Dentistry - Vocabulary (ISO 1942:2020)

This document defines terms used in dental product standards.
This document aims to facilitate the standard development process and the comprehension of
standards, and to improve communication with the FDI World Dental Federation, the World Health
Organization and other organizations interested in standardization.

Zahnheilkunde - Vokabular (ISO 1942:2020)

Dieses Dokument definiert Begriffe, die in dentalen Produktnormen verwendet werden.
Dieses Dokument zielt darauf ab, den Entwicklungsprozess und das Verständnis der Normen zu erleichtern und die Kommunikation mit der FDI World Dental Federation, der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) und andern an der Normung interessierten Organisationen zu verbessern.

Médecine bucco-dentaire - Vocabulaire (ISO 1942:2020)

Zobozdravstvo - Slovar (ISO 1942:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
04-Nov-2020
Completion Date
04-Nov-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
01-december-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 1942:2011
Zobozdravstvo - Slovar (ISO 1942:2020)
Dentistry - Vocabulary (ISO 1942:2020)
Zahnheilkunde - Vokabular (ISO 1942:2020)
Médecine bucco-dentaire - Vocabulaire (ISO 1942:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 1942:2020
ICS:
01.040.11 Zdravstveno varstvo Health care technology
(Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
11.060.01 Zobozdravstvo na splošno Dentistry in general
SIST EN ISO 1942:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
EN ISO 1942
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.11; 11.060.01 Supersedes EN ISO 1942:2010
English Version
Dentistry - Vocabulary (ISO 1942:2020)

Médecine bucco-dentaire - Vocabulaire (ISO Zahnheilkunde - Vokabular (ISO 1942:2020)

1942:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 August 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 1942:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
EN ISO 1942:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
EN ISO 1942:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 1942:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 106 "Dentistry"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 55 “Dentistry” the secretariat of which is held by

DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 1942:2010.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 1942:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 1942:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 1942
Third edition
2020-10
Dentistry — Vocabulary
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 1942:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Dental terminology and general terms .............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1.1 Anatomical concepts .................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1.2 Branches of dentistry ................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.1.3 Clinical concepts ...................................................................... ......................................................................................... 5

3.1.4 Devices and occupational concepts ................................................................................................................. 8

3.2 Restorative and orthodontic materials ...........................................................................................................................11

3.2.1 ZOE cements .....................................................................................................................................................................11

3.2.2 Endodontic materials ........................................................................................................................................... .....11

3.2.3 Resin-based pit and fissure sealants ...........................................................................................................12

3.2.4 Amalgam/mercury ......................................................................................................................................................12

3.2.5 Luting cements, bases and liners ....................................................................................................................12

3.2.6 Orthodontic products ...............................................................................................................................................13

3.2.7 Adhesive and etching components ................................................................................................................14

3.3 Prosthodontic materials ..............................................................................................................................................................14

3.3.1 General prosthodontics concepts ...................................................................................................................14

3.3.2 Dental ceramics..............................................................................................................................................................18

3.3.3 Impression materials ................................................................................................................................................19

3.3.4 Noble metal casting alloys ....................................................................................................................................21

3.3.5 Resilient lining materials .......................................................................................................................................22

3.3.6 Denture base polymers ...........................................................................................................................................22

3.3.7 Dental waxes.....................................................................................................................................................................23

3.3.8 Artificial teeth ..................................................................................................................................................................24

3.4 Instruments ............................................................................................................................................................................................24

3.4.1 Rotary instruments ........................................................................................................................................... ..........24

3.4.2 Dental handpieces .......................................................................................................................................................24

3.4.3 Dental hand instruments .......................................................................................................................................25

3.4.4 Endodontic instruments ........................................................................................................................................26

3.5 Dental equipment ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

3.6 Oral care products .............................................................................................................................................................................27

3.7 Dental implants ...................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Information helpful to understand the structure and content of ISO 1942 35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 106, Dentistry, Subcommittee SC 3,

Terminology, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 55, Dentistry, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between

ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 1942:2009), which has been technically

revised.

The main change compared to the previous edition is as follows: a systematic arrangement of

terminology necessary for the development of standards related to dentistry according to ISO directives

has been integrated.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is cited in Clause 2 of most of the ISO documents in the field of dentistry. Its content,

therefore, is fundamental for the proper understanding of those documents. It is also important to

understand the terms and definitions in this document when a new standard is developed, or existing

standards are revised in ISO/TC 106.

The content and format of this document have been developed in accordance to References [1] to [5].

Also, terminological entries have been arranged and grouped reflecting the structure and scope/

responsibilities of each subcommittee in TC 106. The sub-categorization of terminological entries

essentially follows the scope of each working group within the subcommittee, except for general

concepts that include anatomical, branches of dentistry, clinical and occupational. Annex A describes

inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as other information helpful to understand the structure and

content of this document.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 1942:2020(E)
Dentistry — Vocabulary
1 Scope
This document defines terms used in dental product standards.

This document aims to facilitate the standard development process and the comprehension of

standards, and to improve communication with the FDI World Dental Federation, the World Health

Organization and other organizations interested in standardization.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Dental terminology and general terms
3.1.1 Anatomical concepts
3.1.1.1
dental organ
tissue complex comprising the tooth and its supporting structures
3.1.1.2
anterior teeth
mandibular and maxillary centrals, laterals and canines
3.1.1.3
posterior teeth
mandibular and maxillary molars and premolars
3.1.1.4
clinical crown
part of a tooth not covered by soft or supporting hard tissue
3.1.1.5
anatomical crown
crown

portion of a tooth normally covered by, and including, the enamel (3.1.1.14)

3.1.1.6
visible crown

part of the anatomical crown (3.1.1.5) which is accessible to visual examination without manipulation

of the surrounding gingival tissues
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
3.1.1.7
macrodontia
genetic condition resulting in the formation of abnormally large teeth
3.1.1.8
mesial
surface nearest the midline along the dental arch
3.1.1.9
distal
surface furthest from the midline along the dental arch
3.1.1.10
proximal
mesial (3.1.1.8) or distal (3.1.1.9) surface of a tooth
3.1.1.11
predentine
immature fibrillar matrix (3.3.1.35) produced by odontoblasts
3.1.1.12
primary dentine

dentine (3.1.1.16) formed during tooth development prior to completion of root formation

3.1.1.13
odontogenesis imperfecta

generalized genetic disturbance in the formation of enamel (3.1.1.14) and dentine (3.1.1.16)

3.1.1.14
enamel

highly mineralized outermost layer of the normally exposed tooth consisting primarily of

hydroxyapatite in orderly crystal structures
3.1.1.15
cementum

calcified outermost layer covering the dentin in the root of a tooth and which attaches to

surrounding tissue
3.1.1.16
dentine, GB
dentin, US

mineralized hard tissue that forms the bulk of the tooth and develops from the dental papilla and dental

pulp (3.1.1.25)
3.1.1.17
mantle dentine

most peripheral part of the dentine (3.1.1.16) adjacent to the enamel (3.1.1.14), characterized by coarsely

bundled fibres running parallel to the branching ends of the tubules
3.1.1.18
circumpulpal dentine

inner part of the dentine (3.1.1.16) adjacent to the pulp (3.1.1.25), characterized by the inclusion of fine

collagen fibres running approximately at right-angles to the tubules
3.1.1.19
peritubular dentine

orthodentine that constitutes the highly-mineralized matrix (3.3.1.35) immediately around the

dentinal tubules
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
3.1.1.20
intratubular dentine
mineralized matrix (3.3.1.35) that is found in the tubules of orthodentine
3.1.1.21
secondary dentine

dentine (3.1.1.16) that is formed after complete formation of a tooth as a result of normal or slightly

abnormal stimuli
3.1.1.22
tertiary dentine

irregular dentine (3.1.1.16) deposited at sites of the pulpal aspects of primary dentine (3.1.1.12) or

secondary dentine (3.1.1.21), corresponding to areas of external irritation
3.1.1.23
endodontium
pulpo-dental organ

part of the dental organ (3.1.1.1) that pertains to the tissues of the dental pulp (3.1.1.25) and the dentine

(3.1.1.16)
3.1.1.24
odontium

part of the tooth consisting of enamel (3.1.1.14), dentine (3.1.1.16) and pulp (3.1.1.25) but not cementum

(3.1.1.15)
3.1.1.25
pulp

soft tissue complex of mesenchymal origin which occupies the pulp chamber and the root

canal(s) of a tooth and which provides for dentinogenic, nutritive, neurosensory and defensive functions

3.1.1.26
apical
pertaining to, or in the direction towards, the root tip (apex)
3.1.1.27
periodontium

tissue complex comprising the gingivae, cementum (3.1.1.15), periodontal ligament (3.1.1.28) and

alveolar bone, and which attaches, nourishes and supports the tooth
3.1.1.28
periodontal ligament
alveolodental ligament

bundles of collagen fibres that suspend the tooth in the alveolus by connecting the cementum (3.1.1.15)

of the root to the alveolar bone
3.1.1.29
desmodontium

tissue, including periodontal ligament (3.1.1.28), that normally occupies the space between cementum

(3.1.1.15) and alveolar bone
3.1.1.30
desmodontal
pertaining to the desmodontium (3.1.1.29)
3.1.1.31
periodontitis
inflammation of the periodontium (3.1.1.27)
3.1.1.32
periodontopathy
disease affecting the periodontium (3.1.1.27)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
3.1.1.33
periodontolysis
process leading to advanced destruction of the periodontium (3.1.1.27)
3.1.1.34
osteogenesis
formation of bone or development of bones
3.1.1.35
odontogenic cyst
primordial cyst

cyst, originated from epithelial cells, usually containing fluid or semi-solid material, and which develops

during various stages of odontogenesis
3.1.1.36
emergence profile

contour of a tooth or restoration (3.1.4.13), such as a crown (3.1.1.5) on a natural tooth or a dental

implant body (3.7.2.4), as it relates to the emergence through the soft tissues and bone

3.1.1.37
masticatory system
organs and structures primarily functioning in mastication
3.1.2 Branches of dentistry
3.1.2.1
oral health
DEPRECATED: dental public health

branch of public general health that addresses matters pertaining to the health of the oral cavity

(3.1.3.26) and adjacent tissues of the cranio-facial complex
3.1.2.2
dentistry

science of preventing, diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of, and injuries to, the teeth,

mouth and jaws, and of replacing lost teeth and associated tissues and promoting oral health (3.1.2.1)

3.1.2.3
dental education

education that contribute to the development of the knowledge and skills required for the practice of

dentistry (3.1.2.2)

Note 1 to entry: The designation of “dentistry” can vary according to the legal usage of the term in the country

concerned.
3.1.2.4
oral health programme
activity planned to improve the oral health (3.1.2.1) of the community
3.1.2.5
oral status and intervention index
OSI index

index that classifies the oral status and the relating interventions needed, on a ten-point scale from 0

(good health, no need for treatment) to 9 (complicated, invasive and costly care needed)

3.1.2.6
preventive dentistry

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) concerned with promoting oral health (3.1.2.1) and function by preventing or

reducing the onset and/or development of oral diseases or deformities and the occurrence of orofacial

injuries
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
3.1.2.7
community dentistry
public health dentistry

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) concerned with oral health (3.1.2.1) in relation to the general health of the

community
3.1.2.8
cariology

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) concerned with aetiology, pathology and prevention of dental caries (3.1.3.15)

3.1.2.9
pediatric dentistry, US
DEPRECATED: paedodontic dentistry, GB
DEPRECATED: paedodontics, GB
DEPRECATED: pedodontics, US

branch of dentistry (3.1.2.2) concerned with children including the diagnosis, treatment, prevention of

oral anomalies, other conditions and injuries
3.1.2.10
orthodontics

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) concerned with the study of craniofacial growth and development, and the

treatment or prevention of malocclusions and other dentofacial anomalies
3.1.2.11
operative dentistry

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) that focus on the restoration (3.1.4.13) of hard tissues of teeth to normal

function and aesthetics that could have been compromised by disease, trauma or acquired or non-

acquired anomalies
3.1.2.12
endodontics

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of the pulp

(3.1.1.25) and contiguous periapical tissues
3.1.2.13
periodontics
periodontology
DEPRECATED: periodontia

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) concerned with the study, prevention, and treatment of diseases affecting the

periodontium (3.1.1.27)
3.1.2.14
prosthodontics

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) that is concerned with the functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the

masticatory system by artificial replacement of missing teeth and associated tissues

3.1.2.15
forensic dentistry
forensic odontology, US

part of dentistry (3.1.2.2) which deals with the examination, interpretation and presentation of dental

and oral evidence for legal purposes
3.1.3 Clinical concepts
3.1.3.1
intraoral radiography
radiography whereby the image receptor is positioned intraorally
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
3.1.3.2
impacted tooth
tooth in a state of partial or total impeded eruption
3.1.3.3
mastication
process of chewing food in preparation for swallowing and digestion
3.1.3.4
occlusion

static and dynamic relationship between the contacting surfaces of the mandibular and maxillary teeth

or tooth analogues
3.1.3.5
mottling

uneven patches in the enamel (3.1.1.14) or the dentine (3.1.1.16) associated with the clinical crown

appearing on natural teeth; or similar patches intentionally placed on surfaces of artificial teeth

3.1.3.6
tooth erosion
dental erosion

progressive loss of calcified dental tissue by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action

3.1.3.7
dentine conditioning

modification of the dentine (3.1.1.16) surface by means of chemical substances or other treatment

3.1.3.8
indirect pulp capping

dressing for conserving the vitality of the pulp (3.1.1.25) of a tooth infected with a penetrating carious

lesion, the complete excision of which could result in exposure of the pulp (3.1.1.25)

3.1.3.9
direct pulp capping

dressing of an exposed pulp (3.1.1.25) with the aim of maintaining pulpal vitality

3.1.3.10
pulpotomy
DEPRECATED: pulp amputation

surgical removal of a portion of the pulp (3.1.1.25) with the aim of maintaining the vitality of the

remaining portion by means of adequate dressing
3.1.3.11
pulpectomy
vital pulp extirpation
complete surgical removal of the vital pulp (3.1.1.25)
3.1.3.12
anchorage

configuration or preparation suitable for the retention or support of a dental prosthesis (3.3.1.19) or

orthodontic appliance (3.2.6.2)
3.1.3.13
Ante’s law

principle that states that the combined pericemental

area of all abutment teeth supporting a partial denture (3.3.1.19) should be equal to or greater in the

pericemental area than the tooth or teeth to be replaced
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 1942:2020
ISO 1942:2020(E)
3.1.3.14
Ante’s law

principle that states that the bone contacting the surface of the teeth being

replaced should approximate half of the periodontal ligament surface area of the teeth being replaced

3.1.3.15
dental caries

biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that occurs when the net balance of

the phasic demineralization (3.1.3.27) and remineralization (3.1.3.28) of dental hard tissues favours

demineralization
3.1.3.16
caries process

dynamic sequence of biofilm-tooth interactions which can occur over time on and within a tooth surface

leading to dental caries (3.1.3.15)
3.1.3.17
caries lesion
change in the tooth structure that results from the caries process (3.1.3.16)
3.1.3.18
caries lesion detection
carious lesion detection

examination by visual or any other relevant means of the tooth structure to detect caries lesions

(3.1.3.17)
3.1.3.19
caries lesion assessment
carious lesion assessment
evaluation of the characteristics of a caries lesion (3.1.3.17)
3.1.3.20
caries diagnosis

human professional summation of all the signs and symptoms of disease to arrive at an identification of

the past or present occurrence of the disease caries
3.1.3.21
caries lesion severity

stage of lesion progression along the spectrum of net mineral loss, from the initial loss at a molecular

level to total tissue destruction
3.1.3.22
white-spot lesion

caries lesion severity (3.1.3.21) where the net subsurface mineral loss has produced changes in the

optical properties of enamel such that these are visibly detectable as a loss of translucency, resulting in

a white appearance of the enamel surface
3.1.3.23
brown-spot lesion

caries lesion severity (3.1.3.21) where the net subsurface mineral loss in conjunction with the acquisition

of intrinsic or exogenous pigments has produced changes in the optical properties of enamel such that

these are visibly detectable as a loss of translucency and a brown discolouration, resulting in a brown

appearance of the enamel surface
3.1.3.24
non-cavitated lesion
caries lesion (3.1.3.17) whose surface appears macroscopically to be intact
© ISO 2020 – All rights res
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