Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 392: Ergonomic recommendations for the reduction of visual fatigue from stereoscopic images (ISO 9241-392:2015)

ISO 9241-392:2015 establishes recommendations for reducing the potential visual discomfort and visual fatigue experienced during viewing of stereoscopic images under defined viewing conditions. Visual fatigue and discomfort might be produced by the stereoscopic optical stimulus of disparate images that were presented binocularly.
ISO 9241-392:2015 is also applicable to the final products of stereoscopic presentations which depend on stereoscopic image content and stereoscopic displays when viewed under appropriate defined conditions. Therefore, the recommendations are intended for people responsible for the design, development, and supply of stereoscopic image content as well as stereoscopic displays.
NOTE 1 See Annex B for appropriate viewing conditions.
The recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are applicable to stereoscopic displays such as those with glasses and two-view autostereoscopic displays, stereoscopic head-mounted displays, and stereoscopic projectors. Moreover, they are applicable to stereoscopic image content intended to be presented on the above-mentioned stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic presentations that are realized by the combinations of these images and displays.
NOTE 2 Annex C presents numerical criteria as an informative reference.
NOTE 3 Other guidance might need to be established by referring to this part of ISO 9241 when requirements and recommendations specific to each type of stereoscopic image content or stereoscopic display become necessary.
NOTE 4 ITU generally sets the standards for broadcasting.
NOTE 5 ISO 9241‑303:2011, Annex E provides guidelines for virtual displays which are intended for stereoscopic head-mounted displays.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 392: Ergonomische Anforderungen zur Reduktion visueller Ermüdung durch stereoskopische Bilder (ISO 9241-392:2015)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 392: Exigences ergonomiques pour diminuer la fatigue visuelle induite par des images stéréoscopiques (ISO 9241-392:2015)

L'ISO 9241-392:2015 fournit des recommandations visant à réduire la gêne et la fatigue visuelles éventuelles ressenties lors de l'observation d'images stéréoscopiques dans des conditions d'observations définies. La gêne et la fatigue visuelles peuvent être dues au stimulus optique stéréoscopique d'images disparates présentées de façon binoculaire.
L'ISO 9241-392:2015 est également applicable aux produits finaux des présentations stéréoscopiques, lesquels dépendent des contenus d'images stéréoscopiques et des écrans stéréoscopiques, lorsque ceux-ci sont observés dans des conditions définies appropriées. En conséquence, les recommandations concernent les personnes en charge de la conception, du développement et de la fourniture de contenus d'images stéréoscopiques; elles concernent également les écrans stéréoscopiques.
Les recommandations de l'ISO 9241-392:2015 sont applicables aux écrans stéréoscopiques, tels que ceux utilisant des lunettes stéréoscopiques, des écrans autostéréoscopiques deux-vues, des visiocasques et des projecteurs stéréoscopiques. En outre, elles sont applicables aux contenus d'images stéréoscopiques destinés à être présentés sur les écrans stéréoscopiques mentionnés ci-dessus, ainsi qu'aux présentations stéréoscopiques réalisées par les combinaisons de ces images et de ces affichages.

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 392. del: Ergonomska priporočila za zmanjšanje vizualne utrujenosti zaradi gledanja stereoskopskih slik (ISO 9241-392:2015)

ISO 9241-392:2015 vzpostavlja priporočila za zmanjšanje morebitnega vizualnega neugodja ali utrujenosti zaradi gledanja stereoskopskih slik pod določenimi pogoji gledanja. Do vizualne utrujenosti ali neugodja lahko pride zaradi stereoskopskega optičnega dražljaja pri gledanju različnih binokularno predstavljenih slik.
ISO 9241-392:2015 se uporablja tudi za končne proizvode stereoskopskih predstavitev, ki so odvisni od vsebine stereoskopske slike in stereoskopskih prikazovalnikov pri gledanju pod ustreznimi določenimi pogoji. Priporočila so zato namenjena osebam, odgovornim za oblikovanje, razvoj in posredovanje vsebine stereoskopskih slik ter stereoskopskih prikazovalnikov.
OPOMBA 1: Za ustrezne pogoje gledanja glej dodatek B.
Priporočila v tem delu standarda ISO 9241 se uporabljajo za stereoskopske prikazovalnike, kot so prikazovalniki z očali in samostereoskopski prikazovalniki z dvojnim pogledom, stereoskopski naglavni prikazovalniki in stereoskopski projektorji. Poleg tega se uporabljajo za vsebino stereoskopskih slik, namenjeno za predstavitev z zgoraj omenjenimi stereoskopskimi prikazovalniki, in stereoskopske predstavitve, upodobljene s kombinacijo teh slik in prikazovalnikov.
OPOMBA 2: Dodatek C podaja številska merila kot informativno referenco.
OPOMBA 3: V primeru potrebnih zahtev in priporočil, specifičnih za posamezno vrsto vsebine stereoskopskih slik ali stereoskopskega prikazovalnika, je treba vzpostaviti druga navodila ob sklicevanju na ta del standarda ISO 9241.
OPOMBA 4: Standarde za oddajanje običajno pripravi Mednarodna zveza za telekomunikacije.
OPOMBA 5: ISO 9241 303:2011, dodatek E podaja smernice za virtualne prikazovalnike, ki so namenjeni za uporabo kot stereoskopski naglavni prikazovalniki.

General Information

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Published
Publication Date
28-Feb-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
01-Mar-2017
Completion Date
01-Mar-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
01-september-2017
(UJRQRPLMDPHGVHERMQHJDYSOLYDþORYHNVLVWHPGHO(UJRQRPVND

SULSRURþLOD]D]PDQMãDQMHYL]XDOQHXWUXMHQRVWL]DUDGLJOHGDQMDVWHUHRVNRSVNLKVOLN

,62
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 392: Ergonomic recommendations for
the reduction of visual fatigue from stereoscopic images (ISO 9241-392:2015)

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 392: Ergonomische Anforderungen zur

Reduktion visueller Ermüdung durch stereoskopische Bilder (ISO 9241-392:2015)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 392: Exigences ergonomiques pour

diminuer la fatigue visuelle induite par des images stéréoscopiques (ISO 9241-392:2015)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
35.180 Terminalska in druga IT Terminal and other
periferna oprema IT peripheral equipment
SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
EN ISO 9241-392
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.180; 35.180
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 392:
Ergonomic recommendations for the reduction of visual
fatigue from stereoscopic images (ISO 9241-392:2015)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 392:

392: Exigences ergonomiques pour diminuer la fatigue Ergonomische Anforderungen zur Reduktion visueller

visuelle induite par des images stéréoscopiques (ISO Ermüdung durch stereoskopische Bilder (ISO 9241-

9241-392:2015) 392:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 February 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9241-392:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
EN ISO 9241-392:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
EN ISO 9241-392:2017 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 9241-392:2015 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159 “Ergonomics” of

the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN

ISO 9241-392:2017 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of which is held

by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9241-392:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 9241-392:2017 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9241-392
First edition
2015-05-15
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 392:
Ergonomic recommendations for
the reduction of visual fatigue from
stereoscopic images
Ergonomie de l’interaction homme-système —
Partie 392: Exigences ergonomiques pour diminuer la fatigue visuelle
induite par des images stéréoscopiques
Reference number
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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copyright@iso.org
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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Guiding concepts .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 Framework ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Review of factors ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Interocular geometric differences .................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.3 Interocular photometric differences .............................................................................................................. 5

4.2.4 Interocular photometric interaction............................................................................................................... 6

4.2.5 Accommodation-convergence mismatch.................................................................................................... 6

4.2.6 Other factors to be considered for stereoscopic presentation ................................................. 7

4.2.7 Summary ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5 Ergonomic recommendations .............................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Viewing conditions ...........................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.2 Design viewing distance .........................................................................................................................................10

5.2.3 Interpupillary distance ............................................................................................................................................10

5.3 Interocular geometrical differences ..................................................................................................................................11

5.3.1 Interocular vertical misalignment .................................................................................................................11

5.3.2 Interocular rotational misalignment ...........................................................................................................11

5.3.3 Interocular magnification difference ..........................................................................................................11

5.4 Interocular photometric differences .................................................................................................................................11

5.4.1 Interocular luminance difference ...................................................................................................................11

5.4.2 Interocular contrast difference ........................................................................................................................12

5.4.3 Interocular chromaticity difference .............................................................................................................12

5.5 Interocular photometric interaction .................................................................................................................................12

5.5.1 Crosstalk...............................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6 Accommodation — convergence mismatch ...............................................................................................................12

5.7 Other factors to be considered for stereoscopic presentation ...................................................................13

6 How to use the ergonomic recommendations ....................................................................................................................13

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Report ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Overview of the ISO 9241- series .............................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Viewing conditions .................................................................................................................................................15

Annex C (informative) Numerical values to be considered for assessment of visual fatigue

and discomfort .....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex D (informative) Other factors to be considered for stereoscopic presentations ..............................27

Annex E (informative) Sample procedure for assessing applicability and conformance ...........................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................31

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement..

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary Information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4, Human-

system interaction.

ISO 9241 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomic requirements for office work

with visual display terminals (VDTs):
— Part 1: General introduction
— Part 2: Guidance on task requirements
— Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements
— Part 6: Guidance on the work environment
— Part 11: Guidance on usability
— Part 12: Presentation of information
— Part 13: User guidance
— Part 14: Menu dialogues
— Part 15: Command dialogues
— Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogues

ISO 9241 also consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomics of human-system interaction:

— Part 20: Accessibility guidelines for information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services

— Part 110: Dialogue principles
— Part 129: Guidance on software individualization
— Part 143: Forms
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
— Part 151: Guidance on World Wide Web user interfaces
— Part 154: Interactive voice response (IVR) applications
— Part 171: Guidance on software accessibility
— Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems
— Part 300: Introduction to electronic visual display requirements
— Part 302: Terminology for electronic visual displays
— Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual displays
— Part 304: User performance test methods for electronic visual displays
— Part 305: Optical laboratory test methods for electronic visual displays
— Part 306: Field assessment methods for electronic visual displays
— Part 307: Analysis and compliance test methods for electronic visual displays
— Part 308: Surface-conduction electron-emitter displays (SED)
— Part 309: Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays
— Part 310: Visibility, aesthetics and ergonomics of pixel defects
— Part 331: Optical characteristics of autostereoscopic displays
— Part 400: Principles and requirements for physical input devices
— Part 410: Design criteria for physical input devices
— Part 420: Selection of physical input devices
— Part 910: Framework for tactile and haptic interaction
— Part 920: Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions
For the other parts under preparation, see Annex A.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
Introduction

When a person views a three-dimensional object, the lateral distance between the eyes provides

each with a slightly different retinal image. The fusion of these retinal images by the brain provides a

single percept with an associated sense of depth termed as stereopsis. Recent advances in the imaging

technology have created a notable increase in our chances of viewing artificially-created stereoscopic

images. The technology creates two different images, one of which is seen by one eye and the other by

the other eye. Their fusion results in the sensation of stereopsis.

Stereoscopic images are appealing because of their heightened sense of reality compared with the

traditional 2D images. Presentations of stereoscopic images also provide clear depth information and, for

this reason, the broad use of stereoscopic images is anticipated in fields such as medicine and industry.

However, there are scientific data indicating that without careful consideration of the properties of the

human visual system, the stereoscopic presentation of images might induce undesirable effects.

This part of ISO 9241 describes the basic and minimal conditions for comfortable viewing of stereoscopic

images. It is intended to promote an environment in which viewers can enjoy the benefits of stereoscopic

images without adverse effects. In such an environment, new technologies for stereoscopic images can

also be actively developed and applied in various fields. This part of ISO 9241 is not intended to restrict

the freedom of expression or artistic creativity in the image culture.

This part of ISO 9241 is based on scientific findings related to the possible undesirable effects of viewing

stereoscopic images and in the future, this part of ISO 9241 can be revised as new scientific data.

This part of ISO 9241 specifies human–system interaction standards. Readers who need guidance

on other aspects of human–system interaction can therefore refer to other documents in ISO 9241

(see Annex A for an overview of the entire ISO 9241 series).
vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 392:
Ergonomic recommendations for the reduction of visual
fatigue from stereoscopic images
1 Scope

This part of ISO 9241 establishes recommendations for reducing the potential visual discomfort and

visual fatigue experienced during viewing of stereoscopic images under defined viewing conditions.

Visual fatigue and discomfort might be produced by the stereoscopic optical stimulus of disparate

images that were presented binocularly.

This part of ISO 9241 is also applicable to the final products of stereoscopic presentations which

depend on stereoscopic image content and stereoscopic displays when viewed under appropriate

defined conditions. Therefore, the recommendations are intended for people responsible for the design,

development, and supply of stereoscopic image content as well as stereoscopic displays.

NOTE 1 See Annex B for appropriate viewing conditions.

The recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are applicable to stereoscopic displays such as those with

glasses and two-view autostereoscopic displays, stereoscopic head-mounted displays, and stereoscopic

projectors. Moreover, they are applicable to stereoscopic image content intended to be presented on

the above-mentioned stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic presentations that are realized by the

combinations of these images and displays.
NOTE 2 Annex C presents numerical criteria as an informative reference.

NOTE 3 Other guidance might need to be established by referring to this part of ISO 9241 when requirements and

recommendations specific to each type of stereoscopic image content or stereoscopic display become necessary.

NOTE 4 ITU generally sets the standards for broadcasting.

NOTE 5 ISO 9241-303:2011, Annex E provides guidelines for virtual displays which are intended for stereoscopic

head-mounted displays.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9241-303, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual displays

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
stereopsis
binocular, visual perception of depth or three-dimensional space
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.3.40.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
3.2
binocular parallax

apparent difference in the position of an object as seen separately by one eye and by the other while the

head remains in a fixed position
Note 1 to entry: See ISO/TR 9241-331:2012, 2.2.1.

Note 2 to entry: Extent of binocular parallax of a point is equivalent to the optic angle between the visual axes of

both eyes when they are fixated on the point.
3.3
horizontal disparity

difference in the relative position of visual images of an object on the two retinas

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.5.26.
3.4
vergence angle
angle between the visual axes of the left and right eyes
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.5.55.
3.5
accommodation

adjustment of the optics of an eye to keep an object in focus on the retina as its distance from the eye varies

Note 1 to entry: Accommodation can also be a process of adjusting the focal length of a lens.

Note 2 to entry: Accommodation can also refer to an increase in the power of a lens of an eye.

Note 3 to entry: See ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.5.1.
3.6
visual global motion

wide spatial range of visual motion composed of different velocities and directions that are systematically

aligned in a moving image

Note 1 to entry: There are generally six types of visual global motion that correspond to the different types of

motion of a camera during the shooting of images which are rotation around and translation along the pitch, yaw,

and roll axes.
3.7
stereoscopic display

display device or system that makes depth perception possible as a result of binocular parallax (3.2)

Note 1 to entry: People perceive depth owing to the retinal disparity produced by binocular parallax.

3.8
stereoscopic image content

set of image information that results in stereoscopic images (3.9) when shown on a stereoscopic display (3.7)

3.9
stereoscopic images
set of images presented on a stereoscopic display
3.10
stereoscopic presentation
presentation of stereoscopic images on a stereoscopic display
3.11
stereoscopic view

single sight produced as a consequence of fusion of left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation

(3.10) which induces stereopsis (3.1)
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 9241-392:2015(E)
3.12
interocular vertical misalignment

difference between vertical positions of the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation

3.13
interocular rotational misalignment

difference between rotational positions of the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation

3.14
interocular magnification difference

difference between apparent size of the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation

3.15
interocular geometrical difference

geometrical misalignment of the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation including interocular

vertical misalignment (3.12), interocular rotational misalignment (3.13), and interocular magnification

difference (3.14)
3.16
interocular luminance difference

difference between the luminance values of the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation

3.17
interocular contrast difference

difference between the luminance contrast values of the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation

3.18
interocular chromaticity difference

difference between the chromaticity values of the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation

3.19
interocular photometric difference

photometric mismatch between the left and right views of a stereoscopic presentation including

interocular luminance difference (3.16), interocular contrast difference (3.17), and interocular chromaticity

difference (3.18)
3.20
accommodation-convergence mismatch

difference in distance information indicated by accommodation (3.5) and convergence stimuli of an object

Note 1 to entry: Accommodation-convergence mismatch can be produced when stereoscopic images are presented

on a depth plane (e.g. stereoscopic display surface) which is well nearer or further from the viewers than where

the images are simulated.
3.21
design viewing distance

distance or range of distances between the viewers’ eyes and the screen of a stereoscopic display that is

designed for stereoscopic presentation

Note 1 to entry: Design viewing distance can be specified for both stereoscopic image content (3.8), stereoscopic

displays, and stereoscopic presentation.
4 Guiding concepts
4.1 Framework

To reduce the potential visual discomfort and visual fatigue experienced during viewing of stereoscopic

images, the recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 are established based on the review of the

factors (see 4.2) that are considered in terms of the stereoscopic optical stimulus of disparate images

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 9241-392:2017
ISO 9241-392:2015(E)

presented binocularly. Therefore, other standards specific to each type of stereoscopic image content or

stereoscopic display could be established by referring to this part of ISO 9241.
4.2 Review of factors
4.2.1 General

This part of ISO 9241 focuses on the major factors that have the potential to induce visual discomfort and

visual fatigue during viewing of stereoscopic images. These factors, listed below, have been empirically

determined and are widely recognized in the scientific literature. Since these factors are affected by the

viewing conditions, such as the viewing distance, the viewing conditions should also be specified.

1) Interocular geometrical differences: Interocular vertical misalignment, interocular rotational

misalignment, and interocular magnification difference.

2) Interocular photometric differences: Interocular luminance difference, interocular contrast

difference, and interocular chromaticity difference.
3) Accommodation-convergence mismatch.

4) Other factors to be considered for stereoscopic presentation: Interocular temporal asynchrony,

visual motion-induced motion sickness, and vergence limits.

In establishing guidance, the above-mentioned factors must be considered in light of their level of

importance by reviewing the four items listed below.

a) Efficacy of factor: The probability that a factor will cause visual discomfort or visual fati

...

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