Extended application of results from fire resistance tests - Non-loadbearing walls - Part 5: Metal sandwich panel construction

This document defines rules for extended applications, provides guidance, and, where appropriate, defines procedures, for variations of certain parameters and factors associated with the design of internal and external non-loadbearing walls constructed of metal sandwich panels and that have been tested in accordance with EN 1364-1, which could generate a classification in accordance with EN 13501-2.
EN 15254-5 applies for self-supporting, double skin metal faced sandwich panels having an insulating core bonded to both facings as defined in EN 14509.

Erweiterter Anwendungsbereich der Ergebnisse von Feuerwiderstandsprüfungen - Nichttragende Wände - Teil 5: Sandwichelemente in Metallbauweise

Dieses Dokument definiert Regeln für erweiterte Anwendungsbereiche, enthält Leitlinien und legt, falls erforderlich, Verfahren für Änderungen von bestimmten Parametern und Faktoren fest, die mit der Bauweise von nichttragenden Innen- und Außenwänden zusammenhängen, die aus Sandwichelementen in Metallbauweise (im Folgenden als "Sandwichelement" bezeichnet) bestehen und die nach EN 1364-1 geprüft wurden, was zu einer Klassifizierung nach EN 13501-2 führen könnte.
EN 15254-5 gilt für selbsttragende Sandwichelemente mit beidseitigen Metalldeckschichten und einem Kern aus Wärmedämmstoff, der, wie in EN 14509 definiert, mit beiden Deckschichten verklebt ist.

Application étendue des résultats d'essais de résistance au feu - Murs non porteurs - Partie 5 : Panneaux sandwiches métalliques pour la construction

Le présent document définit les règles pour les applications étendues, expose les lignes directrices et, le cas échéant, définit des procédures pour les modifications de certains paramètres et facteurs liés à la conception de murs internes et externes non porteurs en panneaux sandwiches métalliques et qui ont été soumis à essai conformément à l’EN 1364-1, pouvant générer une classification conformément à l’EN 13501-2.
L’EN 15254-5 s’applique aux panneaux sandwiches autoportants, à deux parements métalliques comportant une âme isolante liée aux deux parements métalliques tels que définis dans l’EN 14509.

Razširjena uporaba rezultatov preskusov požarne odpornosti - Nenosilne stene - 5. del: Konstrukcije iz kovinskih sendvič panelov

Ta evropski standard določa pravila za razširjeno uporabo, zagotavlja navodila in po potrebi določa postopke za odstopanja nekaterih parametrov in faktorjev, povezanih z obliko notranjih in zunanjih nenosilnih sten, zgrajenih iz kovinskih sendvič panelov, preskušenih v skladu s standardom EN 1364-1.
Standard EN 15254-5 se uporablja za samonosilne dvoslojne kovinske sendvič panele z izoliranim jedrom, vezanim na obe strani, kot je določeno v standardu EN 14509.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Apr-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
25-Apr-2018
Completion Date
25-Apr-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Erweiterter Anwendungsbereich der Ergebnisse von Feuerwiderstandsprüfungen - Nichttragende Wände - Teil 5: Sandwichelemente in MetallbauweiseApplication étendue des résultats des essais de résistance au feu - Murs non porteurs - Partie 5 : Panneaux sandwiches métalliques pour la constructionExtended application of results from fire resistance tests - Non-loadbearing walls - Part 5: Metal sandwich panel construction91.060.10Stene. Predelne stene. FasadeWalls. Partitions. Facades13.220.50Požarna odpornost gradbenih materialov in elementovFire-resistance of building materials and elementsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15254-5:2018SIST EN 15254-5:2018en,fr,de01-oktober-2018SIST EN 15254-5:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 15254-5:20101DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 15254-5:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 15254-5
April
t r s z ICS
s uä t t rä w râ
{ sä r x rä s r Supersedes EN
s w t w væ wã t r r {English Version

Extended application of results from fire resistance tests æ Nonæloadbearing walls æ Part

wã Metal sandwich panel construction Application étendue des résultats d 5essais de résistance au feu æ Murs non porteurs æ Partie

w ã Panneaux sandwiches métalliques pour la construction Erweiterter Anwendungsbereich der Ergebnisse von Feuerwiderstandsprüfungen æ Nichttragende Wände æ Teil

wã Sandwichelemente in Metallbauweise This European Standard was approved by CEN on

z January
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s w t w væ wã t r s z ESIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................... 3 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................... 4 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................... 4 3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations ........................................................... 4 3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................... 4 3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................... 6 4 Establishing the field of extended application ..................................................................... 7 4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.2 Assumptions in the extended application .............................................................................. 7 5 Rules for extended applications of the tested product/construction .......................... 8 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................ 8 5.2 Variations in the materials of the product .......................................................................... 10 5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 10 5.2.2 Variations in the metal sheets ................................................................................................. 10 5.2.3 Variations in the adhesive ........................................................................................................ 11 5.2.4 Variations in the core material ............................................................................................... 11 5.3 Variations in the construction ................................................................................................. 12 5.3.1 Variations in span length .......................................................................................................... 12 5.3.2 Variations in orientation ........................................................................................................... 14 5.3.3 Variations in the panel thickness ........................................................................................... 14 5.3.4 Variations in the longitudinal joint construction ............................................................. 15 5.3.5 Variations in the boundary conditions and fixing system ............................................. 15 5.3.6 Length and height of wall construction ................................................................................ 15 5.4 Interaction between the factor influences .......................................................................... 15 5.5 Support structure ......................................................................................................................... 15 5.6 Heating conditions ....................................................................................................................... 16 6 Calculation methods and additional measurements....................................................... 16 6.1 Calculation methods .................................................................................................................... 16 6.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 16 6.1.2 Calculation of strength properties ......................................................................................... 16 6.2 Additional measurements to be carried out in the reference test ............................. 16 7 Report of the extended application analysis ...................................................................... 17 Annex A

(informative)

Typical behaviour of a metal faced sandwich panel wall when exposed to fire ............................................................................................................................... 18 Annex B (normative)

Evaluation of extension of span length ..................................................... 19 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................. 22 SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 15254-5:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 127 “Fire safety in buildings”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 15254-5:2009. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. This standard is currently composed of the following parts: — EN 15254-2, Extended application of results from fire resistance tests — Non-loadbearing walls — Part 2: Masonry and Gypsum Blocks; — EN 15254-4, Extended application of results from fire resistance tests — Non-loadbearing walls — Part 4: Glazed constructions; — EN 15254-5, Extended application of results from fire resistance tests — Non-loadbearing walls — Part 5: Metal sandwich panel construction; —

EN 15254-6, Extended application of results from fire resistance tests — Non-loadbearing walls — Part 6: Curtain walling; — EN 15254-7, Extended application of results from fire resistance tests — Non-loadbearing walls — Part 7: Non-load bearing sandwich panels — Ceilings. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 4 1 Scope This document defines rules for extended applications, provides guidance, and, where appropriate, defines procedures, for variations of certain parameters and factors associated with the design of internal and external non-loadbearing walls constructed of metal sandwich panels and that have been tested in accordance with EN 1364-1, which could generate a classification in accordance with EN 13501-2. EN 15254-5 applies for self-supporting, double skin metal faced sandwich panels having an insulating core bonded to both facings as defined in EN 14509. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 1363-1, Fire resistance tests — Part 1: General Requirements EN 1363-2, Fire resistance tests — Part 2: Alternative and additional procedures EN 1364-1, Fire resistance tests for non-loadbearing elements — Part 1: Walls EN 1993-1-2, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1-2: General rules — Structural fire design EN 13501-2, Fire classification of construction products and building elements — Part 2: Classification using data from fire resistance tests, excluding ventilation services EN 14509, Self-supporting double skin metal faced insulating panels — Factory made products - Specifications EN 15725, Extended application reports on the fire performance of construction products and building elements EN ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary (ISO 13943) 3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14509, EN 15725, EN 1364-1, EN 1363-1 and EN ISO 13943 the following apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses: — IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/ — ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 5 3.1.1 direct field of application of test results outcome of a process (involving the application of defined rules) whereby a test result is deemed to be equally valid for variations in one or more of the product properties and/or intended end-use applications 3.1.2 extended field of application of test results outcome of a process (involving the application of defined rules that may incorporate calculation procedures) that predicts, for a variation of a product property and/or its intended end-use application(s), a test result on the basis of one or more test results to the same test standard 3.1.3 factor variation that may be applied to a parameter, e.g. a change in the core thickness 3.1.4 factor influence potential cause of a change in the fire resistance when the factor is changed, e.g. an increase in fire resistance as result of an increase of the thickness of the core 3.1.5 fastening fixing component that fastens the panels to a support structure or to the test frame 3.1.6 fixing system system consisting of fastenings and possible other means to fasten the panels to a support structure or to the test frame 3.1.7 height of assembly height of the wall in the reference test or in the end-use application for horizontally or vertically installed wall panels 3.1.8 length of assembly length of the wall in the reference test or in the end-use application for horizontally or vertically installed wall panels 3.1.9 reference test fire resistance test in accordance with EN 1363-1 and EN 1364-1, and where applicable EN 1363-2, on which the extended application is based and the results of which are used as the main source of data for the extended application 3.1.10 stitching component for fixing panels to panels in the longitudinal joint SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 6 3.1.11 span length centre to centre distance between the supports of a panel and/or intermediate supports to which the sandwich panel is fixed 3.1.12 support structure construction onto which the panel wall is fastened in the end-use application 3.1.13 test frame frame containing the test construction for the purpose of mounting onto the furnace 3.2 Symbols and abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply. E etanchéité F load Ft,Ed the tensile load on the fasteners Fv,Ed the shear load on the fasteners Ft,Rd the design tensile load on the fastener at normal temperature Fv,Rd the design shear load on the fastener at normal temperature I isolation L span length L1 distance between midspan of two adjacent panels L2 overlap of the metal facing at the panel to panel joint PCS gross calorific potential R resistance, loadbearing capacity b width of panel c1 opening in adjacent metal sheet joints at normal room temperature on unexposed side c2 opening in adjacent metal sheet joints during the reference test on unexposed side dc depth of core fj deflection of panel to panel joint in the reference test (deflection into the furnace to be taken as positive) f1, f2 deflection of two adjacent panels at midspan in the reference test (deflection into the furnace to be taken as positive) g panel weight per square meter k yield strength factor n number of fasteners q pressure action on the panel in a fire situation

relative increase in opening of the metal sheet joint in the reference test

relative deflection of the joint compared to the adjacent panels in the reference test (to be calculated taking into account the positive and negative directions of the deflections) SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 7 4 Establishing the field of extended application 4.1 General An extended application analysis is required when the application differs in one or more parameters from the tested one described in the test report and/or in the classification document, and which is not covered by the direct field of application of the classification document. Extended application is a prediction of the expected fire resistance of fire resistant metal faced sandwich panels. It may be based on interpolation between or extrapolation from test data. The fundamental consideration shall be that the fire resistant metal faced sandwich panels after extension would achieve the required fire performance if it were to be tested according to EN 1364-1. The extended application of test results from metal faced sandwich panels used as a non-loadbearing wall shall be based on the reference fire test results performed according to EN 1364-1 and may be complemented by one or more additional tests. The general rules in EN 15725 shall be followed. 4.2 Assumptions in the extended application The following assumptions are considered when evaluating extended applications for sandwich panels: a) the wall is required to provide fire resistance in the end-use condition; relevant classes are given in EN 13501-2; b) the wall is assumed to be exposed on the entire face of one side to the standardized heating conditions given in the EN 1363-1 fire resistance test specification or to alternative and additional procedures given in the EN 1363-2; c) the structure above and below the wall does not deflect vertically during the fire exposure period; this simulates the non-deflecting nature of the test frame which forms part of the furnace test apparatus; In reality constructions deflect and this should be taken into account by the building designer when designing the building and planning the constructional details so that no vertical loads are applied to the wall. d) after delamination of the fire-exposed facing the dead load of the sandwich panels is carried by a support structure to which the ends of the sandwich panels are attached; e) the support structure has at least the same loadbearing capacity, R, of the resistance to fire performance as the sandwich panel wall regarding integrity; f) the self weight of the facing and core is calculated from the volume and density of the materials; g) the calculation of the reduction in the strength properties of steel at elevated temperature shall be in accordance with EN 1993-1-2. SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 8 5 Rules for extended applications of the tested product/construction 5.1 General When performing extended applications for a tested wall changes can occur either in the materials and/or in the construction. Both are dealt with in this standard. Table 1 and Table 2 list the changes which may or may not be made in an extended application assessment. The rules for the changes are given in 5.2 and 5.3. Table 1 — Material changes relevant to extended application Parameter Factors Factor influence on performance Rules Integrity E Insulation I Changes in metal facings Chemical composition of coating influence no influence a 5.2.2.1 Change from coated to non coated metal influence influence 5.2.2.1 Sheet thickness influence no influence a Allowed up to ± 0,2 mm of tested thickness. Change from one metal to another no information no information 5.2.2.2 Change in sheet geometry no information no information 5.2.2.3 Changes in adhesive Amount influence influence 5.2.3 Type influence no influence a 5.2.3 Changes in core material Type major influence major influence 5.2.4 Change in composition. major influence major influence 5.2.4.2 - 5.2.4.6 a It is understood that when a change in a factor can influence the integrity of a joint, there is a possibility that a change in the leakage of hot gases or in joint geometry can also influence the temperature rise near the joint and therefore influence the insulation rating. SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 9 Table 2 — Constructional changes relevant to extended application Parameter Factors Factor influence on performance Rules Integrity E Insulation I Span length Decrease no influence no influence a Allowed Increase influence no influence a 5.3.1 Orientation

influence no influence a 5.3.2 Panel width Decrease no influence no influence a Test results valid Increase influence no influence a Test results valid up to + 20 % Panel thickness e.g. core thickness Decrease Increase no information major influence 5.3.3 Joint construction Type major influence major influence 5.3.4 Stiching decreased influence influence Not allowed Stiching increased influence influence 5.3.4 Sealants influence influence 5.3.4 Fixing system Type major influence no influence a 5.3.5 Amount decreased major influence no influence a 5.3.5 Amount increased influence no influence a Allowed Protection decreased major influence influence 5.3.5 Protection increased influence influence Allowed Length of assembly Vertical installation no influence no influence a 5.3.6 Horizontal installation

See span length 5.3.1 Height of assembly Vertical installation

See span length 5.3.1 Horizontal installation influence no influence a 5.3.6 Support structure Changes no information no influence a 5.5 a It is understood that when a change in a factor can influence the integrity of a joint, there is a possibility that a change in the leakage of hot gases or in joint geometry can also influence the temperature rise near the joint and therefore influence the insulation rating. SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 10 5.2 Variations in the materials of the product 5.2.1 General Metal faced sandwich panels consist of three main materials (facing metal sheets, adhesive and core material). In the case of auto adhesively bonded panels the foamed core material also forms the adhesive layer during the foaming process. Changes in the properties of the metal sheets will not affect the fire resistance results significantly and changes can therefore be allowed. On the other hand even small changes in the core material can result in big variations in the fire resistance test results. These facts are taken into account in the following rules. 5.2.2 Variations in the metal sheets 5.2.2.1 Variations in the coatings The most essential property of the coating regarding fire resistance is the emissivity on the unexposed side. Normally the emissivity for a coated steel sheet is between 0,8 and 0,95. A change in emissivity of - 10 % for a new coating compared to the tested one is thus allowed if there is at least a 10 % margin in the insulation test result compared to the I-classification. Test results are always valid for coatings with higher emissivity values compared to the tested one. When a change in coating is made the manufacturer of the coated sheet shall provide emissivity properties for the products. A non-coated metal sheet can have an emissivity as low as 0,1. A change from a coated to a non-coated sheet is therefore not allowed. The same rule as for coatings above applies also in this case. A change in emissivity of - 10 % is allowed if the emissivities for the different sheets are known. The energy content of the coating on the exposed side is small and will not affect the fire resistance properties of the sandwich panel. Test results are valid for all coatings. If modifications in the coatings on the unexposed side are made compared to the tested one, the reaction to fire classification of the product shall be the same or better than the tested one. Test results are though valid for all colours of the same type of coating. 5.2.2.2 Variations in the metal material The following rules are valid for extended applications: a) when steel is tested the test results are valid for all grades of steel; NOTE For more information regarding metal faces see EN 14509. b) when stainless steel is tested the test results are valid for all grades of stainless steel; c) for other types of metals the test result is valid for tested type only. 5.2.2.3 Changes in profile geometry of facing The following rules are valid for extended applications: a) Panels with different metal thicknesses on both sides are regarded as symmetrical if difference in thickness is max. 0,2 mm. b) For panels with flat or small profiling (between 0 mm and 5 mm) on one or both sides test results are valid for any change in the range 0 mm to 5 mm profiling and panels are SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 11 regarded as symmetrical. This is allowable only if the declared tensile strength value is equal or higher than for the tested panel. c) For profiles greater than 5 mm test results are valid for variations ± 50 % of the depth of the profile as long as dc is not reduced. See Figure 1. 5.2.3 Variations in the adhesive This paragraph is valid only for panels with adhesively bonded cores. The following rules apply for an adhesive with no strength at high temperatures (>500 °C) which means that the metal sheet on the exposed side will disconnect from the core in the very beginning of a fire and the construction will lose its sandwich capability. For this reason an organic adhesive cannot be changed to a non-organic one or vice versa. Normally the energy content of the adhesive is small and will not affect the fire resistance properties of the sandwich panel. The following rules are valid for extended applications: a) For panels tested with PCS values of the adhesive

¶ 4 MJ/m2, the results are valid for all adhesives when PCS value stays below 4 MJ/m2. b) For panels tested with PCS value of the adhesive > 4 MJ/m2, the results are valid for all PCS values of the adhesive up to 1,15 x PCS of the tested one. c) For panels tested with PCS value of the adhesive > 4 MJ/m2 and > 1,15 x PCS, test results in minutes shall be reduced by the same percentage as the PCS value is over the initial tested adhesive. 5.2.4 Variations in the core material 5.2.4.1 General Main core materials are defined in EN 14509. The behaviour regarding fire is different and cannot be compared. Changes from one core material to another are therefore not allowed. Variations within each core material type are allowed in accordance with the rules given in 5.2.4.2 to 5.2.4.6. There are several factors in the different core materials that affect the fire properties of the core and of the sandwich panel. It is therefore not possible to extend the results from one core material producer to another core material producer. 5.2.4.2 Mineral wool (MW) Generally the greater the density of the mineral wool the higher is the flexural strength of the panel. Density will be dictated by room-temperature structural design requirements. However, variation in density affects the I-insulation value. The results are always valid for an increase in density in the density range 50 kg/m3 to 150 kg/m3. A decrease in density is allowed down to

«10 % of tested density. Structural design will govern the orientation of fibres, i.e. lamellas or slabs used in the panels. Changes in orientation of fibre has an influence on fire resistance and is therefore not allowed. Gaps between the lamellas or ends of lamella or slabs should be avoided. Test results are valid for panels with a decrease in the number of lamella or slab joints. The organic content in mass percentage is governed by room temperature strength of the core. Variation in organic content can affect the fire resistance properties and the following rules shall be followed: a) A smaller amount of organic content is always allowed compared to the tested one; SIST EN 15254-5:2018

EN15254-5:2018 (E) 12 b) An increase in organic content of 0,5 percentage points or up to 20 % of tested amount is allowed if the total amount of organic content is below 10 %. For example a result with 5 % organic content is valid also for a core with 6 % and a result with 2 % for a core with 2,5 %. An increase is not allowed where the organic content is greater than 10 %. The nature and proportions of materials used to manufacture the MW fibres shall not be different from those used in the reference test. 5.2.4.3 Polyurethane (PUR) and polyisocyanurate (PIR) The test results are valid for the same chemical system and blowing agent. The test results are valid for ± 10 % of tested density. 5.2.4.4 Extruded polystyrene (XPS) and expanded polystyrene (EPS) No extended application is allowed. 5.2.4.5 Phenolic foam (PF) The test results are valid for the same chemical system and blowing agent. The test results are valid for ± 10 % of tested density. 5.2.4.6 Cellular glass (CG) No extended application is allowed. 5.3 Variations in the construction 5.3.1 Variations in span length Two aspects of integrity shall be assessed. First the ability of the whole panel assembly to resist collapse shall be assessed when the adhesive bond fails on the exposed side and the panels lose their flexural strength. To resist collapse the ends of the panel facings shall be secured to the structure using suspension details (e.g. steel cleats with fastenings). The strength of the suspension details shall be able to carry the dead loads at the temperatures they attain from an increased load of a longer span panel. This can be achieved by increasing the amount of fixings so that the load per fixing is not greater than the tested one or by calculation in accordance with 6.1.2. The second aspect of integrity to be assessed shall be the ability of joints between adjoining sandwich panels to resist the passage of fire. In horizontally oriented panels, which span between columns or walls, both facings are subjected to in-plane shear stresses analogous to the pattern of stresses in the web of a steel I-beam. The stresses can be accompanied by out-of-plane deformations caused by gravity and the prevention of free thermal expansion at the ends of the facings when exposed to fire. Hence the stresses and deformations are complex in nature and because the facings are usually thin, typically 0,5 mm thick, they can suffer buckling and sagging which means that openings can occur at horizontal panel joints, especially at midspan, leading to unpredictable failure of integrity. In vertically oriented panels, it is assumed that after delamination the faces hang from the top: the fastenings for the top of the fire-exposed face shall support the dead load of that face whereas the fastenings for the top of the unexposed face shall supp

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