Helmets for S-EPAC riders

This document specifies requirements and test methods for helmets worn by users of speed electrically power assisted bicycles (S-EPACs). This document also specifies requirements and test methods for integrated visors in helmets worn by users of S-EPACS.
Requirements and the corresponding methods of test are given for the following:
-   construction, including field of vision;
-   shock absorbing properties;
-   retention system properties, including chin strap and fastening devices;
-   marking and information.

Helme für S-EPAC-Benutzer

Čelade za S-EPAC kolesarje

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Jul-2023
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
19-Jul-2023
Due Date
29-Jul-2023
Completion Date
19-Jul-2023

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
01-september-2023
Čelade za S-EPAC kolesarje
Helmets for S-EPAC riders
Helme für S-EPAC-Benutzer
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 17946:2023
ICS:
13.340.20 Varovalna oprema za glavo Head protective equipment
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023


CEN/TS 17946
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE

July 2023
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 13.340.20
English Version

Helmets for S-EPAC riders
 Helme für S-EPAC-Benutzer
This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 12 June 2023 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to
submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS
available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in
parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and
United Kingdom.





EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2023 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 17946:2023 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 4
Introduction . 6
1 Scope . 7
2 Normative references . 7
3 Terms and definitions . 7
4 Requirements . 9
4.1 Materials . 9
4.2 Construction . 9
4.3 Field of vision . 9
4.4 Shock absorbing capacity . 11
4.5 Durability . 11
4.6 Retention system . 11
4.6.1 General. 11
4.6.2 Chin strap . 11
4.6.3 Fastening device . 11
4.6.4 Colour . 11
4.6.5 Strength . 11
4.6.6 Effectiveness . 11
4.6.7 Ease of release . 11
4.7 Integrated visors . 12
5 Testing . 12
5.1 Headforms . 12
5.2 Inspection and determination of mass . 12
5.3 Number of samples and sequence of tests . 12
5.4 Determination of shock absorbing capacity . 13
5.4.1 Test area . 13
5.4.2 Conditioning . 15
5.4.3 Apparatus . 15
5.4.4 Procedure . 18
5.5 Determination of retention system strength and ease of release . 18
5.5.1 Apparatus . 18
5.5.2 Procedure . 19
5.6 Determination of retention system effectiveness . 19
5.6.1 Apparatus . 19
5.6.2 Procedure . 21
5.7 Determination of field of vision . 22
5.8 Test report . 22
6 Marking . 22
7 Information supplied by the manufacturer . 23
Annex A (informative) Alternative procedure for artificial ageing . 24
Annex B (informative) Mark of approval . 25
Annex C (normative) Integrated visors for S-EPAC users . 26
2

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
C.1 Scope . 26
C.2 Normative references . 26
C.3 Terms and definitions . 26
C.4 Requirements . 26
C.4.1 General . 26
C.4.2 Design and manufacture . 26
C.4.3 Materials . 26
C.4.4 Sit and fit . 27
C.4.5 Ventilation . 27
C.4.6 Optical requirements . 27
C.4.7 Non optical requirements . 30
C.4.8 Optional requirements – Resistance to fogging . 31
C.5 Testing . 31
C.5.1 General . 31
C.5.2 Conditioning and test conditions . 32
C.5.3 Field of vision . 32
C.5.4 Refractive powers . 34
C.5.5 Transmittance. 34
C.5.6 Reduced luminance coefficient . 35
C.5.7 Resistance to ultraviolet radiation . 35
C.5.8 Impact resistance . 36
C.5.9 Resistance to surface damage by fine particles . 37
C.5.10 Resistance to fogging . 37
C.5.11 Visual inspection . 37
C.5.12 Sit and fit . 37
Annex D (normative to Annex C) Photochromic sunglare oculars for use in twilight or at night . 38
Annex E (normative to Annex C) Spectral functions for the calculation of luminous transmittance
and relative visual attenuation coefficients (quotients) . 39
Annex F (normative to Annex C) Spectral functions for the calculation of solar UV transmittance
values . 41
Annex G (normative to Annex C) Spectral function for the calculation of infrared transmittance . 43
Annex H (normative to Annex C) Cut-on filter for UV filtering . 45
Annex I (normative to Annex C) Uncertainty of measurement and results interpretation . 47
Bibliography . 49

3

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
European foreword
This document (CEN/TS 17946:2023) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 158 “Head
protection”, the secretariat of which is held by SIS.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
CEN/TS 17946 is largely based on NTA 8776:2016-12, a document issued and adopted by Dutch standard
organization NEN that sets requirements for S-EPAC helmets. CEN/TS 17946 was originally proposed as
a European standard, but as multiple EU member states oblige users of all types of L1e-B categorized
vehicles to wear (only) a helmet that conforms to UNECE Regulation 22, the form of a CEN Technical
Specification was chosen to allow member states the choice whether or not to adopt this document.
’In order to be allowed to be used on S-EPACs on public roads and to place on the market in the
Netherlands, manufacturers are obliged by Dutch law to affix a mark of approval to the S-EPAC helmet.
The terms of use of the mark of approval are to be found in the certification scheme NCS 8776 see
Annex B.
Working Group 15 of CEN/TC 158 has reviewed NTA 8776:2016-12 and decided to fully adopt its
requirements into CEN/TS 17946. The only addition to NTA 8776:2016-12 is that in CEN/TS 17946
requirements for integrated visors into S-EPAC-helmets are adopted. An integrated visor is optional for
a S-EPAC-helmet as specified in this document. The requirements for integrated visors are largely based
on EN 1938 Personal eye protection — Goggles for motorcycle and moped users.
CEN/TS 17946 contains requirements for helmets for use by speed electrically power assisted bicycles
(S-EPACs). The S-EPAC is a product for which the European bicycle industry and consumers have
identified the need to provide users with a suitable helmet. In the new European regulation No 168/2013
on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles the S-EPAC is
classified as an L1e-B two-wheel moped. Although the electric power assistance will support the S-EPAC
user up to the speed of 45 km/h, the S-EPAC will require a considerable pedaling effort from the user.
The challenge for the bicycle and helmet industry therefore was to come up with a set of requirements
for an S-EPAC helmet that would provide an enhanced safety level compared to the
EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 bicycle helmet as a result of the higher speeds, but would likewise provide the
same comfort level for use in physical effort.
The bicycle and helmet industry together with other relevant stakeholders (government, test institutes)
made use of existing knowledge on head protection (a whole range of existing helmet standards,
literature and testing results) and defined requirements that are at the limits of the current technical
possibilities in the context of developing a ventilated, lightweight helmet with an increased safety level.
The result was NTA 8776:2016-12, a modified version of EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 Helmets for pedal
cyclists and for users of skateboards and roller skates. Significant modifications compared to
EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 are related to the shock absorbing capacity and test area. The test area is
enlarged in order to provide more protection of the temporal and occipital area of the head. For the
impact test the fall velocities are increased.
Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.
A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.
4

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the
following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of
North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and the
United Kingdom.
5

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Introduction
The protection given by a helmet depends on the circumstances of the accident and wearing a helmet
cannot always prevent death or long-term disability.
A proportion of the energy of an impact is absorbed by the helmet, thereby reducing the force of the blow
sustained by the head. The structure of the helmet may be damaged in absorbing this energy and any
helmet that sustains a severe blow needs to be replaced even if damage is not apparent.
At the time this document was prepared, no standardized method for measuring the ventilating capacity
of a helmet was recognized. For that reason no requirements concerning ventilation or heat transmission
have been introduced. Manufacturers of helmets are urged to design their helmets to encourage a flow of
air over the wearer's head.

6

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
1 Scope
This document specifies requirements and test methods for helmets worn by users of speed electrically
power assisted bicycles (S-EPACs). This document also specifies requirements and test methods for
integrated visors in helmets worn by users of S-EPACS.
Requirements and the corresponding methods of test are given for the following:
— construction, including field of vision;
— shock absorbing properties;
— retention system properties, including chin strap and fastening devices;
— marking and information.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 167:2001, Personal eye-protection — Optical test methods
EN 168:2001, Personal eye-protection — Non-optical test methods
EN 960:2006, Headforms for use in the testing of protective helmets
EN 1811, Reference test method for release of nickel from products intended to come into direct and
prolonged contact with the skin
EN 1836:2005+A1:2007, Personal eye-equipment — Sunglasses and sunglare filters for general use and
filters for direct observation of the sun
EN ISO 4007:2018, Personal protective equipment — Eye and face protection — Vocabulary (ISO
4007:2018)
1
EN ISO 13688:2013, Protective clothing — General requirements
ISO 11664-1:2007, Colorimetry — Part 1: CIE standard colorimetric observers
ISO 11664-2:2007, Colorimetry — Part 2: CIE standard illuminants
ISO 6487, Road vehicles — Measurement techniques in impact tests — Instrumentation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/

1
As impacted by EN ISO 13688:2013/A1:2021.
7

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
3.1
speed electric power assisted cycle
S-EPAC
cycle designed to pedal having a mass in running order ≤ 35 kg, fitted with pedals enabling the vehicle to
be propelled solely by the rider’s muscular leg power, and having an auxiliary propulsion power added
to the driver’s pedal power which is less than or equal to four times the actual pedal power and does not
exceed 4 000 W, whereby the output of the auxiliary propulsion is cut off at a vehicle speed ≤ 45 km/h
Note 1 to entry: The S-EPAC is classified as vehicle category L1e-B in EU regulation No 168/2013. The defining
requirements for the S-EPAC is found in Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 3/2014 and subject to changes
made into this Commission Delegated Regulation.
3.2
protective helmet
item to be worn on the head and intended to absorb the energy of an impact, thus reducing the risk of
injury to the head
3.3
helmet type
category of helmets which does not differ in such essential respects as the materials or dimensions or
construction of the helmet, of the retention system or of the protective padding
3.4
protective padding
material used to absorb impact energy
3.5
comfort padding
lining material provided for the wearer's comfort
3.6
sizing padding
lining material used for adjustment of the helmet size
3.7
retention system
complete assembly by means of which the helmet is maintained in position on the head including any
devices for adjustment of the system or to enhance the wearer's comfort
3.8
chin strap
part of the retention system consisting of a strap that passes under the wearer's jaw to keep the helmet
in position
3.9
basic plane of the human head
plane at the level of the external ear opening (external auditory meatus) and the lower edge of the eye
sockets (orbits)
3.10
basic plane of a headform
plane relative to the headform that corresponds to the basic plane of the human head
8

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
3.11
reference plane
construction plane parallel to the basic plane of the headform at a distance from it which is a function of
the size of the headform
3.12
test area
area of the helmet in which impact tests may be conducted which corresponds to the minimum protected
area of the human head
4 Requirements
4.1 Materials
For those parts of the helmet coming into contact with the skin, the material used should be known not
to undergo appreciable alteration from contact with sweat or with substances likely to be found in
toiletries.
The material used in those parts of the helmet coming, or that can come into contact with the skin, shall
not be known to cause skin disorders or other adverse effects on health in accordance with,
1
EN ISO 13688:2013 , 4.2.
4.2 Construction
The helmet normally consists of a means of absorbing impact energy and means of retaining the helmet
on the head in an accident.
The helmet should be durable and withstand handling. The helmet shall be so designed and shaped that
parts of it (visor, rivets, ventilators, edges, fastening device and the like) do not to injure the user in
normal use.
NOTE Helmets should:
— have low weight;
— be ventilating;
— be easy to put on and take off;
— be usable with spectacles;
— not significantly interfere with the ability of the user to hear traffic noise.
4.3 Field of vision
When tested in accordance with 5.7 there shall be no occultation in the field of vision bounded by angles
as follows (see Figure 1):
— horizontally: min. 105° from the longitudinal vertical median plane to the left and right hand sides;
— upwards: min. 25° from the reference plane;
— downwards: min. 45° from the basic plane.
9

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres

a) Section of headform in longitudinal vertical plane

b) Section of headform in reference plane
Key
1 reference plane
2 basic plane
3 front
4 back
5 longitudinal vertical median plane
6 central transverse vertical plane
NOTE 1 Longitudinal vertical median plane – equivalent to EN 960:2006, 2.8 “vertical longitudinal plane”.
NOTE 2 Central transverse vertical plane – equivalent to EN 960:2006, 2.9 “vertical transverse plane”.
Figure 1 — Field of vision
10

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
4.4 Shock absorbing capacity
The helmet shall give protection to the forehead, rear, sides, temples and crown of the head.
When tested in accordance with 5.3 and 5.4, the peak acceleration shall not, for each impact, exceed 250 g
+ 0,1 + 0,1
for the velocity of 6,5 m/s on the flat anvil, and 5,42 m/s on the kerbstone anvil.
0 0
NOTE These are theoretically equivalent to 2 154 mm and 1 497 mm drop heights respectively.
4.5 Durability
After being tested the helmet shall not exhibit damage that could cause significant injury to the wearer
(sharp edges, points).
4.6 Retention system
4.6.1 General
Means shall be provided for retaining the helmet on the wearer's head. All parts of the retention system
shall be securely attached to the helmet.
4.6.2 Chin strap
The chin strap shall not include a chin cup. Any chin strap shall be no less than 15 mm wide. Chin straps
may be fitted with means of enhancing comfort for the wearer.
4.6.3 Fastening device
Any retention system shall be fitted with a device to adjust and maintain tension in the system. The device
shall be capable of adjustment so that the buckle does not sit on the jaw bone.
4.6.4 Colour
No part of the retention system shall be coloured green.
It is recommended that the opening mechanism be marked with red or orange colour.
4.6.5 Strength
When tested in accordance with 5.5, the dynamic extension of the retention system shall not exceed
35 mm and the residual extension shall not exceed 25 mm. For this purpose, extension includes slippage
of the fastening device.
Damage to the retention system shall be accepted provided that the above requirements are met.
NOTE In this test, slippage of the fastening device can be measured and recorded separately from other
contributions to the extension but this is for information only and is not subject to a separate requirement.
4.6.6 Effectiveness
When tested in accordance with 5.6 the helmet shall not come off the headform.
4.6.7 Ease of release
Following the strength test in accordance with 5.5 and with the load still applied, it shall be possible to
open the release system with one hand.
11

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17946:2023
CEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
4.7 Integrated visors
If an integrated visor is included in the S-EPAC helmet the integrated visor shall comply with the
requirements in Annex C.
5 Testing
5.1 Headforms
The headforms used shall comply with EN 960:2006. The sizes in Table 1 shall be used, except for
determination of shock absorbing capacity, for which only size designations 495, 535, 575, 605 and 625
shall be used.
For determination of retention system strength and ease of release, the headforms used shall comply with
EN 960:2006 at least down from the basic plane.
NOTE Table 1 also gives the EN 960:1994 equivalent letter codes to the EN 960:2006 size designations for
headforms with similar nominal dimensions. These are as given in EN 960:2006, Annex C. The EN 960:2006 size
designation approximates to the circumference of the headform at the reference plane, in mm.
Table 1 — Sizes of headforms
Inside circumference of
Size designation
helmet
(EN 960:1994 equivalent) Mm
495 (A) 500
515 (C) 520
535 (E) 540
555 (G) 560
575 (J) 570
5
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
01-maj-2023
Čelade za S-EPAC kolesarje
Helmets for S-EPAC riders
Helme für S-EPAC-Benutzer
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 17946
ICS:
13.340.20 Varovalna oprema za glavo Head protective equipment
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023


FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FprCEN/TS 17946
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE

TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION

February 2023
ICS 13.340.20
English Version

Helmets for S-EPAC riders
 Helme für S-EPAC-Benutzer


This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee
CEN/TC 158.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and
United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are
aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change
without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.


EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2023 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 4
Introduction . 5
1 Scope . 6
2 Normative references . 6
3 Terms and definitions . 6
4 Requirements . 8
4.1 Materials . 8
4.2 Construction . 8
4.3 Field of vision . 8
4.4 Shock absorbing capacity . 10
4.5 Durability . 10
4.6 Retention system . 10
4.6.1 General. 10
4.6.2 Chin strap . 10
4.6.3 Fastening device . 10
4.6.4 Colour . 10
4.6.5 Strength . 10
4.6.6 Effectiveness . 10
4.6.7 Ease of release . 10
4.7 Integrated visors . 11
5 Testing . 11
5.1 Headforms . 11
5.2 Inspection and determination of mass . 11
5.3 Number of samples and sequence of tests . 11
5.4 Determination of shock absorbing capacity . 12
5.4.1 Test area . 12
5.4.2 Conditioning . 14
5.4.3 Apparatus . 14
5.4.4 Procedure . 17
5.5 Determination of retention system strength and ease of release . 17
5.5.1 Apparatus . 17
5.5.2 Procedure . 18
5.6 Determination of retention system effectiveness . 18
5.6.1 Apparatus . 18
5.6.2 Procedure . 20
5.7 Determination of field of vision . 21
5.8 Test report . 21
6 Marking . 21
7 Information supplied by the manufacturer . 22
Annex A (informative) Alternative procedure for artificial ageing . 23
Annex B (informative) Mark of approval . 24
Annex C (normative) Integrated visors for S-EPAC users . 25
2

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
C.1 Scope . 25
C.2 Normative references . 25
C.3 Terms and definitions . 25
C.4 Requirements . 25
C.4.1 General . 25
C.4.2 Design and manufacture . 25
C.4.3 Materials . 25
C.4.4 Sit and fit . 26
C.4.5 Ventilation . 26
C.4.6 Optical requirements . 26
C.4.7 Non optical requirements . 29
C.4.8 Optional requirements – Resistance to fogging . 30
C.5 Testing . 30
C.5.1 General . 30
C.5.2 Conditioning and test conditions . 31
C.5.3 Field of vision . 31
C.5.4 Refractive powers . 33
C.5.5 Transmittance. 33
C.5.6 Reduced luminance coefficient . 34
C.5.7 Resistance to ultraviolet radiation . 34
C.5.8 Impact resistance . 35
C.5.9 Resistance to surface damage by fine particles . 36
C.5.10 Resistance to fogging . 36
C.5.11 Visual inspection . 36
C.5.12 Sit and fit . 36
Annex D (normative to Annex C) Photochromic sunglare oculars for use in twilight or at night
. 37
Annex E (normative to Annex C) Spectral functions for the calculation of luminous
transmittance and relative visual attenuation coefficients (quotients) . 38
Annex F (normative to Annex C) Spectral functions for the calculation of solar UV
transmittance values . 40
Annex G (normative to Annex C) Spectral function for the calculation of infrared
transmittance . 42
Annex H (normative to Annex C) Cut-on filter for UV filtering . 44
Annex I (normative to Annex C) Uncertainty of measurement and results interpretation . 46
Bibliography . 48

3

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
European foreword
This document (FprCEN/TS 17946:2023) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 158 “Head
protection”, the secretariat of which is held by SIS.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TS.
CEN/TS 17946 is largely based on NTA 8776:2016-12, a document issued and adopted by Dutch standard
organization NEN that sets requirements for S-EPAC helmets. CEN/TS 17946 was originally proposed as
a European standard, but as multiple EU member states oblige users of all types of L1e-B categorized
vehicles to wear (only) a helmet that conforms to UNECE Regulation 22, the form of a CEN Technical
Specification was chosen to allow member states the choice whether or not to adopt this document.
’In order to be allowed to be used on S-EPACs on public roads and to place on the market in the
Netherlands, manufacturers are obliged by Dutch law to affix a mark of approval to the S-EPAC helmet.
The terms of use of the mark of approval are to be found in the certification scheme NCS 8776 see Annex
B.
Working Group 15 of CEN/TC 158 has reviewed NTA 8776:2016-12 and decided to fully adopt its
requirements into CEN/TS 17946. The only addition to NTA 8776:2016-12 is that in CEN/TS 17946
requirements for integrated visors into S-EPAC-helmets are adopted. An integrated visor is optional for
a S-EPAC-helmet as specified in this document. The requirements for integrated visors are largely based
on EN 1938 Personal eye protection — Goggles for motorcycle and moped users.
CEN/TS 17946 contains requirements for helmets for use by speed electrically power assisted bicycles
(S-EPACs). The S-EPAC is a product for which the European bicycle industry and consumers have
identified the need to provide users with a suitable helmet. In the new European regulation No 168/2013
on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles the S-EPAC is
classified as an L1e-B two-wheel moped. Although the electric power assistance will support the S-EPAC
user up to the speed of 45 km/h, the S-EPAC will require a considerable pedaling effort from the user.
The challenge for the bicycle and helmet industry therefore was to come up with a set of requirements
for an S-EPAC helmet that would provide an enhanced safety level compared to the
EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 bicycle helmet as a result of the higher speeds, but would likewise provide the
same comfort level for use in physical effort.
The bicycle and helmet industry together with other relevant stakeholders (government, test institutes)
made use of existing knowledge on head protection (a whole range of existing helmet standards,
literature and testing results) and defined requirements that are at the limits of the current technical
possibilities in the context of developing a ventilated, lightweight helmet with an increased safety level.
The result was NTA 8776:2016-12, a modified version of EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 Helmets for pedal
cyclists and for users of skateboards and roller skates. Significant modifications compared to
EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 are related to the shock absorbing capacity and test area. The test area is
enlarged in order to provide more protection of the temporal and occipital area of the head. For the
impact test the fall velocities are increased.

4

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Introduction
The protection given by a helmet depends on the circumstances of the accident and wearing a helmet
cannot always prevent death or long-term disability.
A proportion of the energy of an impact is absorbed by the helmet, thereby reducing the force of the blow
sustained by the head. The structure of the helmet may be damaged in absorbing this energy and any
helmet that sustains a severe blow needs to be replaced even if damage is not apparent.
At the time this document was prepared, no standardized method for measuring the ventilating capacity
of a helmet was recognized. For that reason no requirements concerning ventilation or heat transmission
have been introduced. Manufacturers of helmets are urged to design their helmets to encourage a flow of
air over the wearer's head.

5

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
1 Scope
This document specifies requirements and test methods for helmets worn by users of speed electrically
power assisted bicycles (S-EPACs). This document also specifies requirements and test methods for
integrated visors in helmets worn by users of S-EPACS.
Requirements and the corresponding methods of test are given for the following:
— construction, including field of vision;
— shock absorbing properties;
— retention system properties, including chin strap and fastening devices;
— marking and information.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 960:2006, Headforms for use in the testing of protective helmets
EN 165:2005, Personal eye-protection — Vocabulary
EN 167:2001, Personal eye-protection — Optical test methods
EN 168:2001, Personal eye-protection — Non-optical test methods
EN ISO 13688:2013, Protective clothing — General requirements
EN 1811, Reference test method for release of nickel from products intended to come into direct and
prolonged contact with the skin
EN 1836:2005+A1:2007, Personal eye-equipment — Sunglasses and sunglare filters for general use and
filters for direct observation of the sun
ISO 11664-1:2007, Colorimetry — Part 1: CIE standard colorimetric observers
ISO 11664-2:2007, Colorimetry — Part 2: CIE standard illuminants
ISO 6487, Road vehicles — Measurement techniques in impact tests — Instrumentation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
6

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3.1
speed electric power assisted cycle
S-EPAC
cycle designed to pedal having a mass in running order ≤ 35 kg, fitted with pedals enabling the vehicle to
be propelled solely by the rider’s muscular leg power, and having an auxiliary propulsion power added
to the driver’s pedal power which is less than or equal to four times the actual pedal power and does not
exceed 4 000 W, whereby the output of the auxiliary propulsion is cut off at a vehicle speed ≤ 45 km/h
Note 1 to entry: The S-EPAC is classified as vehicle category L1e-B in EU regulation No 168/2013. The defining
requirements for the S-EPAC is found in Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 3/2014 and subject to changes
made into this Commission Delegated Regulation.
3.2
protective helmet
item to be worn on the head and intended to absorb the energy of an impact, thus reducing the risk of
injury to the head
3.3
helmet type
category of helmets which does not differ in such essential respects as the materials or dimensions or
construction of the helmet, of the retention system or of the protective padding
3.4
protective padding
material used to absorb impact energy
3.5
comfort padding
lining material provided for the wearer's comfort
3.6
sizing padding
lining material used for adjustment of the helmet size
3.7
retention system
complete assembly by means of which the helmet is maintained in position on the head including any
devices for adjustment of the system or to enhance the wearer's comfort
3.8
chin strap
part of the retention system consisting of a strap that passes under the wearer's jaw to keep the helmet
in position
3.9
basic plane of the human head
plane at the level of the external ear opening (external auditory meatus) and the lower edge of the eye
sockets (orbits)
3.10
basic plane of a headform
plane relative to the headform that corresponds to the basic plane of the human head
7

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3.11
reference plane
construction plane parallel to the basic plane of the headform at a distance from it which is a function of
the size of the headform
3.12
test area
area of the helmet in which impact tests may be conducted which corresponds to the minimum protected
area of the human head
4 Requirements
4.1 Materials
For those parts of the helmet coming into contact with the skin, the material used should be known not
to undergo appreciable alteration from contact with sweat or with substances likely to be found in
toiletries.
The material used in those parts of the helmet coming, or that can come into contact with the skin, shall
not be known to cause skin disorders or other adverse effects on health in accordance with,
EN ISO 13688:2013, 4.2.
4.2 Construction
The helmet normally consists of a means of absorbing impact energy and means of retaining the helmet
on the head in an accident.
The helmet should be durable and withstand handling. The helmet shall be so designed and shaped that
parts of it (visor, rivets, ventilators, edges, fastening device and the like) do not to injure the user in
normal use.
NOTE Helmets should:
— have low weight;
— be ventilating;
— be easy to put on and take off;
— be usable with spectacles;
— not significantly interfere with the ability of the user to hear traffic noise.
4.3 Field of vision
When tested in accordance with 5.7 there shall be no occultation in the field of vision bounded by angles
as follows (see Figure 1):
— horizontally: min. 105° from the longitudinal vertical median plane to the left and right hand sides;
— upwards: min. 25° from the reference plane;
— downwards: min. 45° from the basic plane.
8

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres

a) Section of headform in longitudinal vertical plane

b) Section of headform in reference plane
Key
1 reference plane
2 basic plane
3 front
4 back
5 longitudinal vertical median plane
6 central transverse vertical plane
NOTE 1 Longitudinal vertical median plane – equivalent to EN 960:2006, 2.8 “vertical longitudinal plane”.
NOTE 2 Central transverse vertical plane – equivalent to EN 960:2006, 2.9 “vertical transverse plane”.
Figure 1 — Field of vision
9

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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
4.4 Shock absorbing capacity
The helmet shall give protection to the forehead, rear, sides, temples and crown of the head.
When tested in accordance with 5.3 and 5.4, the peak acceleration shall not, for each impact, exceed 250 g
+ 0,1 + 0,1
for the velocity of 6,5 m/s on the flat anvil, and 5,42 m/s on the kerbstone anvil.
0 0
NOTE These are theoretically equivalent to 2 154 mm and 1 497 mm drop heights respectively.
4.5 Durability
After being tested the helmet shall not exhibit damage that could cause significant injury to the wearer
(sharp edges, points).
4.6 Retention system
4.6.1 General
Means shall be provided for retaining the helmet on the wearer's head. All parts of the retention system
shall be securely attached to the helmet.
4.6.2 Chin strap
The chin strap shall not include a chin cup. Any chin strap shall be no less than 15 mm wide. Chin straps
may be fitted with means of enhancing comfort for the wearer.
4.6.3 Fastening device
Any retention system shall be fitted with a device to adjust and maintain tension in the system. The device
shall be capable of adjustment so that the buckle does not sit on the jaw bone.
4.6.4 Colour
No part of the retention system shall be coloured green.
It is recommended that the opening mechanism be marked with red or orange colour.
4.6.5 Strength
When tested in accordance with 5.5, the dynamic extension of the retention system shall not exceed
35 mm and the residual extension shall not exceed 25 mm. For this purpose, extension includes slippage
of the fastening device.
Damage to the retention system shall be accepted provided that the above requirements are met.
NOTE In this test, slippage of the fastening device can be measured and recorded separately from other
contributions to the extension but this is for information only and is not subject to a separate requirement.
4.6.6 Effectiveness
When tested in accordance with 5.6 the helmet shall not come off the headform.
4.6.7 Ease of release
Following the strength test in accordance with 5.5 and with the load still applied, it shall be possible to
open the release system with one hand.
10

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4.7 Integrated visors
If an integrated visor is included in the S-EPAC helmet the integrated visor shall comply with the
requirements in Annex C.
5 Testing
5.1 Headforms
The headforms used shall comply with EN 960:2006. The sizes in Table 1 shall be used, except for
determination of shock absorbing capacity, for which only size designations 495, 535, 575, 605 and 625
shall be used.
For determination of retention system strength and ease of release, the headforms used shall comply with
EN 960:2006 at least down from the basic plane.
NOTE Table 1 also gives the EN 960:1994 equivalent letter codes to the EN 960:2006 size designations for
headforms with similar nominal dimensions. These are as given in EN 960:2006, Annex C. The EN 960:2006 size
designation approximates to the circumference of the headform at the reference plane, in mm.
Table 1 — Sizes of headforms
Inside circumference of
Size designation
helmet
(EN 960:1994 equivalent) Mm
495 (A) 500
515 (C) 520
535 (E) 540
555 (G) 560
575 (J) 570
585 (K) 580
605 (M) 600
625 (O) 620

5.2 Inspection and determination of mass
Inspect the helmet to ascertain whether it is suitable for its intended purpose and fulfils the general
requirements in 4.2.
Determine the mass of the helmets of the same size submitted for testing. Calculate and record the mean
value in g rounded off to the nearest 10 g, stating the size of the helmet.
5.3 Number of samples and sequence of tests
For each helmet type, four helmets for each headform size that fits within the manufacturers' claimed
head size range shall be submitted for testing.
The sequence of tests performed on each helmet size and the tests performed on the same sample are
given in Table 2.
11

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Table 2 — Sequence of test and tests per sample
Performance test Sequence of test Sample number
Retention system effectiveness (5.6) 1st 1 — —
Shock absorbing capacity (5.4) 2nd 1 2 3
Retention system strength (5.5) 3rd — 2 3

The fourth sample is reserved as a reference sample, which can be used by the test laboratory in case of
doubt about any of the performance requirements.
5.4 Determination of shock absorbing capacity
5.4.1 Test area
a) Place the helmet on a headform of appropriate size designation. Apply a vertical load of 50 N on the
crown of the helmet in order to stabilize the helmet on the headform. Position the front edge of the
helmet to meet the upward field of vision specified in 4.3 or to the manufacturer's normal wearing
position, if this is detailed by the manufacturer and results in greater than the specified upward
vision.
b) Dra
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
01-maj-2023
Čelade za S-EPAC kolesarje
Helmets for S-EPAC riders
Helme für S-EPAC-Benutzer
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 17946
ICS:
13.340.20 Varovalna oprema za glavo Head protective equipment
SIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023

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SIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023


FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FprCEN/TS 17946
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE

TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION

February 2023
ICS 13.340.20
English Version

Helmets for S-EPAC riders
 Helme für S-EPAC-Benutzer


This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee
CEN/TC 158.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and
United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are
aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change
without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.


EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2023 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 4
Introduction . 5
1 Scope . 6
2 Normative references . 6
3 Terms and definitions . 6
4 Requirements . 8
4.1 Materials . 8
4.2 Construction . 8
4.3 Field of vision . 8
4.4 Shock absorbing capacity . 10
4.5 Durability . 10
4.6 Retention system . 10
4.6.1 General. 10
4.6.2 Chin strap . 10
4.6.3 Fastening device . 10
4.6.4 Colour . 10
4.6.5 Strength . 10
4.6.6 Effectiveness . 10
4.6.7 Ease of release . 10
4.7 Integrated visors . 11
5 Testing . 11
5.1 Headforms . 11
5.2 Inspection and determination of mass . 11
5.3 Number of samples and sequence of tests . 11
5.4 Determination of shock absorbing capacity . 12
5.4.1 Test area . 12
5.4.2 Conditioning . 14
5.4.3 Apparatus . 14
5.4.4 Procedure . 17
5.5 Determination of retention system strength and ease of release . 17
5.5.1 Apparatus . 17
5.5.2 Procedure . 18
5.6 Determination of retention system effectiveness . 18
5.6.1 Apparatus . 18
5.6.2 Procedure . 20
5.7 Determination of field of vision . 21
5.8 Test report . 21
6 Marking . 21
7 Information supplied by the manufacturer . 22
Annex A (informative) Alternative procedure for artificial ageing . 23
Annex B (informative) Mark of approval . 24
Annex C (normative) Integrated visors for S-EPAC users . 25
2

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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
C.1 Scope . 25
C.2 Normative references . 25
C.3 Terms and definitions . 25
C.4 Requirements . 25
C.4.1 General . 25
C.4.2 Design and manufacture . 25
C.4.3 Materials . 25
C.4.4 Sit and fit . 26
C.4.5 Ventilation . 26
C.4.6 Optical requirements . 26
C.4.7 Non optical requirements . 29
C.4.8 Optional requirements – Resistance to fogging . 30
C.5 Testing . 30
C.5.1 General . 30
C.5.2 Conditioning and test conditions . 31
C.5.3 Field of vision . 31
C.5.4 Refractive powers . 33
C.5.5 Transmittance. 33
C.5.6 Reduced luminance coefficient . 34
C.5.7 Resistance to ultraviolet radiation . 34
C.5.8 Impact resistance . 35
C.5.9 Resistance to surface damage by fine particles . 36
C.5.10 Resistance to fogging . 36
C.5.11 Visual inspection . 36
C.5.12 Sit and fit . 36
Annex D (normative to Annex C) Photochromic sunglare oculars for use in twilight or at night
. 37
Annex E (normative to Annex C) Spectral functions for the calculation of luminous
transmittance and relative visual attenuation coefficients (quotients) . 38
Annex F (normative to Annex C) Spectral functions for the calculation of solar UV
transmittance values . 40
Annex G (normative to Annex C) Spectral function for the calculation of infrared
transmittance . 42
Annex H (normative to Annex C) Cut-on filter for UV filtering . 44
Annex I (normative to Annex C) Uncertainty of measurement and results interpretation . 46
Bibliography . 48

3

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SIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
European foreword
This document (FprCEN/TS 17946:2023) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 158 “Head
protection”, the secretariat of which is held by SIS.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TS.
CEN/TS 17946 is largely based on NTA 8776:2016-12, a document issued and adopted by Dutch standard
organization NEN that sets requirements for S-EPAC helmets. CEN/TS 17946 was originally proposed as
a European standard, but as multiple EU member states oblige users of all types of L1e-B categorized
vehicles to wear (only) a helmet that conforms to UNECE Regulation 22, the form of a CEN Technical
Specification was chosen to allow member states the choice whether or not to adopt this document.
’In order to be allowed to be used on S-EPACs on public roads and to place on the market in the
Netherlands, manufacturers are obliged by Dutch law to affix a mark of approval to the S-EPAC helmet.
The terms of use of the mark of approval are to be found in the certification scheme NCS 8776 see Annex
B.
Working Group 15 of CEN/TC 158 has reviewed NTA 8776:2016-12 and decided to fully adopt its
requirements into CEN/TS 17946. The only addition to NTA 8776:2016-12 is that in CEN/TS 17946
requirements for integrated visors into S-EPAC-helmets are adopted. An integrated visor is optional for
a S-EPAC-helmet as specified in this document. The requirements for integrated visors are largely based
on EN 1938 Personal eye protection — Goggles for motorcycle and moped users.
CEN/TS 17946 contains requirements for helmets for use by speed electrically power assisted bicycles
(S-EPACs). The S-EPAC is a product for which the European bicycle industry and consumers have
identified the need to provide users with a suitable helmet. In the new European regulation No 168/2013
on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles the S-EPAC is
classified as an L1e-B two-wheel moped. Although the electric power assistance will support the S-EPAC
user up to the speed of 45 km/h, the S-EPAC will require a considerable pedaling effort from the user.
The challenge for the bicycle and helmet industry therefore was to come up with a set of requirements
for an S-EPAC helmet that would provide an enhanced safety level compared to the
EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 bicycle helmet as a result of the higher speeds, but would likewise provide the
same comfort level for use in physical effort.
The bicycle and helmet industry together with other relevant stakeholders (government, test institutes)
made use of existing knowledge on head protection (a whole range of existing helmet standards,
literature and testing results) and defined requirements that are at the limits of the current technical
possibilities in the context of developing a ventilated, lightweight helmet with an increased safety level.
The result was NTA 8776:2016-12, a modified version of EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 Helmets for pedal
cyclists and for users of skateboards and roller skates. Significant modifications compared to
EN 1078:2012+A1:2012 are related to the shock absorbing capacity and test area. The test area is
enlarged in order to provide more protection of the temporal and occipital area of the head. For the
impact test the fall velocities are increased.

4

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SIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Introduction
The protection given by a helmet depends on the circumstances of the accident and wearing a helmet
cannot always prevent death or long-term disability.
A proportion of the energy of an impact is absorbed by the helmet, thereby reducing the force of the blow
sustained by the head. The structure of the helmet may be damaged in absorbing this energy and any
helmet that sustains a severe blow needs to be replaced even if damage is not apparent.
At the time this document was prepared, no standardized method for measuring the ventilating capacity
of a helmet was recognized. For that reason no requirements concerning ventilation or heat transmission
have been introduced. Manufacturers of helmets are urged to design their helmets to encourage a flow of
air over the wearer's head.

5

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SIST-TS FprCEN/TS 17946:2023
FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
1 Scope
This document specifies requirements and test methods for helmets worn by users of speed electrically
power assisted bicycles (S-EPACs). This document also specifies requirements and test methods for
integrated visors in helmets worn by users of S-EPACS.
Requirements and the corresponding methods of test are given for the following:
— construction, including field of vision;
— shock absorbing properties;
— retention system properties, including chin strap and fastening devices;
— marking and information.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 960:2006, Headforms for use in the testing of protective helmets
EN 165:2005, Personal eye-protection — Vocabulary
EN 167:2001, Personal eye-protection — Optical test methods
EN 168:2001, Personal eye-protection — Non-optical test methods
EN ISO 13688:2013, Protective clothing — General requirements
EN 1811, Reference test method for release of nickel from products intended to come into direct and
prolonged contact with the skin
EN 1836:2005+A1:2007, Personal eye-equipment — Sunglasses and sunglare filters for general use and
filters for direct observation of the sun
ISO 11664-1:2007, Colorimetry — Part 1: CIE standard colorimetric observers
ISO 11664-2:2007, Colorimetry — Part 2: CIE standard illuminants
ISO 6487, Road vehicles — Measurement techniques in impact tests — Instrumentation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
6

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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
3.1
speed electric power assisted cycle
S-EPAC
cycle designed to pedal having a mass in running order ≤ 35 kg, fitted with pedals enabling the vehicle to
be propelled solely by the rider’s muscular leg power, and having an auxiliary propulsion power added
to the driver’s pedal power which is less than or equal to four times the actual pedal power and does not
exceed 4 000 W, whereby the output of the auxiliary propulsion is cut off at a vehicle speed ≤ 45 km/h
Note 1 to entry: The S-EPAC is classified as vehicle category L1e-B in EU regulation No 168/2013. The defining
requirements for the S-EPAC is found in Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 3/2014 and subject to changes
made into this Commission Delegated Regulation.
3.2
protective helmet
item to be worn on the head and intended to absorb the energy of an impact, thus reducing the risk of
injury to the head
3.3
helmet type
category of helmets which does not differ in such essential respects as the materials or dimensions or
construction of the helmet, of the retention system or of the protective padding
3.4
protective padding
material used to absorb impact energy
3.5
comfort padding
lining material provided for the wearer's comfort
3.6
sizing padding
lining material used for adjustment of the helmet size
3.7
retention system
complete assembly by means of which the helmet is maintained in position on the head including any
devices for adjustment of the system or to enhance the wearer's comfort
3.8
chin strap
part of the retention system consisting of a strap that passes under the wearer's jaw to keep the helmet
in position
3.9
basic plane of the human head
plane at the level of the external ear opening (external auditory meatus) and the lower edge of the eye
sockets (orbits)
3.10
basic plane of a headform
plane relative to the headform that corresponds to the basic plane of the human head
7

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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
3.11
reference plane
construction plane parallel to the basic plane of the headform at a distance from it which is a function of
the size of the headform
3.12
test area
area of the helmet in which impact tests may be conducted which corresponds to the minimum protected
area of the human head
4 Requirements
4.1 Materials
For those parts of the helmet coming into contact with the skin, the material used should be known not
to undergo appreciable alteration from contact with sweat or with substances likely to be found in
toiletries.
The material used in those parts of the helmet coming, or that can come into contact with the skin, shall
not be known to cause skin disorders or other adverse effects on health in accordance with,
EN ISO 13688:2013, 4.2.
4.2 Construction
The helmet normally consists of a means of absorbing impact energy and means of retaining the helmet
on the head in an accident.
The helmet should be durable and withstand handling. The helmet shall be so designed and shaped that
parts of it (visor, rivets, ventilators, edges, fastening device and the like) do not to injure the user in
normal use.
NOTE Helmets should:
— have low weight;
— be ventilating;
— be easy to put on and take off;
— be usable with spectacles;
— not significantly interfere with the ability of the user to hear traffic noise.
4.3 Field of vision
When tested in accordance with 5.7 there shall be no occultation in the field of vision bounded by angles
as follows (see Figure 1):
— horizontally: min. 105° from the longitudinal vertical median plane to the left and right hand sides;
— upwards: min. 25° from the reference plane;
— downwards: min. 45° from the basic plane.
8

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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Dimensions in millimetres

a) Section of headform in longitudinal vertical plane

b) Section of headform in reference plane
Key
1 reference plane
2 basic plane
3 front
4 back
5 longitudinal vertical median plane
6 central transverse vertical plane
NOTE 1 Longitudinal vertical median plane – equivalent to EN 960:2006, 2.8 “vertical longitudinal plane”.
NOTE 2 Central transverse vertical plane – equivalent to EN 960:2006, 2.9 “vertical transverse plane”.
Figure 1 — Field of vision
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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
4.4 Shock absorbing capacity
The helmet shall give protection to the forehead, rear, sides, temples and crown of the head.
When tested in accordance with 5.3 and 5.4, the peak acceleration shall not, for each impact, exceed 250 g
+ 0,1 + 0,1
for the velocity of 6,5 m/s on the flat anvil, and 5,42 m/s on the kerbstone anvil.
0 0
NOTE These are theoretically equivalent to 2 154 mm and 1 497 mm drop heights respectively.
4.5 Durability
After being tested the helmet shall not exhibit damage that could cause significant injury to the wearer
(sharp edges, points).
4.6 Retention system
4.6.1 General
Means shall be provided for retaining the helmet on the wearer's head. All parts of the retention system
shall be securely attached to the helmet.
4.6.2 Chin strap
The chin strap shall not include a chin cup. Any chin strap shall be no less than 15 mm wide. Chin straps
may be fitted with means of enhancing comfort for the wearer.
4.6.3 Fastening device
Any retention system shall be fitted with a device to adjust and maintain tension in the system. The device
shall be capable of adjustment so that the buckle does not sit on the jaw bone.
4.6.4 Colour
No part of the retention system shall be coloured green.
It is recommended that the opening mechanism be marked with red or orange colour.
4.6.5 Strength
When tested in accordance with 5.5, the dynamic extension of the retention system shall not exceed
35 mm and the residual extension shall not exceed 25 mm. For this purpose, extension includes slippage
of the fastening device.
Damage to the retention system shall be accepted provided that the above requirements are met.
NOTE In this test, slippage of the fastening device can be measured and recorded separately from other
contributions to the extension but this is for information only and is not subject to a separate requirement.
4.6.6 Effectiveness
When tested in accordance with 5.6 the helmet shall not come off the headform.
4.6.7 Ease of release
Following the strength test in accordance with 5.5 and with the load still applied, it shall be possible to
open the release system with one hand.
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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
4.7 Integrated visors
If an integrated visor is included in the S-EPAC helmet the integrated visor shall comply with the
requirements in Annex C.
5 Testing
5.1 Headforms
The headforms used shall comply with EN 960:2006. The sizes in Table 1 shall be used, except for
determination of shock absorbing capacity, for which only size designations 495, 535, 575, 605 and 625
shall be used.
For determination of retention system strength and ease of release, the headforms used shall comply with
EN 960:2006 at least down from the basic plane.
NOTE Table 1 also gives the EN 960:1994 equivalent letter codes to the EN 960:2006 size designations for
headforms with similar nominal dimensions. These are as given in EN 960:2006, Annex C. The EN 960:2006 size
designation approximates to the circumference of the headform at the reference plane, in mm.
Table 1 — Sizes of headforms
Inside circumference of
Size designation
helmet
(EN 960:1994 equivalent) Mm
495 (A) 500
515 (C) 520
535 (E) 540
555 (G) 560
575 (J) 570
585 (K) 580
605 (M) 600
625 (O) 620

5.2 Inspection and determination of mass
Inspect the helmet to ascertain whether it is suitable for its intended purpose and fulfils the general
requirements in 4.2.
Determine the mass of the helmets of the same size submitted for testing. Calculate and record the mean
value in g rounded off to the nearest 10 g, stating the size of the helmet.
5.3 Number of samples and sequence of tests
For each helmet type, four helmets for each headform size that fits within the manufacturers' claimed
head size range shall be submitted for testing.
The sequence of tests performed on each helmet size and the tests performed on the same sample are
given in Table 2.
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FprCEN/TS 17946:2023 (E)
Table 2 — Sequence of test and tests per sample
Performance test Sequence of test Sample number
Retention system effectiveness (5.6) 1st 1 — —
Shock absorbing capacity (5.4) 2nd 1 2 3
Retention system strength (5.5) 3rd — 2 3

The fourth sample is reserved as a reference sample, which can be used by the test laboratory in case of
doubt about any of the performance requirements.
5.4 Determination of shock absorbing capacity
5.4.1 Test area
a) Place the helmet on a headform of appropriate size designation. Apply a vertical load of 50 N on the
crown of the helmet in order to stabilize the helmet on the headform. Position the front edge of the
helmet to meet the upward field of vision specified in 4.3 or to the manufacturer's normal wearing
position, if this is detailed by the manufacturer and results in greater than the specified upward
vision.
b) Draw a line on the
...

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