Water Quality - Guidance standard for assessing the hydromorphological features of rivers

This document provides guidance on the features to be recorded when characterising and assessing the hydromorphology of rivers. It is based on methods developed, tested, and compared in Europe. Its main aim is to improve the comparability of hydromorphological survey methods, data processing, interpretation and presentation of results. Whilst it has particular importance in relation to the reporting requirements of the WFD, it also has considerably wider scope for other applications. Although hydromorphology is dependent on hydrology and underlying geology, this standard is focused on the structural features of rivers and on river continuity. In addition, whilst recognising the important influence of hydromorphology on plant and animal ecology and, conversely, the influence of plants and animals on hydromorphology, no attempt is made to provide guidance in this area.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung hydromorphologischer Eigenschaften von Fließgewässern

Dieses Dokument gibt eine Anleitung zur Festlegung von Anforderungen, die zur Charakterisierung und
Beurteilung der Hydromorphologie von Fließgewässern notwendig sind. Sie beruht auf Verfahren, die in
Europa entwickelt, geprüft und verglichen worden sind. Das Hauptziel dieser Norm ist es, die Vergleichbarkeit
der hydromorphologischen Erfassungsmethoden, der Datenverarbeitung, der Interpretation und der
Präsentation der Ergebnisse zu ermöglichen. Obwohl sie spezielle Bedeutung in Bezug auf die
Berichtspflichten nach der EG-WRRL hat, gibt es einen darüber hinausgehenden Anwendungsbereich.
Obwohl die Hydromorphologie von der Hydrologie und der Geologie der Einzugsgebiete abhängt, liegt der
Schwerpunkt dieser Norm auf den strukturellen Eigenschaften von Flüssen und deren biologische
Durchgängigkeit. Es ist durchaus bekannt, dass die Hydromorphologie für das Vorkommen von Pflanzen und
Tieren einerseits ausschlaggebend ist, und andererseits Pflanzen und Tiere die Hydromorphologie
beeinflussen. Diese Norm enthält jedoch hierzu keine Anleitung.

Qualité de l'eau - Guide pour l'évaluation des caractéristiques hydromorphologiques des rivières

Le présent document donne des conseils sur les caractéristiques à enregistrer lors d�une caractérisation et
d�une évaluation de l�hydromorphologie d�une rivière. Il est fondé sur des méthodes mises au point, essayées
et comparées en Europe. Il a pour objectif d�améliorer la comparabilité des méthodes de suivi
hydromorphologique, du traitement des données, de l�interprétation et la présentation des résultats. Bien qu�il
soit d�une importance toute particulière, eu égard aux exigences de la WFD, il a également un domaine
d�application bien plus large. Bien que l�hydromorphologie dépende de l�hydrologie et de la géologie sous-jacente,
le présent document porte essentiellement sur les caractéristiques structurales et sur la continuité
des rivières. En outre, bien que l�influence importante de l�hydromorphologie sur l�écologie végétale et animale,
et inversement, l�influence de l�écologie végétale et animale sur l�hydromorphologie soient reconnues, aucune
tentative n�est faite pour fournir des conseils dans ce domaine.

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za ocenjevanje hidromorfoloških značilnosti vodotokov

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
09-Nov-2004
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
09-Sep-2020

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung hydromorphologischer Eigenschaften von FließgewässernQualité de l'eau - Guide pour l'évaluation des caractéristiques hydromorphologiques des rivieresWater Quality - Guidance standard for assessing the hydromorphological features of rivers13.080.01Kakovost tal in pedologija na splošnoSoil quality and pedology in general13.060.10Voda iz naravnih virovWater of natural resourcesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14614:2004SIST EN 14614:2005en,fr,de01-februar-2005SIST EN 14614:2005SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 14614:2005

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14614November 2004ICS 13.060.70English versionWater Quality - Guidance standard for assessing thehydromorphological features of riversQualité de l'eau - Guide pour l'évaluation descaractéristiques hydromorphologiques des rivièresWasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilunghydromorphologischer Eigenschaften von FließgewässernThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 September 2004.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2004 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14614:2004: ESIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................5 2 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................5 3 Principle..................................................................................................................................................9 4 Survey requirements.............................................................................................................................9 4.1 River ‘types’............................................................................................................................................9 4.2 Dividing rivers into reaches................................................................................................................11 4.3 Survey strategy....................................................................................................................................11 4.4 Scale of surveys and evaluations......................................................................................................13 4.5 Timing and frequency of field surveys..............................................................................................13 4.6 Reference conditions..........................................................................................................................13 5 Features for survey and assessment................................................................................................14 5.1 Standard suite of features..................................................................................................................14 5.2 Feature recording related to purpose and method of data gathering............................................14 6 Field survey procedure.......................................................................................................................16 7 Classification and reporting based on hydromorphological assessment.....................................17 7.1 General..................................................................................................................................................17 7.2 Bed and bank character......................................................................................................................17 7.3 Planform and river profile...................................................................................................................17 7.4 Lateral connectivity and freedom of lateral movement...................................................................17 7.5 Free flow of water and sediment in the channel...............................................................................17 7.6 Vegetation in the riparian zone..........................................................................................................17 8 Data presentation.................................................................................................................................18 8.1 General..................................................................................................................................................18 9 Quality assurance................................................................................................................................19 9.1 Training and quality assurance for survey and assessment..........................................................19 9.2 Training manuals.................................................................................................................................19 9.3 Data entry and validation....................................................................................................................19 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................20

SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 14614:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2005. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard : Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. WARNING — Safety issues are paramount when surveying rivers. Surveyors should conform to EU and national Health and Safety legislation, and any additional guidelines appropriate for working in or near rivers. SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 4 Introduction Historically, many countries in Europe have assessed river ‘quality’ simply in terms of the chemical or pollution status of the water flowing in river channels. A more comprehensive view of river habitats is needed, however, to answer pressing ecological questions such as those arising from the EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) (Commission of the European Communities, 2000) and the EC Habitats Directive, to underpin the International Convention on Biodiversity, or to assess proposed river engineering schemes and other catchment developments. In most European countries there are now pressures from statutory and voluntary environment and conservation agencies to see rivers returned to a more natural condition. This implies a need to evaluate areas deserving protection and those requiring rehabilitation, and to encourage better management of river systems throughout Europe.

SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 5 1 Scope This document provides guidance on the features to be recorded when characterising and assessing the hydromorphology of rivers. It is based on methods developed, tested, and compared in Europe. Its main aim is to improve the comparability of hydromorphological survey methods, data processing, interpretation and presentation of results. Whilst it has particular importance in relation to the reporting requirements of the WFD, it also has considerably wider scope for other applications. Although hydromorphology is dependent on hydrology and underlying geology, this standard is focused on the structural features of rivers and on river continuity. In addition, whilst recognising the important influence of hydromorphology on plant and animal ecology and, conversely, the influence of plants and animals on hydromorphology, no attempt is made to provide guidance in this area.

2 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 2.1 aquatic macrophytes larger plants of fresh water which are easily seen with the naked eye, including all aquatic vascular plants, bryophytes, stoneworts (Characeae) and macro-algal growths NOTE This definition includes plants associated with open water or wetlands with shallow water. 2.2 attribute specific recorded element of a hydromorphological feature (e.g. ‘boulders’ and ‘silt’ are substrate attributes; ‘sheet piling’ and ‘gabions’ are attributes of engineered banks) 2.3 backwater area of low velocity or static water under dry-weather flows, most commonly former river channels or flood channels within the alluvial floodplain, connected to the river channel at least in periods of high flow 2.4 bank permanent side of a river or island, which is above the normal water level and only submerged during periods of high river flow NOTE In the context of this standard, the top is marked by the first major break in slope, above which cultivation or development is possible. 2.5 bankfull maximum point on banks at which floods are held within the channel before spilling over onto the floodplain 2.6 berm natural or artificial shelf within a river that is exposed above water level during low flows, but is submerged during high flows 2.7 bog wetland,

in which the vegetation communities (frequently dominated by Sphagnum mosses) form peat over long periods of time SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 6 2.8 braiding course of a river naturally divided by deposited sediment accumulations, characterised by at least two channels which often change their course regularly 2.9 bryophytes collective term for liverworts and mosses – plants which are often abundant on boulders and bedrock of upland streams 2.10 compaction consolidation of the river bed through physical, chemical or biological processes 2.11 contiguous survey survey carried out along entire river reaches, with data collected from adjoining survey units 2.12 ecological status expression of the quality of the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, expressed by comparing the prevailing conditions with reference conditions NOTE As classified in accordance with Annex V of the EC Water Framework Directive. 2.13 embankment (levee) artificial bank built to raise the natural bank level thereby reducing the frequency of flooding of adjacent land 2.14 floodplain valley floor adjacent to a river that is (or was historically) inundated periodically by flood waters 2.15 fluvial features features shaped by sedimentation and erosion 2.16 gabion wire basket containing stones, used for river-bed or bank protection 2.17 glide moderately-flowing water with undisturbed surface other than occasional swirls or eddies, and with constant depth across part of the channel (cf ‘run’). 2.18 hydromorphology physical and hydrological characteristics of rivers including the underlying processes from which they result 2.19 lateral connectivity freedom for water to move between the channel and the floodplain 2.20 lateral movement freedom for a river channel to move across a floodplain SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 7 2.21 levee see ‘embankment’ 2.22 planform view of river pattern from above (e.g. sinuous, straight) 2.23 point bar bar of river sediment formed on the inside of a bend in a river (cf. side bar) 2.24 pool habitat feature characterised by distinctly deeper parts of the channel that are usually no longer than one to three times the channel’s bankfull width, and where the hollowed river bed profiles are sustained by scouring 2.25 reach major sub-division of a river, defined by physical, hydrological, and chemical character that distinguishes it from other parts of the river system upstream and downstream 2.26 reference conditions conditions representing a totally undisturbed state, lacking human impact, or near-natural with only minor evidence of distortion NOTE For waters not designated as heavily modified or artificial, synonymous with ‘high ecological status’ in the Water Framework Directive. 2.27 revetment facing built to reinforce a bank 2.28 riffle fast-flowing shallow water with distinctly broken or disturbed surface over gravel/pebble or cobble substrate 2.29 riparian zone area of land adjoining a river channel (including the river bank) capable of directly influencing the condition of the aquatic ecosystem (e.g. by shading and leaf litter input) NOTE In this document, the term ‘riparian zone’ does not include the wider floodplain. 2.30 riparian zone vegetation structure physical character of the vegetation that creates habitat on the banks and land immediately adjacent to the river; e.g. ‘complex’ – mixture of trees or scrub, herbaceous vegetation, etc. or ‘simple’ – e.g. only herbaceous vegetation 2.31 river rehabilitation partial return of a river to a pre-disturbance condition (e.g. by changing the planform of channelised reaches, or planting riparian vegetation) SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 8 2.32 river type group of rivers that can be broadly differentiated from other groups on the basis of their physical and chemical characteristics (e.g. lowland chalk streams; upland ultra-oligotrophic rivers) 2.33 run fast-flowing water with a disturbed, but not broken, surface (cf. ‘glide’) 2.34 sheet piling material used for vertical bank protection (e.g. corrugated metal sheets) 2.35 side bar discrete sediment deposit made by the river along the sides of relatively straight reaches (cf. point bar) 2.36 sinuosity degree of deviation from a straight line, defined as channel length/valley length 2.37 stream ordering methods for classifying rivers and streams related to the complexity of the drainage basin, generally with progressively higher order numbers usually assigned to streams with greater discharge lower down the catchment 2.38 survey unit length of river from which data are collected during field survey; this may be a fixed length (e.g. 500 m) or variable, according to the method used, but must always be defined and recorded 2.39 submerged vegetation plants rooted to the bed and either completely submerged or with only part of their shoots floating or emergent 2.40 substrate/substratum material making up the bed of a river 2.41 weir structure used for controlling flow and upstream surface level, or for measuring discharge 2.42 wetlands habitats (e.g. marsh, fen, shallow temporary water) occupying the transitional zone between permanently inundated, and generally dry, environments SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 9 3 Principle A standard assessment protocol is described for recording the physical features of river channels, banks, riparian zones and floodplains. The range of features surveyed, and the methods used for survey, may vary according to river character and the objectives of the study. This standard provides a common framework for these different methods, details of which can be found in the references cited in the Bibliography. Guidance is given on the hydromorphological features that should be used for characterising river types and for further assessment of morphological integrity through comparisons with reference conditions. The selection of features for survey will depend upon geographical scale and on the purpose of the exercise, with some features suitable for characterising river types, some for assessment, and some for both.

4 Survey requirements 4.1 River ‘types’ Describing and identifying river ‘types’ enables the results of hydromorphological surveys from similar types to be compared. In addition, defining ‘high status’, type-specific, reference conditions in rivers is a requirement of the WFD, allowing the quality of rivers to be compared in an equitable and ecologically meaningful way. Some hydromorphological assessment methods are not linked to river types but can still provide useful information for better river management; this standard therefore includes consideration of such methods. The core information required to define river types can usually be derived from maps or catchment-wide databases. Types may be refined by using information gathered during field surveys, or through input from expert opinion. It is recommended that as a minimum the following factors should be considered in the definition of river types: Size: e.g. stream order, catchment size, distance from source; Gradient: channel slope; Geology: a minimum of three categories, preferably more – e.g. siliceous, calcareous, mixed, organic; Geographical location: latitude and longitude; Altitude: altitude of source within the catchment, altitude of the reach being assessed; Hydrological regime: characteristic discharge patterns

Table 1 provides an example of the way in which physical and chemical features are used to derive river types in the legislative context of the WFD. In this example, rivers are ‘typed’ either according to geographic location (ecoregions) together with a set of obligatory ‘descriptors’ (System A), or using an equivalent approach based on ‘obligatory and optional factors’ (System B).

SIST EN 14614:2005
EN 14614:2004 (E) 10
Table 1 — The two systems used in the Water Framework Directive to type rivers
System A
Key Factors Descriptors Altitude
high – > 800 m
mid-altitude – 200 m to 800 m
lowland – < 200m Size (based on catchment area) small – 10 km2 to 100 km2
medium – > 100 km2 to 1,000 km2
large – > 1,000 km2 to 10,000 km2
very large – > 10,000 km2 Geology
calcareous
siliceous
organic Ecoregion ecoregions shown on map in Annex XI of WFD System B
Obligatory factors altitude
latitude
longitude
geology
size Optional factors distance from source
energy of flow (function of flow and slope)
mean water width
mean water depth
mean water slope
form and shape of main river bed
river discharge (flow) category
valley shape
transport of solids
acid neutralising capacity
mean substratum composition
chloride
air temperature range
mean air temperature
precipitation SIST EN 14614:2005
EN 14614:2004 (E) 11 4.2 Dividing rivers into reaches

The relationship between river type, river reach and survey unit is fundamental to survey strategy and assessment. An individual catchment needs first to be divided into river type(s) and then component reaches (Figure 1) based on the factors listed in Table 2. Table 2 — Factors determining reach boundaries Significant change in: • geology • valley form • slope • planform • discharge (input of significant tributary/change in stream order) • land use • sediment transport (lake, reservoir, dam, major weirs)

4.3 Survey strategy The reach provides the primary framework for survey. Reaches can be characterised hydromorphologically using various survey strategies (Figure 1). 4.3.1 Survey of the whole reach Single survey: the entire reach is assessed in a single survey unit. Contiguous survey: the reach is split into a series of contiguous survey units. 4.3.2 Sampling within a reach Survey units are located at random along the reach, or using any other statistically valid approaches. Survey design should take account of the objectives of the work and the reporting requirements. Where the primary objective is an overall assessment of a river reach, this can be obtained by combining the results from smaller survey units. Individual reaches can also be combined – for example, to assist in reporting the status of ‘water bodies’ under the WFD. In these cases the overall assessment should take account of the relative length of the constituent reaches. Where the sampling protocol option is used, care must be taken to ensure that the density of the site network is adequate for representing the overall character of the length of river assessed. If the survey is designed to characterise the hydromorphology of rivers over a wide area (rather than targeted on particular areas of impact) a stratified random sampling procedure may be used to survey only a proportion of sites (e.g. 10 %) within a type.

In contrast, where the purpose of a survey is to determine the impact of specific environmental pressures on hydromorphology (an aspect of ‘investigative monitoring’ in the WFD), a more focused survey strategy will be required. SIST EN 14614:2005

EN 14614:2004 (E) 12

Key 1 Type A 7 Reach C2 2 Type B 8 Waterfall 3 Type C 9 Lake 4 Reach A1 10 Sample survey units within a reach 5 Reach B1 11 Contiguous survey units 6 Reach C1 12 Single survey unit Figure 1 — A hypothetical catchment showing the main types of approach to hydromorphological survey, set

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