Road and airfield surface characteristics - Test methods - Part 8: Determination of transverse unevenness indices

This European Standard defines the different transverse unevenness indices of the pavement surface of roads and airfields and the appropriate methods of evaluation and reporting.
The indices have been defined principally independent of the measurement device.
This European Standard focuses on transverse unevenness measurements for the following three purposes:
- indices to provide a means for quality control of pavement surfaces of newly laid pavements, especially with respect to crossfall and the evidence of irregularities due to improper laying and/or compacting action.
- indices to be used for evaluating the condition of pavements in service as part of routine condition monitoring programs. They are intended to detect transverse deformations caused by the traffic, pavement wear or subsurface movement.
- indices to be used for resurfacing activities on pavements in use.
The parameters and evaluation methods are applicable both for roads and airfields.

Oberflächeneigenschaften von Straßen und Flugplätzen - Prüfverfahren - Teil 8: Bestimmung der Parameter zur Ermittlung der Breitenunebenheit

Diese Europäische Norm definiert die verschiedenen Parameter für die Bestimmung der Breitenunebenheit
der Fahrbahnoberfläche von Straßen und Flugplätzen sowie die geeigneten Verfahren für Bewertung und
Auswertung.
Die Parameter sind im Allgemeinen unabhängig von den Messgeräten definiert worden.
Der Schwerpunkt dieser Europäischen Norm liegt bei der Bestimmung der Breitenunebenheit für die
folgenden drei Ziele:
- Parameter als Mittel zur Qualitätskontrolle der Oberflächen von neu verlegten Fahrbahnbelägen,
insbesondere hinsichtlich der Querneigung und des Nachweises von Unregelmäßigkeiten infolge
unsachgemäßer Verlege- und/oder Verdichtungsarbeiten;
- Parameter zur Bewertung des Zustands von befahrenen Fahrbahnbelägen als Teil des regelmäßig
durchgeführten Programms zur Zustandsüberwachung. Sie sind dafür vorgesehen, Verformungen in
Querrichtung zu erkennen, die durch Verkehr, Abnutzung des Fahrbahnbelags oder Bewegungen unter
der Oberfläche verursacht wurden;
- Parameter für die Erneuerung von befahrenen Fahrbahnbelägen.
Die Parameter und Bewertungsverfahren gelten sowohl für Straßen als auch für Flugplätze.

Caractéristiques de surface des routes et aérodromes - Méthodes d'essais - Partie 8 : Détermination des indices d'uni transversal

Cette Norme européenne définit les déformations et défauts d'uni transversaux de la surface de revêtement de chaussée pour les routes et aérodromes ainsi que les méthodes d'évaluation et d'élaboration de comptes-rendus.
Les indices ont été déterminés principalement  de manière indépendante des appareillages de mesure.
Cette Norme européenne s’applique particulièrement à la mesure du profil en travers avec les trois buts suivants :
   paramètres pour fournir un moyen de contrôle qualité des couches de surface des chaussées nouvellement mises en oeuvre, notamment en ce qui concerne le respect du dévers et détecter des défauts dus à une mise en œuvre et/ou un compactage inapproprié ;
   paramètres à utiliser pour évaluer l’état des chaussées en service en tant que partie intégrante de programmes de surveillance périodiques de leur état. Ils visent à détecter les déformations transversales dues au trafic, à l'usure de la couche de surface ou aux déformations de la couche inférieure ;
   paramètres pour des actions de reprofilage sur des chaussées en service.
Les paramètres et les méthodes d'évaluation s'appliquent tant aux routes qu'aux aérodromes.

Značilnosti cestnih in letaliških površin - Preskusne metode - 8. del: Določanje indeksov prečne neravnosti

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Mar-2008
Current Stage
9060 - Closure of 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
02-Dec-2019
Completion Date
02-Dec-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Oberflächeneigenschaften von Straßen und Flugplätzen - Prüfverfahren - Teil 8: Bestimmung der Parameter zur Ermittlung der BreitenunebenheitCaractéristiques de surface des routes et aérodromes - Méthodes d'essais - Partie 8 : Détermination des indices d'uni transversalRoad and airfield surface characteristics - Test methods - Part 8: Determination of transverse unevenness indices93.120Construction of airports93.080.10Gradnja cestRoad construction17.040.20Lastnosti površinProperties of surfacesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 13036-8:2008SIST EN 13036-8:2009en,fr,de01-februar-2009SIST EN 13036-8:2009SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 13036-8:2009

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 13036-8March 2008ICS 93.080.10; 93.120 English VersionRoad and airfield surface characteristics - Test methods - Part 8:Determination of transverse unevenness indicesCaractéristiques de surface des routes et aérodromes -Méthodes d'essais - Partie 8 : Détermination des indicesd'uni transversalOberflächeneigenschaften von Straßen und Flugplätzen -Prüfverfahren - Teil 8: Bestimmung der Parameter zurErmittlung der BreitenunebenheitThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 February 2008.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as theofficial versions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2008 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 13036-8:2008: ESIST EN 13036-8:2009

EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................5 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................5 3 Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................5 4 List of symbols.......................................................................................................................................7 5 Parameters.............................................................................................................................................8 5.1 General....................................................................................................................................................8 5.2 Crossfall X..............................................................................................................................................8 5.3 Irregularities...........................................................................................................................................9 5.3.1 Step height IS.........................................................................................................................................9 5.3.2 Ridges/dips, respectively IR, ID...........................................................................................................9 5.3.3 Edge Slump IE........................................................................................................................................9 5.4 Rut depth R...........................................................................................................................................10 5.5 Theoretical water depth W..................................................................................................................10 6 Measurement devices and their application.....................................................................................11 6.1 Measurement devices.........................................................................................................................11 6.2 Measuring single profiles...................................................................................................................12 6.2.1 Crossfall................................................................................................................................................12 6.2.2 Irregularities.........................................................................................................................................12 6.2.3 Rut depth and theoretical water depth..............................................................................................12 6.3 Measuring sections of a unit of length (e.g. 100 m).........................................................................12 6.3.1 Irregularities.........................................................................................................................................12 6.3.2 Crossfall, rut depth and theoretical water depth..............................................................................12 7 Evaluation and analysis......................................................................................................................12 8 Accuracy...............................................................................................................................................13 8.1 General..................................................................................................................................................13 8.2 Precision...............................................................................................................................................13 8.3 Trueness...............................................................................................................................................14 9 Safety....................................................................................................................................................14 10 Report...................................................................................................................................................14 Annex A (normative)

Measurement of indices of transverse unevenness and irregularities with a straightedge.........................................................................................................................................16 A.1 Measuring using the straightedge.....................................................................................................16 A.1.1 General..................................................................................................................................................16 A.1.2 Sampling frequency, covered measurement/analysis width..........................................................16 A.1.3 Method of measurement.....................................................................................................................16 A.2 Reporting of results.............................................................................................................................19 A.2.1 Test report............................................................................................................................................19 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................20

SIST EN 13036-8:2009

EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 13036-8:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 227 “Road materials”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2008, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2008. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 13036-8:2009

EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 4

Introduction Road profile transverse unevenness affects safety and ride comfort. Transverse uneveness demands can differ from one road to another and are highly related to the speed limit, the kind of traffic, the climatic conditions, the accepted comfort limits, etc. Road profile transverse unevenness is consequently key information for acceptance of newly laid pavements and for road maintenance management systems. Road profile transverse unevenness encompasses a variety of aspects, such as: the crossfall of the transverse profile, irregularities or different defects in the transverse profile (steps, ridges/dips and edge slumps) and the longitudinal ruts in the wheel paths caused by the traffic. The measurement of road transverse unevenness has been a subject of much research for more than 70 years, resulting in many different measuring methods. Measurement devices can be split into: - stationary equipment, such as e.g. the straightedge for irregularities and longitudinal ruts or rod and level for crossfall in single profiles, - dynamic equipment, such as e.g. the profilometer, which is dependant on the characteristics of the device, suitable for measuring all mentioned aspects for single profiles as well as section (mean) values. This European Standard has been written to be used in conjunction with the European Standards EN 13036-6 (Profilometer) and EN 13036-7 (Straightedge).

SIST EN 13036-8:2009
EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 5

1 Scope This European Standard defines the different transverse unevenness indices of the pavement surface of roads and airfields and the appropriate methods of evaluation and reporting.

The indices have been defined principally independent of the measurement device. This European Standard focuses on transverse unevenness measurements for the following three purposes: - indices to provide a means for quality control of pavement surfaces of newly laid pavements, especially with respect to crossfall and the evidence of irregularities due to improper laying and/or compacting action. - indices to be used for evaluating the condition of pavements in service as part of routine condition monitoring programs. They are intended to detect transverse deformations caused by the traffic, pavement wear or subsurface movement. - indices to be used for resurfacing activities on pavements in use. The parameters and evaluation methods are applicable both for roads and airfields. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 13036-6:2008, Road and airfield surface characteristics — Test methods — Part 6: Measurement of transverse and longitudinal profiles in the evenness and megatexture wavelength ranges EN 13036-7, Road and airfield surface characteristics — Test methods — Part 7: Irregularity measurement of pavement courses: the straightedge test 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 acquisition repetition interval

travelled distance between two consecutive transverse profile measurements 3.2 bias difference between the expectation of the test results and an accepted reference value NOTE Bias is the total systematic error as contrasted to random error. There may be one or more systematic error components to the bias. A large systematic difference from the accepted reference value is reflected by a large bias value (see ISO 3534-1). 3.3 crossfall transverse gradient across a section or full width of a pavement measured perpendicular to the centre line SIST EN 13036-8:2009

EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 6 NOTE Crossfall can be expressed as a percentage, a ratio (e.g. 1 to 30) or as an angle to the horizontal. By convention, it is positive when the right end of the profile is lower than its left end for right hand traffic and the opposite for left hand traffic. 3.4 edge slump deviation of the pavement edge below a straight reference line 3.5 irregularity any deviation of a surface from the straight reference line 3.6 layer structural element of a pavement laid in a single operation 3.7 pavement structure composed of one or more layers of selected material designed to carry traffic 3.8 pavement surface or surface course upper layer of the pavement that is in contact with the traffic 3.9 precision closeness of agreement between independent test results obtained under stipulated conditions NOTE Precision depends only on the distribution of random errors. The measure of precision is usually computed as a standard deviation of the test results. Less precision is reflected by a larger standard deviation (see ISO 3534-1). 3.10 repeatability

maximum difference expected between two measurements made by the same machine, with the same tyre, operated by the same crew on the same section of road in a short space of time, with a probability of 95 %. 3.11 ridge any deviation above a straight reference line 3.12 dip any deviation below a straight reference line 3.13 rut/pothole any deviation below the straight reference line, normally in the wheel path 3.14 rut depth greatest deviation of the transverse profile of a pavement surface and a virtual straight reference line of length L sliding on the surface of the profile within the limits of the analysed width, by leaving one edge of the rut towards the other edge.

NOTE 1 The length of the virtual reference should be mentioned within the results.

NOTE 2 Rut depth is normally expressed in millimetres. SIST EN 13036-8:2009

EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 7 3.15 section length of road between defined points (e.g. location references, specific features or measured distances) comprising a number of subsections over which a continuous sequence of measurements is made 3.16 step vertical displacement from the straight reference line 3.17 theoretical water depth difference in elevation between a horizontal reference line going through the highest point of a transverse profile at the low side of the wheel path and the deepest point in the wheel path

NOTE 1 Theoretical water depth is normally expressed in millimetres NOTE 2 Theoretical water depth is an indicator of the risk of aquaplaning. The theoretical water depth in a depression or dip is often called “pond depth”. 3.18 transverse profile intersection between the road surface and a reference plane perpendicular to the road surface and to the lane direction 3.19 trueness closeness of agreement between the average value obtained from large series of test results and an accepted reference value NOTE The measure of trueness is usually expressed in terms of bias (8.3) and reflects the total systematic error as contrasted to random error. There may be one or more systematic error components to the trueness. A large systematic difference from the accepted reference value is reflected by a large value (see ISO 3534-1). 3.20 wheel paths area of a pavement surface where the large majority of vehicle wheel passages are concentrated (see Figure 1) 4 List of symbols X is the crossfall; IS is the step height; IR is the ridge height; ID is the dip depth; IE is the edge slump; RR is the rut depth right wheel path; RL is the rut depth left wheel path; WR is the theoretical water depth right wheel path; SIST EN 13036-8:2009

EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 8 WL is the theoretical water depth left wheel path. 5 Parameters

5.1 General The transverse profile can be characterized by the following parameters (see Figure 1):  the crossfall X of the transverse profile;  the heights of the different irregular defects in the transverse profile, such as ridges/dips, steps and edge slump, the so-called irregularities I;  the rut depth R in the wheel paths caused by the traffic;  the theoretical water depth W in the ruts. In the following the calculation principles of each of these parameters will be explained.

Key 1 step 2 rut 3 water depth 4 ridge/bump 5 edge slump 6 gravity 7 crossfall Figure 1 — Schematic overview of the different characteristics of transverse unevenness

5.2 Crossfall X Pavements are designed with a crossfall for traffic safety reasons, namely to make it possible to safely pass curves with different radius and for water drainage purposes.

Crossfall mean X is defined as the angle between the horizontal and the regression straight line through the transverse road profile fixed by at least seven measurement points across that profile. In literature this is often called the regression-line definition.

SIST EN 13036-8:2009

EN 13036-8:2008 (E) 9 New pavements can be measured with a straightedge as described in Annex A. 5.3 Irregularities Irregularities can be caused by improper l

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