 Expression of results .....................................................................................................................................................................................18

13 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

13.2 Repeatability, r ....................................................................................................................................................................................18

13.3 Reproducibility, R .............................................................................................................................................................................18

13.4 Precision basis ......................................................................................................................................................................................18

14 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
ISO 5165:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 28, Petroleum and related products, fuels

and lubricants from natural or synthetic sources, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 19, Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related

products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin, in accordance with the Agreement on technical

cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 5165:2017), which has been technically

revised. It is aligned with ASTM D613. The main changes to the previous edition are as follows:

— requirements for primary reference fuels (PRFs), secondary reference fuels (SRFs) and check fuels

have been added;

— new low cetane primary reference fuel, pentamethylheptane (PMH), as an alternative to

heptamethylnonane (HMN), have been added;
— new reporting requirements.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5165:2020(E)
Petroleum products — Determination of the ignition
quality of diesel fuels — Cetane engine method

WARNING — The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and

equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated

with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to

ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the document.

1 Scope

This document establishes the rating of diesel fuel oil in terms of an arbitrary scale of cetane numbers

(CNs) using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, indirect injected

diesel engine. The CN provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuel oil in compression

ignition engines. The CN is determined at constant speed in a pre-combustion chamber-type

compression ignition test engine. However, the relationship of test engine performance to full scale,

variable speed and variable load engines is not completely understood.

This document is applicable for the entire scale range from 0 CN to 100 CN but typical testing is in the

range of 30 CN to 65 CN. An interlaboratory study executed by CEN in 2013 (10 samples in the range

[3]

52,4 CN to 73,8 CN) confirmed that paraffinic diesel from synthesis or hydrotreatment, containing up

to a volume fraction of 7 % fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), can be tested by this test method and that

the precision is comparable to conventional fuels.

This test can be used for unconventional fuels such as synthetics or vegetable oils. However, the

precision for those fuels has not been established and the relationship to the performance of such

materials in full-scale engines is not completely understood.

Samples with fluid properties that interfere with the gravity flow of fuel to the fuel pump or delivery

through the injector nozzle are not suitable for rating by this method.

NOTE This document specifies operating conditions in SI units but engine measurements are specified in

inch-pound units or Fahrenheit because these are the historical units used in the manufacture of the equipment,

and thus some references in this document include these and other non-SI units in parenthesis.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3170, Petroleum liquids — Manual sampling
ISO 3171, Petroleum liquids — Automatic pipeline sampling
ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 4787, Laboratory glassware — Volumetric instruments — Methods for testing of capacity and for use

ASTM D613, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil

ASTM D3703, Test Method for Hydroperoxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels, Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

ASTM E832-81, Standard Specification for Laboratory Filter Papers
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 5165:2020
ISO 5165:2020(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
cetane number

measure of the ignition performance of a diesel fuel oil obtained by comparing it to reference fuels in a

standardized engine test

Note 1 to entry: Ignition performance is understood to mean the ignition delay (3.3) of the fuel as determined

when the standard test engine is operated under controlled conditions of fuel flow rate, injection timing (3.4) and

compression ratio (3.2).
3.2
compression ratio

ratio of the volume of the combustion chamber including the pre-combustion chamber with the piston

at bottom-dead-centre (b.d.c.) to the comparable volume with the piston at top-dead-centre (t.d.c.)

3.3
ignition delay

period of time between the start of fuel injection and the start of combustion, expressed in degrees of

crank angle rotation
3.4
injection timing
injection advance

time in the combustion cycle at which fuel injection into the combustion chamber is initiated, expressed

in degrees of crank angle
3.5
handwheel reading

arbitrary numerical value, related to compression ratio (3.2), obtained from a micrometer scale that

indicates the position of the variable compression plug in the pre-combustion chamber of the engine

3.6
cetane meter
ignition delay meter

electronic instrument which displays injection timing (3.4) and ignition delay (3.3) derived from input

pulses of multiple transducers (pickups)

Note 1 to entry: Three generations of apparatus have been approved for use as cetane meters. These are (with

the year of introduction in parenthesis) the Mark II Ignition Delay Meter (1974), the Dual Digital Cetane Meter

(1990) and the XCP Cetane Panel (2014).
3.7
injector nozzle opening pressure

fuel pressure that overcomes the resistance of the spring which normally holds the injector nozzle

pintle closed, and thus forces the pintle to lift and release an injection spray from the nozzle

3.8
reference pickup

transducers or optical sensors mounted over the flywheel of the engine, triggered b

...

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