Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1: General principles (ISO 11358-1:2022)

This document specifies general conditions for the analysis of polymers using thermogravimetric techniques. It is applicable to liquids or solids. Solid materials can be in the form of pellets, granules or powders. Fabricated shapes reduced to appropriate specimen size can also be analysed by this method.
This document establishes methods for the investigation of physical effects and chemical reactions that are associated with changes of mass.
This document can be used to determine the temperature(s) and rate(s) of decomposition of polymers, and to measure at the same time the amounts of volatile matter, additives and/or fillers they contain.
This document is applicable to measurements in dynamic mode (mass change versus temperature or time under programmed temperature conditions) or isothermal mode (mass change versus time at constant temperature).
This document is applicable to measurements at different testing atmospheres, such as separation of decomposition in an inert atmosphere from oxidative degradation.

Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (ISO 11358-1:2022)

Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Bedingungen für die thermogravimetrische Analyse von Polymeren fest. Es ist anwendbar auf flüssige oder feste Stoffe. Die festen Stoffe können als Pellets, Granulat oder Pulver vorliegen. Mit dem Verfahren können ebenfalls auf eine geeignete Probekörpergröße reduzierte Fertigteile untersucht werden.
Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Untersuchung von physikalischen Effekten und chemischen Reaktionen fest, die mit Massenänderungen verbunden sind.
Dieses Dokument kann zur Bestimmung der Temperatur(en) und der Zersetzungsrate(n) von Polymeren und zur gleichzeitigen Messung der Menge der darin enthaltenen flüchtigen Anteile, Zusatzstoffe und/oder Füllstoffe angewendet werden.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Messungen mit einem dynamischen Verfahren (Massenänderung in Abhängigkeit von der Temperatur oder Zeit unter programmierten Temperaturbedingungen) oder einem isothermen Verfahren (Massenänderung in Abhängigkeit von der Zeit bei konstanter Temperatur).
Dieses Dokument gilt für Messungen unter Anwendung unterschiedlicher Prüfatmosphären, wie z. B. die Zersetzung in einer inerten Atmosphäre von der oxidativen Zersetzung zu trennen.

Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 11358-1:2022)

Le présent document spécifie les conditions générales d’analyse des polymères au moyen des techniques de thermogravimétrie. Il est applicable aux liquides et aux solides. Les matériaux solides peuvent se présenter sous forme de granulés, de grains ou de poudre. Cette méthode d’analyse est également applicable aux objets façonnés sur lesquels une éprouvette de dimensions appropriées est prélevée.
Le présent document établit des méthodes pour l’étude des effets physiques et des réactions chimiques qui sont associés aux variations de masse.
Le présent document peut être utilisé pour déterminer la/les température(s) et le(s) taux de décomposition des polymères et pour mesurer simultanément les quantités de matières volatiles, d’additifs et/ou de charges qu’ils contiennent.
Le présent document est applicable aux mesurages selon un mode dynamique (variation de masse en fonction de la température ou du temps, dans des conditions de température définies) ou un mode isotherme (variation de masse en fonction du temps, à température constante).
Le présent document est applicable aux mesurages en employant différentes atmosphères d’essai, tels que la séparation d’une décomposition dans une atmosphère inerte à partir d’une dégradation oxydative.

Polimerni materiali - Termogravimetrija (TG) polimerov - 1. del: Splošna načela (ISO 11358-1:2022)

Ta dokument določa splošne pogoje za analizo polimerov z uporabo termogravimetrijskih tehnik. Uporablja se za tekočine ali trdne snovi. Trdni materiali imajo lahko obliko peletov, granul ali praškov. S to metodo je mogoče analizirati tudi izdelane oblikovance, prilagojene ustrezni velikosti preskušanca. Ta dokument določa metode za raziskovanje fizikalnih učinkov in kemijskih reakcij, povezanih s spremembami mase. Dokument je mogoče uporabiti za določanje temperatur in stopenj razgradnje polimerov ter obenem izmeriti količine hlapnih snovi, aditivov in/ali polnil, ki jih polimeri vsebujejo. Ta dokument se uporablja za dinamične meritve (sprememba mase v primerjavi s temperaturo ali časom v programiranih razmerah) ali izotermno (sprememba mase v primerjavi s časom pri stalni temperaturi). Ta dokument se uporablja za meritve pri različnih preskusnih atmosferah, kot je ločevanje razgradnje v inertni atmosferi od oksidativne razgradnje.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Apr-2022
Withdrawal Date
30-Oct-2022
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
27-Apr-2022
Completion Date
27-Apr-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
01-junij-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2014
Polimerni materiali - Termogravimetrija (TG) polimerov - 1. del: Splošna načela
(ISO 11358-1:2022)
Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1: General principles (ISO 11358-
1:2022)
Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze
(ISO 11358-1:2022)
Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO
11358-1:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022


EN ISO 11358-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPÉENNE

April 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 83.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 11358-1:2014
English Version

Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1:
General principles (ISO 11358-1:2022)
Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren -
Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 11358-1:2022) Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (ISO 11358-1:2022)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 January 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this
European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references
concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN
member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by
translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management
Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and
United Kingdom.





EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11358-1:2022 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
EN ISO 11358-1:2022 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 3

2

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
EN ISO 11358-1:2022 (E)
European foreword
This document (EN ISO 11358-1:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics"
in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by
NBN.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2022, and conflicting national standards shall
be withdrawn at the latest by October 2022.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 11358-1:2014.
Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards
body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the
following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of
North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the
United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice
The text of ISO 11358-1:2022 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 11358-1:2022 without any
modification.

3

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11358-1
Second edition
2022-03
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of
polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
Plastiques — Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on
the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below
or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii
  © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
Contents Page
Foreword .iv
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Principle . 2
5 Apparatus . 2
6 Test specimen preparation . 3
6.1 General . 3
6.2 Test specimens from finished products . 3
6.3 Test specimen conditioning . 3
6.4 Test specimen mass . . 3
7 Calibration .3
7.1 Mass calibration . 3
7.2 Temperature calibration . 3
8 Procedure .5
8.1 General . 5
8.2 Temperature scanning mode . 5
8.3 Isothermal mode . 6
8.4 Buoyancy correction . 6
9 Expression of results . 6
9.1 Graphical representation . 6
9.2 Determination of increase in mass . 6
9.3 Determination of loss in mass. 7
9.3.1 Single-stage decrease in mass . 7
9.3.2 Multi-stage decrease in mass . 8
9.3.3 Determination of residue . 11
10 Test report .11
Annex A (informative) Calibration materials for Curie-point temperature calibration .12
Bibliography .13
iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to
the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see
www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 5, Physical
chemical properties, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical
Committee CEN/TC 249, Plastics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between
ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11358-1:2014), which has been technically
revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— a normative reference to ISO 472 has been added;
— definitions specified in ISO 472 have been removed;
— measurement under reactive atmosphere has been added;
— the apparatus specifications have been changed;
— the calibration procedures have been revised;
— buoyancy correction has been added;
— use of a differential thermogravimetric curve has been added.
A list of all parts in the ISO 11358 series can be found on the ISO website.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
iv
  © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
1 Scope
This document specifies general conditions for the analysis of polymers using thermogravimetric
techniques. It is applicable to liquids or solids. Solid materials can be in the form of pellets, granules or
powders. Fabricated shapes reduced to appropriate specimen size can also be analysed by this method.
This document establishes methods for the investigation of physical effects and chemical reactions that
are associated with changes of mass.
This document can be used to determine the temperature(s) and rate(s) of decomposition of polymers,
and to measure at the same time the amounts of volatile matter, additives and/or fillers they contain.
This document is applicable to measurements in dynamic mode (mass change versus temperature or
time under programmed temperature conditions) or isothermal mode (mass change versus time at
constant temperature).
This document is applicable to measurements at different testing atmospheres, such as separation of
decomposition in an inert atmosphere from oxidative degradation.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472 and the following apply:
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardisation at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
dynamic mass-change determination
technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with temperature, T, which is
changing at a programmed rate
3.2
isothermal mass-change determination
technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with time t at constant temperature T
1
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 11358-1:2022
ISO 11358-1:2022(E)
3.3
Curie temperature
temperature at which a ferromagnetic material passes from the ferromagnetic state to the paramagnetic
state or vice versa
4 Principle
A test specimen is heated at specified rates with a controlled temperature programme, and the change
in mass is measured as a function of temperature (dynamic mass-change determination). Alternatively,
the specimen is kept at a given constant temperature and the change in mass is measured as a function
of time over a given period (isothermal mass-change determination).
During measurement, the test specimen is held in a controlled inert, oxidising or otherwise reactive
atmosphere.
In general, the reactions which cause the mass of a test specimen to change are decomposition or
oxidation reactions or the volatilisation of a component. In some cases, measurements with special
reaction gases may also be carried out.
The change in mass vs. temperature and/or time is recorded as a thermogravimetric (TG) curve.
The change in mass of a material as a function of temperature and the extent of this change are indicators
of the thermal stability of the material. TG data may therefore be used to evaluate the relative thermal
stability of polymers of the same generic family and polymer-polymer or polymer-additive interactions,
using measurements made under the same test conditions.
NOTE TG data can be used for process control, process development and material evaluation. Long-term
thermal stability is a complex function of service and environmental conditions. TG data alone cannot be able to
describe the long-term thermal stability of a polymer.
5 Apparatus
A number of commercial instruments suitable for thermogravimetric measurements are available. The
basic apparatus consists of the following.
5.1 Thermobalance, meeting the following requirements:
— capability to generate constant heating and cooling rates suitable for intended measurements;
— capability to maintain the test temperature constant (to within ±0,3 K or less for the duration of
measurement);
— capability to main
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
01-februar-2021
Polimerni materiali - Termogravimetrija (TG) polimerov - 1. del: Splošna načela
(ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020)
Plastics - Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers - Part 1: General principles (ISO/DIS
11358-1:2020)
Kunststoffe - Thermogravimetrie (TG) von Polymeren - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze
(ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020)
Plastiques - Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères - Partie 1: Principes généraux
(ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 11358-1
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 11358-1
ISO/TC 61/SC 5 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-12-09 2021-03-03
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
Plastiques — Thermogravimétrie (TG) des polymères —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
ICS: 83.080.01
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
©
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting
on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address
below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Principle . 2
5 Apparatus . 2
6 Test specimen preparation . 3
6.1 General . 3
6.2 Test specimens from finished products . 3
6.3 Test specimen conditioning . 3
6.4 Test specimen mass . 3
7 Calibration . 3
7.1 Mass calibration . 3
7.2 Temperature calibration . 3
8 Procedure. 5
8.1 General . 5
8.2 Temperature scanning mode . 5
8.3 Isothermal mode . 6
8.4 Buoyancy correction . 6
9 Expression of results . 6
9.1 Graphical representation . 6
9.2 Determination of increase in mass . 6
9.3 Determination of loss in mass . 8
9.3.1 Single-stage decrease in mass (see Figure 3) . . 8
9.3.2 Multi-stage decrease in mass (see Figure 4) . 9
9.3.3 Determination of residue .11
10 Test report .11
Annex A (informative) Calibration materials for Curie-point temperature calibration .12
Bibliography .13
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)

Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the
World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/
iso/ foreword .html.
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 5, Physical
chemical properties.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11358-1:2014), which has been technically
revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— addition of ISO 472 to the Normative references clause and removal of definitions specified therein;
— addition of measurement under reactive atmosphere;
— revision of apparatus specifications;
— revision of calibration procedures;
— addition of buoyancy correction;
— addition of using a differential thermogravimetric curve.
A list of all parts in the ISO 11358 series can be found on the ISO website.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)
Plastics — Thermogravimetry (TG) of polymers —
Part 1:
General principles
1 Scope
This document specifies general conditions for the analysis of polymers using thermogravimetric
techniques. It is applicable to liquids or solids. Solid materials may be in the form of pellets, granules or
powders. Fabricated shapes reduced to appropriate specimen size may also be analysed by this method.
This document establishes methods for the investigation of physical effects and chemical reactions that
are associated with changes of mass.
Thermogravimetry can be used to determine the temperature(s) and rate(s) of decomposition of
polymers, and to measure at the same time the amounts of volatile matter, additives and/or fillers they
contain.
Thermogravimetric measurements can be carried out in dynamic mode (mass change versus
temperature or time under programmed temperature conditions) or isothermal mode (mass change
versus time at constant temperature).
Thermogravimetric measurements can also be carried out using different testing atmospheres, e.g. to
separate decomposition in an inert atmosphere from oxidative degradation.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary
ISO 11357-1, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 1: General principles
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472 and the following apply:
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardisation at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
dynamic mass-change determination
technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with temperature T which is
changing at a programmed rate
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)

3.2
isothermal mass-change determination
technique for recording the variation of the mass of a test specimen with time t at constant temperature T
3.3
Curie temperature
temperature at which a ferromagnetic material passes from the ferromagnetic state to the paramagnetic
state or vice versa
4 Principle
A test specimen is heated at specified rates with a controlled temperature programme, and the change
in mass is measured as a function of temperature. Alternatively, the specimen is kept at a given constant
temperature and the change in mass is measured as a function of time over a given period.
During measurement the test specimen is held in a controlled inert, oxidising or otherwise reactive
atmosphere.
In general, the reactions which cause the mass of a test specimen to change are decomposition or
oxidation reactions or the volatilisation of a component. In some cases, measurements with special
reaction gases may also be carried out.
The change in mass vs. temperature and/or time is recorded as a thermogravimetric (TG) curve.
The change in mass of a material as a function of temperature and the extent of this change are
indicators of the thermal stability of the material. TG data can therefore be used to evaluate the relative
thermal stability of polymers of the same generic family and polymer-polymer or polymer-additive
interactions, using measurements made under the same test conditions.
NOTE TG data can be used for process control, process development and material evaluation. Long-term
thermal stability is a complex function of service and environmental conditions. TG data alone cannot be able to
describe the long-term thermal stability of a polymer.
5 Apparatus
A number of commercial instruments suitable for thermogravimetric measurements are available. The
basic apparatus consists of the following.
5.1 Thermobalance, meeting the following requirements:
— capability to generate constant heating and cooling rates suitable for intended measurements;
— capability to maintain the test temperature constant (to within ±0,3 K or less for the duration of
measurement);
— capability to maintain a constant purge gas flow rate controllable to within ±10 % over the range of
flow rates (e.g. 10 ml/min to 150 ml/min) required for intended measurements;
— temperature and mass range in line with experimental requirements;
— recording device capable of automatically recording the measured curve of mass versus temperature
and time;
NOTE Some instruments can also display differential thermogravimetric curves (DTG curves) for improved
evaluation of results.
— measurement of temperature signals with an accuracy of ±1 % of the absolute temperature
measured in K or better;
— measurement of time with an accuracy of ±1 s or better;
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved

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oSIST prEN ISO 11358-1:2021
ISO/DIS 11358-1:2020(E)

— measurement of mass with an accuracy of ±20 µg or better.
5.2 Purge gas, dry air or oxygen (oxidizing conditions) or a suitable inert gas with an oxygen content
of 0,001 % by volume or less (non-oxidizing conditions). In either case, the water content of the purge
gas shall be less than 0,001 % by mass.
6 Test specimen preparation
6.1 General
Test specimens may be liquids or solids. Solids may be in the form of powders, pellets, granules or cut
pieces. For finished products, the test specimen shall be in the form normally found in use.
6.2 Test specimens from finished products
Cut the test specimen to appropriate size for the specimen holder. Microtomes or razor blades are
suitable for this purpose.
NOTE Test specimen size and shape are generally dependent on the sample holder. Surface area affects the
overall results. For instance, in comparing a test specimen of large surf
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