Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements

This European Standard defines and gives the specifications of 27 distinct common cements, 7 sulfate resisting common cements as well as 3 distinct low early strength blast furnace cements and 2 sulfate resisting low early strength blast furnace cements and their constituents. The definition of each cement includes the proportions in which the constituents are to be combined to produce these distinct products in a range of nine strength classes. The definition also includes requirements which the constituents have to meet. It also includes mechanical, physical, and chemical requirements. Furthermore, this standard states the conformity criteria and the related rules. Necessary durability requirements are also given.
In addition to those sulfate resisting cements defined in the present document, other cements conforming either to this standard or to other standards, European or national, have been nationally demonstrated to have sulfate resisting properties. These cements which are listed in Annex A, are considered by different CEN Member countries as sulfate resisting within the limits of their territory.
NOTE 1   In addition to the specified requirements, an exchange of additional information between the cement manufacturer and user can be helpful. The procedures for such an exchange are not within the scope of this standard but should be dealt with in accordance with national standards or regulations or can be agreed between the parties concerned.
NOTE 2   The word "cement" in EN 197-1 is used to refer only to common cements unless otherwise specified.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   very low heat special cement covered by EN 14216;
-   supersulfated cement covered by EN 15743;
-   calcium aluminate cement covered by EN 14647;
masonry cement covered by EN 413-1.

Zement - Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformitätskriterien von Normalzement

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Eigenschaften und Anforderungen von 27 unterschiedlichen Normalzementen, sieben Normalzementen mit hohem Sulfatwiderstand, drei unterschiedlichen Hochofenzementen mit niedriger Anfangsfestigkeit und zwei Hochofenzementen mit niedriger Anfangsfestigkeit und hohem Sulfatwiderstand sowie ihren Bestandteilen fest. Die Definition jeder Zementart enthält die Anteile der Bestandteile, die erforderlich sind, um diese verschiedenen Produkte in neun Festigkeitsklassen herzustellen. Die Definition enthält auch die Anforderungen, die die Bestandteile erfüllen müssen, sowie die Anforderungen an die mechanischen, physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaften. Darüber hinaus enthält diese Norm die Konformitätskriterien und die damit verbundenen Regeln sowie die erforderlichen Anforderungen an die Dauerhaftigkeit.
Neben den in diesem Dokument definierten Zementen mit hohem Sulfatwiderstand gibt es weitere Zemente, die entweder dieser Norm oder anderen Normen, ob europäisch oder national, entsprechen und deren Sulfatwiderstandsfähigkeit unter nationalen Bedingungen nachgewiesen wurde. Diese Zemente, die in Anhang A aufgeführt sind, gelten in den jeweiligen CEN-Mitgliedsländern innerhalb ihrer Länder als sulfat-widerstandsfähig.
ANMERKUNG 1   Neben den festgelegten Anforderungen kann ein Austausch von zusätzlichen Informationen zwischen Zementhersteller und -anwender sinnvoll sein. Die Vorgehensweisen für einen solchen Austausch sind nicht Gegenstand dieser Norm, sondern sie sollten in Übereinstimmung mit den nationalen Normen oder Vorschriften festgelegt werden oder können zwischen den Beteiligten vereinbart werden.
ANMERKUNG 2   Wenn nicht anders angegeben, bezieht sich das Wort „Zement“ in EN 197-1 nur auf Normalzemente.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für:
-   Sonderzement mit sehr niedriger Hydratationswärme nach EN 14216;
-   Sulfathüttenzement nach EN 15743;
-   Tonerdezement nach EN 14647;
-   Putz- und Mauerbinder nach EN 413-1.

Ciment - Partie 1 : Composition, spécifications et critères de conformité des ciments courants

La présente norme européenne définit et présente les spécifications de 27 ciments courants différents, de 7 ciments courants résistants aux sulfates, de 3 ciments de haut fourneau différents à faible résistance à court terme, de 2 ciments de haut fourneau à faible résistance à court terme résistants aux sulfates et de leurs constituants. La définition de chaque ciment inclut les proportions dans lesquelles les constituants doivent être associés pour obtenir ces produits différents dans une plage de neuf classes de résistance. La définition inclut également les exigences auxquelles les constituants doivent satisfaire. Elle inclut également les exigences mécaniques, physiques et chimiques. Par ailleurs, la présente norme établit les critères de conformité et les règles correspondantes. En outre, il est fait référence aux exigences relatives à la durabilité.
En plus des ciments résistants aux sulfates définis dans le présent document, il a été démontré à un niveau national que d’autres ciments conformes à la présente norme ou à d’autres normes européennes ou nationales, présentaient des propriétés de résistance aux sulfates. Ces ciments, dont la liste est fournie à l’Annexe A, sont considérés par différents pays membres du CEN comme des ciments résistants aux sulfates dans les limites de leur territoire.
NOTE 1   En plus de ces exigences, il peut s'avérer utile que le fabricant et l'utilisateur du ciment échangent des informations complémentaires. Les procédures afférentes à un tel échange ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application de la présente norme, mais il convient qu'elles soient traitées conformément aux normes ou règlements nationaux ; elles peuvent également faire l'objet d'un accord entre les parties concernées.
NOTE 2   Sauf spécification contraire, le mot « ciment » est uniquement utilisé dans la présente norme pour qualifier les ciments courants.
La présente européenne ne couvre pas :
- les ciments spéciaux à très faible chaleur d’hydratation couvert par l’EN 14216 ;
- les ciments sursulfatés couvert par l’EN 15743 ;
- les ciments d’aluminates de calcium couvert par l’EN 14647 ;
- les ciments à maçonner couverts par l’EN 413-1.

Cement - 1. del: Sestava, zahteve in merila skladnosti za običajne cemente

Ta evropski standard določa in postavlja zahteve za 27 različnih običajnih cementov, 7 sulfatnoodpornih običajnih cementov, prav tako pa tudi za 3 različne žlindrine cemente z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo in 2 žlindrina sulfatnoodporna cementa z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo ter njihove sestavine. Definicija vsakega cementa vključuje deleže, v katerih je treba sestavine mešati, da bi se proizvedli ti različni proizvodi, ki obsegajo devet trdnostnih razredov. Definicija vključuje tudi zahteve, katerim morajo ustrezati sestavine. Vključuje tudi mehanske, fizikalne in kemijske zahteve. Nadalje ta standard določa tudi merila skladnosti in s tem povezana pravila. Podane so tudi potrebne zahteve za trajnost. Poleg sulfatnoodpornih cementov, opredeljenih v tem dokumentu, so kot odporni proti sulfatni agresiji potrjeni na nacionalni ravni še drugi cementi, ki so skladni bodisi s tem standardom ali z drugimi standardi, evropskimi ali nacionalnimi. Cementi, navedeni v dodatku A, so po mnenju predstavnikov CEN iz različnih držav sulfatno odporni z omejitvami glede na mesto uporabe. OPOMBA 1: Poleg predpisanih zahtev je pomembna tudi izmenjava dodatnih informacij med proizvajalcem cementa in uporabnikom. Postopki za takšno izmenjavo v tem standardu niso obravnavani, temveč naj bi bili obravnavani skladno z nacionalnimi standardi ali predpisi, lahko pa se zanje dogovorita zainteresirani stranki.
OPOMBA 2: Beseda “cement” se v EN 197-1 uporablja samo v zvezi z običajnimi cementi, če ni določeno drugače.
Ta standard ne vključuje:
– specialnih cementov z zelo nizko toploto hidratacije, ki so vključeni v EN 14216,
– supersulfatnih cementov, vključenih v EN 15743,
– kalcijevega aluminatnega cementa, vključenega v EN 14647,
– zidarskega cementa, vključenega v EN 413-1.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Sep-2011
Current Stage
9020 - Submission to 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
15-Apr-2022
Completion Date
15-Apr-2022

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Zement - Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformitätskriterien für NormalzementCiment - Partie 1: Composition, spécifications et critères des conformité des ciments courantsCement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements91.100.10Cement. Mavec. Apno. MaltaCement. Gypsum. Lime. MortarICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 197-1:2011SIST EN 197-1:2011en,fr,de01-december-2011SIST EN 197-1:2011SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 197-1:2001/oprA2:2006SIST EN 197-4:2004SIST EN 197-4:2004/oprA1:2006SIST EN 197-1:2001SIST EN 197-1:2001/A1:2004SIST EN 197-1:2001/A3:20081DGRPHãþD

SIST EN 197-1:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 197-1

September 2011 ICS 91.100.10 Supersedes EN 197-1:2000, EN 197-4:2004English Version

Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements

Ciment - Partie 1 : Composition, spécifications et critères des conformité des ciments courants

Zement - Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformitätskriterien von Normalzement This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 August 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 197-1:2011: ESIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 2 Contents

Page Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 61 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 72 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 73 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 84 Cement ................................................................................................................................................... 95 Constituents ........................................................................................................................................ 105.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 105.2 Main constituents ............................................................................................................................... 105.2.1 Portland cement clinker (K) ............................................................................................................... 105.2.2 Granulated blast furnace slag (S) ..................................................................................................... 115.2.3 Pozzolanic materials (P, Q) ................................................................................................................ 115.2.4 Fly ashes (V, W) .................................................................................................................................. 115.2.5 Burnt shale (T) ..................................................................................................................................... 125.2.6 Limestone (L, LL) ................................................................................................................................ 135.2.7 Silica fume (D) ..................................................................................................................................... 135.3 Minor additional constituents ............................................................................................................ 135.4 Calcium sulfate ................................................................................................................................... 145.5 Additives .............................................................................................................................................. 146 Composition and notation ................................................................................................................. 146.1 Composition and notation of common cements ............................................................................. 146.2 Composition and notation of sulfate resisting common cements (SR-Cements) ....................... 166.3 Composition and notation of low early strength common cements ............................................. 177 Mechanical, physical, chemical and durability requirements ........................................................ 177.1 Mechanical requirements ................................................................................................................... 177.1.1 Standard strength ............................................................................................................................... 177.1.2 Early strength ...................................................................................................................................... 177.2 Physical requirements ........................................................................................................................ 187.2.1 Initial setting time ............................................................................................................................... 187.2.2 Soundness ........................................................................................................................................... 187.2.3 Heat of hydration ................................................................................................................................ 187.3 Chemical requirements ...................................................................................................................... 187.4 Durability requirements ...................................................................................................................... 197.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 197.4.2 Sulfate resistance ............................................................................................................................... 198 Standard designation ......................................................................................................................... 209 Conformity criteria .............................................................................................................................. 229.1 General requirements ......................................................................................................................... 229.2 Conformity criteria for mechanical, physical and chemical properties and evaluation procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 249.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 249.2.2 Statistical conformity criteria ............................................................................................................ 249.2.3 Single result conformity criteria ........................................................................................................ 279.3 Conformity criteria for cement composition .................................................................................... 289.4 Conformity criteria for properties of the cement constituents ...................................................... 29SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 3 Annex A (informative)

List of common cements considered as sulfate resisting by National Standards in different CEN member countries but not included in Table 2 or not fulfilling the requirements given in Table 5 .............................................................................................................................................. 30Annex ZA (informative)

Clauses of this European standard addressing the provisions of the EU Construction Products Directive ....................................................................................................... 31ZA.1 Scope and relevant characteristics ................................................................................................... 31ZA.2 Procedure for the attestation of conformity of products ................................................................ 33ZA.2.1 System of attestation of conformity .................................................................................................. 33ZA.2.2 EC certificate of conformity ............................................................................................................... 34ZA.3 CE marking and labelling ................................................................................................................... 35Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 38 SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 4

Foreword This document (EN 197-1:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 51 “Cement and building limes”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 197-1:2000, EN 197-4:2004. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of EN 197-1. Annexes A and ZA are informative. In addition to consolidating EN 197-1:2000/A1:2004, EN 197-1:2000/prA2, EN 197-1:2000/A3:2007, EN 197-4:2004 and EN 197-4:2004/prA1 into a single standard, the principal changes from EN 197-1:2000 are the introduction of additional requirements for common cements with a low heat of hydration and common cements with sulfate resisting properties. The preparation of a standard for cement was initiated by the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1969 and, at the request of a member state later in 1973, the work was given to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The Technical Committee CEN/TC 51 was entrusted with the task of preparing a cement standard for the countries of Western Europe, comprising the EEC and EFTA members. In the early eighties, CEN/TC 51 decided to include in the standard for cement only those cements which are intended for use in any plain and reinforced concrete and which are familiar in most countries in Western Europe because they have been produced and used in these countries for many years. The EU Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC) requires the incorporation of all traditional and well-tried cements in order to remove technical barriers to trade in the construction field. There are currently no criteria for the descriptions "traditional" and "well tried" and it was considered necessary to separate the “common cements” from special cements, i.e. those with additional or special properties. The requirements in this standard are based on the results of tests on cement in accordance with EN 196-1, EN 196-2, EN 196-3, EN 196-5, EN 196-6, EN 196-7, EN 196-8, and EN 196-9. The scheme for the evaluation of conformity of common cements including common cements with low heat of hydration and common cements generally accepted as being sulfate resisting are specified in EN 197-2. In order to find out which common cements are generally accepted as being sulfate resisting and should be included in EN 197-1, there was an investigation within CEN/TC 51 comprising all national specifications and recommendations in the European Union. The review of these investigations led to the following results:  a wide variety of cements has been classified in the EU Member States as sulfate resisting. This is due to the different geographical and climatic conditions under which sulfate attacks on mortar and concrete occur at the place of use and the traditionally different rules governing the production and use of sulfate resistant mortars and concretes;  sulfate resistance is an additional property and therefore sulfate resisting cements have first to conform to the requirements of the standards which define the product, e.g. EN 197-1 for common cements; SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 5  the additional requirements to be met by the nationally specified sulfate resisting cements refer to selected characteristics for which the required limit values are more stringent than those for common cements;

 having satisfied the local requirements for various cement types many countries apply further restrictions to the production of concrete to be used in a sulfate environment, such as minimum cement contents and/or maximum water/cement ratio that vary depending on the cement type and the type and intensity of the sulfate conditions. Based on the above results common cement types to be harmonized at the European level have been chosen. The predominant part of the common cements considered to be sulfate resisting in the market is covered by this selection. It was not possible to take into account national particularities the use of which is laid down within national standards, national application rules and regulations/provisions. The strength attained at 28 days is the important criterion in classifying cement for most uses. In order to achieve a specific strength class at 28 days the early strength, at 2 days or at 7 days, can vary and some types of cement may not attain the minimum early strengths specified in EN 197-1 for common cements. The heat of hydration is linked to the early reactivity and lower early strengths indicate lower heat evolution and lower temperatures in concrete. For these cements additional precautions in use can be necessary to ensure adequate curing and safety in construction. The purpose of this standard is to specify the composition requirements and conformity requirements for common cements, including common cements with low heat of hydration and common cements with adequate sulfate resistance as well as low early strength blast furnace cements and low early strength blast furnace cements with low heat of hydration. Cement types and strength classes defined in this European Standard allow the specifier and/or the user to fulfil objectives of sustainability for cement based constructions. Cement types produced by using constituents listed and defined in Clause 5 allow the manufacturer to minimize the use of natural resources in accordance with local conditions of production. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 6 Introduction It is recognised that different cements have different properties and performance. Those performance tests now available (i.e. setting time, strength, soundness and heat of hydration), have been included in this standard. In addition, work is being carried out by CEN/TC 51 to identify any additional tests which are needed to specify further performance characteristics of cement. Until further performance tests are available it is necessary that the choice of cement, especially the type and/or strength class in relation to the requirements for durability depending on exposure class and type of construction in which it is incorporated, follows the appropriate standards and/or regulations for concrete or mortar valid in the place of use. SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 7 1 Scope This European Standard defines and gives the specifications of 27 distinct common cements, 7 sulfate resisting common cements as well as 3 distinct low early strength blast furnace cements and 2 sulfate resisting low early strength blast furnace cements and their constituents. The definition of each cement includes the proportions in which the constituents are to be combined to produce these distinct products in a range of nine strength classes. The definition also includes requirements which the constituents have to meet. It also includes mechanical, physical, and chemical requirements. Furthermore, this standard states the conformity criteria and the related rules. Necessary durability requirements are also given. In addition to those sulfate resisting cements defined in the present document, other cements conforming either to this standard or to other standards, European or national, have been nationally demonstrated to have sulfate resisting properties. These cements which are listed in Annex A, are considered by different CEN Member countries as sulfate resisting within the limits of their territory. NOTE 1 In addition to the specified requirements, an exchange of additional information between the cement manufacturer and user can be helpful. The procedures for such an exchange are not within the scope of this standard but should be dealt with in accordance with national standards or regulations or can be agreed between the parties concerned. NOTE 2 The word “cement” in EN 197-1 is used to refer only to common cements unless otherwise specified. This European Standard does not cover:  very low heat special cement covered by EN 14216;  supersulfated cement covered by EN 15743;  calcium aluminate cement covered by EN 14647;  masonry cement covered by EN 413-1. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 196-1, Methods of testing cement — Part 1: Determination of strength EN 196-2, Methods of testing cement — Part 2: Chemical analysis of cement EN 196-3, Methods of testing cement — Part 3: Determination of setting times and soundness EN 196-5, Methods of testing cement — Part 5: Pozzolanicity test for pozzolanic cement EN 196-6, Methods of testing cement — Part 6: Determination of fineness EN 196-7, Methods of testing cement — Part 7: Methods of taking and preparing samples of cement EN 196-8, Methods of testing cement — Part 8: Heat of hydration — Solution method EN 196-9, Methods of testing cement — Part 9: Heat of hydration — Semi-adiabatic method EN 197-2:2000, Cement — Part 2: Conformity evaluation EN 451-1, Method of testing fly ash — Part 1: Determination of free calcium oxide content SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 8 EN 933-9, Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates — Part 9: Assessment of fines - Methylene blue test EN 13639, Determination of total organic carbon in limestone ISO 9277, Determination of the specific surface area of solids by gas adsorption  BET method ISO 9286, Abrasive grains and crude — Chemical analysis of silicon carbide 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 reactive calcium oxide (CaO) fraction of the calcium oxide which, under normal hardening conditions, can form calcium silicate hydrates or calcium aluminate hydrates NOTE To evaluate this fraction, the total calcium oxide content (see EN 196-2) is reduced by the fraction corresponding to calcium carbonate (CaCO3), based on the measured carbon dioxide (CO2) content (see EN 196-2), and the fraction corresponding to calcium sulfate (CaSO4), based on the measured sulfate (SO3) content (see EN 196-2) after subtraction of the SO3 taken up by alkalis. 3.2 reactive silicon dioxide (SiO2) fraction of the silicon dioxide which is soluble after treatment with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and with boiling potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution NOTE The quantity of reactive silicon dioxide is determined by subtracting from the total silicon dioxide content (see EN 196-2) the fraction contained in the residue insoluble in hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide (see EN 196-2), both on a dry basis. 3.3 main constituent specially selected inorganic material in a proportion exceeding 5 % by mass related to the sum of all main and minor additional constituents 3.4 minor additional constituent specially selected inorganic material used in a proportion not exceeding a total of 5 % by mass related to the sum of all main and minor additional constituents 3.5 type of common cement one of the 27 products (see Table 1) in the family of common cements 3.6 strength class of cement class of compressive strength 3.7 autocontrol testing continual testing by the manufacturer of cement spot samples taken at the point(s) of release from the factory/depot 3.8 control period period of production and dispatch identified for the evaluation of the autocontrol test results SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 9 3.9 characteristic value value of a required property outside of which lies a specified percentage, the percentile Pk , of all the values of the population 3.10 specified characteristic value characteristic value of a mechanical, physical or chemical property which in the case of an upper limit is not to be exceeded or in the case of a lower limit is, as a minimum, to be reached 3.11 single result limit value value of a mechanical, physical or chemical property which – for any single test result – in the case of an upper limit is not to be exceeded or in the case of a lower limit is, as a minimum, to be reached 3.12 allowable probability of acceptance CR for a given sampling plan, allowed probability of acceptance of cement with a characteristic value outside the specified characteristic value 3.13 sampling plan specific plan which states the (statistical) sample size(s) to be used, the percentile Pk and the allowable probability of acceptance CR 3.14 spot sample sample which is taken at the same time and from one and the same place, relating to the intended tests, and which can be obtained by combining one or more immediately consecutive increments

NOTE See EN 196-7. 3.15 heat of hydration quantity of heat developed by the hydration of a cement within a given period of time 3.16 low heat common cement common cement with a limited heat of hydration 3.17 sulfate resisting common cement common cement which fulfils the requirements for sulfate resisting properties

3.18 low heat low early strength blast furnace cement low early strength blast furnace cement with a limited heat of hydration 3.19 sulfate resisting low early strength blast furnace cement low early strength blast furnace cement which fulfils the requirements for sulfate resisting properties 4 Cement Cement is a hydraulic binder, i.e. a finely ground inorganic material which, when mixed with water, forms a paste which sets and hardens by means of hydration reactions and processes and which, after hardening, retains its strength and stability even under water. SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 10 Cement conforming to this standard, termed CEM cement, shall, when appropriately batched and mixed with aggregate and water, be capable of producing concrete or mortar which retains its workability for a sufficient time and shall after defined periods attain specified strength levels and also possess long-term volume stability. Hydraulic hardening of CEM cement is primarily due to the hydration of calcium silicates but other chemical compounds may also participate in the hardening process, e.g. aluminates. The sum of the proportions of reactive calcium oxide (CaO) and reactive silicon dioxide (SiO2) in CEM cement shall be at least 50 % by mass when the proportions are determined in accordance with EN 196-2. CEM cements consist of different materials and are statistically homogeneous in composition resulting from quality assured production and material handling processes. The link between these production and material handling processes and the conformity of cement to this standard is elaborated in EN 197-2. NOTE There are also cements whose hardening is mainly due to other compounds, e.g. calcium aluminate in calcium aluminate cement. 5 Constituents 5.1 General The requirements for the constituents specified in 5.2 to 5.5 shall be determined in principle in accordance with the test methods described in EN 196 unless otherwise specified. 5.2 Main constituents 5.2.1 Portland cement clinker (K) Portland cement clinker is made by sintering a precisely specified mixture of raw materials (raw meal, paste or slurry) containing elements, usually expressed as oxides, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and small quantities of other materials. The raw meal, paste or slurry is finely divided, intimately mixed and therefore homogeneous. Portland cement clinker is a hydraulic material which shall consist of at least two-thirds by mass of calcium silicates (3CaO ⋅ SiO2 and 2CaO ⋅ SiO2), the remainder consisting of aluminium and iron containing clinker phases and other compounds. The ratio by mass (CaO)/(SiO2) shall be not less than 2,0. The content of magnesium oxide (MgO) shall not exceed 5,0 % by mass. Portland cement clinker incorporated in sulfate resisting Portland cement (CEM I) and sulfate resisting pozzolanic cements (CEM IV) shall fulfil additional requirements for tricalcium aluminate content (C3A). The tricalcium aluminate content of the clinker shall be calculated by Equation (1) as follows: C3A = 2,65 A – 1,69 F (1) where A is the percentage of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) by mass of the clinker as determined in accordance with EN 196-2 F is the percentage of iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) by mass of the clinker as determined in accordance with EN 196-2. NOTE It may happen that a negative C3A value is obtained from the calculation. In this case, the value 0 % should be recorded. A test method to determine the C3A content of clinker from the analysis of a spot sample of cement is currently under development by CEN/TC 51. Until this method is available, the C3A content should be directly measured on the clinker. In the specific case of CEM I, it is permissible to calculate the C3A content of clinker from the chemical analysis of the cement. The minimum frequency of testing and the use of alternative methods for the direct or indirect evaluation of C3A should be included in the factory production control (see EN 197-2). A typical frequency of testing is two per month in routine situations. SIST EN 197-1:2011

EN 197-1:2011 (E) 11 Sulfate resisting Portland cements and sulfate resisting pozzolanic cements are made with Portland cement clinker in which the C3A content does not exceed:  For CEM I:

0 %, 3 % or 5 % as appropriate (see 6.2)  For CEM IV/A and CEM IV/B:

9 %. 5.2.2 Granulated blast furnace slag (S) Granulated blast furnace slag is made by rapid cooling of a slag melt of suitable composition, as obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace and contains at least two-thirds by mass of glassy slag and possesses hydraulic properties when suitably activated. Granulated blast furnace slag shall consist of at least two-thirds by mass of the sum of calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO) and silicon dioxide (SiO2). The remainder contains aluminium oxide (Al2O3) together with small amounts of other compounds. The ratio by mass (CaO + MgO)/(SiO2) shall exceed 1,0. 5.2.3 Pozzolanic materials (P, Q) 5.2.3.1 General Pozzolanic materials are natural substances of siliceous or silico-aluminous composition or a combination thereof. Although fly ash and silica fume have pozzolanic properties, they are specified in separate subclauses (see 5.2.4 and 5.2.7).

...

SLOVENSKI SIST EN 197-1
STANDARD
december 2011
Cement – 1. del: Sestava, zahteve in merila skladnosti za običajne cemente
Cement – Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for
common cements
Ciment – Partie 1: Composition, spécifications et critéres de conformité de
ciments courants
Zement – Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformitäts-kriterien
von allgemeinem Zement
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 91.100.10 SIST EN 197-1:2011 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh II in III ter od 1 do 36

© 2012-09. Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 197-1 : 2011
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST EN 197-1 (sl), Cement – 1. del: Sestava, zahteve in merila skladnosti za običajne

cemente, 2011, ima status slovenskega standarda in je istoveten evropskemu standardu EN 197-1

(en) Cement – Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements, 2011.

Ta standard nadomešča SIST EN 197-1:2001, SIST EN 197-1:2001/A1:2004, SIST EN 197-

1:2001/oprA2:2006 in SIST EN 197-1:2001/A3:2008 ter SIST EN 197-4:2004 in SIST EN 197-

4:2004/oprA1:2006.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Evropski standard EN 197-1:2011 je pripravil tehnični odbor Evropskega komiteja za standardizacijo

CEN/TC 51 Cement in gradbena apna. Slovenski standard SIST EN 197-1:2011 je prevod evropskega

standarda EN 197-1:2011. V primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je

odločilen izvirni evropski standard v uradnem jeziku CEN. Slovenski prevod SIST EN 197-1:2011 je

pripravil tehnični odbor SIST/TC CAA Mineralna veziva in zidarstvo.

Odločitev za izdajo tega standarda je dne 29. novembra 2011 sprejel SIST/TC CAA Mineralna veziva

in zidarstvo.
UPORABLJENE KRATICE
CPD Construction Product Directive Direktiva o gradbenih proizvodih
EGP European Economic Area (EEA) Evropski gospodarski prostor
EGS European Economic Community Evropska gospodarska skupnost
FPC Factory Production Control kontrola proizvodnje v obratu
NPD No Performance Determined lastnost ni določena
SR Sulfate Resistant sulfatnoodporni
LH Low Heat nizka toplota hidratacije
L Low Initial Strength nizka zgodnja trdnost
N Normal Initial Strength normalna zgodnja trdnost
R Rapid Initial Strength visoka zgodnja trdnost
K Portland Clinker klinker
S Granulated Blast Furnace Slag granulirana plavžna žlindra
L, LL Limestone apnenec
(LL – TOC pod 0,2 %, L – TOC pod 0,5 %)
P Natural Pozzolana naravni pucolan
Q Natural Calcined Pozzolana naravni kalciniran pucolan
V Siliceous silicijski elektrofiltrski pepel
W Calcareous Fly Ash kalcijski elektrofiltrski pepel
T Burnt Shale žgani skrilavec
D Silica Fume mikrosilika
TOC Total Organic Carbon celotni organski ogljik
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 197-1 : 2011
ZVEZA S STANDARDI

S privzemom tega evropskega standarda veljajo za omejeni namen referenčnih standardov vsi

standardi, navedeni v izvirniku, razen tistih, ki so že sprejeti v nacionalno standardizacijo:

SIST EN 196-1 Metode preskušanja cementa – 1. del: Določanje trdnosti
SIST EN 196-2 Metode preskušanja cementa – 2. del: Kemijska analiza cementa
SIST EN 196-3 Metode preskušanja cementa – 3. del: Določanje časa vezanja in
prostorninske obstojnosti

SIST EN 196-5 Metode preskušanja cementa – 5. del: Določanje pucolanske aktivnosti za

pucolanske cemente
SIST EN 196-6 Metode preskušanja cementa – 6. del: Določanje finosti
SIST EN 196-7 Metode preskušanja cementa – 7. del: Metode odvzemanja in priprave
vzorcev cementa

SIST EN 196-8 Metode preskušanja cementa – 8. del: Toplota hidratacije – Metoda raztapljanja

SIST EN 196-9 Metode preskušanja cementa – 9. del: Toplota hidratacije – Semiadiabatska metoda

SIST EN 197-2 Cement – 2. del: Ovrednotenje skladnosti

SIST EN 451-1 Metoda preskušanja elektrofiltrskega pepela – 1. del: Ugotavljanje deleža

prostega kalcijevega oksida

SIST EN 933-9 Preskusi geometričnih lastnosti agregatov – 9. del: Ugotavljanje finih delcev –

Preskus z metilen modrim
SIST EN 13639 Določevanje celotnega organskega ogljika v apnencu

SIST ISO 9277 Določitev specifične površine trdnih snovi (v zrncih) z adsorpcijo plina s

pomočjo metode BET
ISO 9286 Abrazivna zrna in grude – Kemijske analize silicijevega karbida
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda EN 197-1:2011
PREDHODNA IZDAJA

– SIST EN 197-1:2001 Cement – 1. del: Sestava, zahteve in merila skladnosti za običajne cemente

– SIST EN 197-4:2004 Cement – 4. del: Sestava, zahteve in merila skladnosti za žlindrine cemente

z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo
OPOMBE

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz “evropski standard”, v SIST EN 197-1:2011

to pomeni “slovenski standard”.
– Uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.

– Ta nacionalni dokument je istoveten EN 197-1:2011 in je objavljen z dovoljenjem

CEN
Avenue Marnix 17
B-1050 Bruxelles

This national document is identical with EN 197-1:2011 and is published with the permission of

CEN
Avenue Marnix 17
B-1050 Bruxelles
III
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
EVROPSKI STANDARD EN 197-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM september 2011
ICS 91.100.10 Nadomešča EN 197-1:2000, EN 197-4:2004
Slovenska izdaja
Cement - 1. del: Sestava, zahteve in merila skladnosti za običajne cemente

Cement – Part 1: Composition Ciment – Partie 1: Composition Zement – Teil 1: Zusammensetzung

specifications and conformity spécifications et critéres de Anforderungen und Konformitäts-

criteria for common cements conformité de ciments courants kriterien von allgemeinem Zement

Ta evropski standard je CEN sprejel 6. avgusta 2011.

Člani CEN morajo izpolnjevati notranje predpise CEN/CENELEC, s katerimi je predpisano, da mora

biti ta standard brez kakršnih koli sprememb sprejet kot nacionalni standard. Najnovejši seznami teh

nacionalnih standardov z njihovimi bibliografskimi podatki se na zahtevo lahko dobijo pri Upravnem

centru CEN-CENELEC ali katerem koli članu CEN.

Ta evropski standard obstaja v treh uradnih izdajah (angleški, francoski in nemški). Izdaje v drugih

jezikih, ki jih člani CEN na lastno odgovornost prevedejo in izdajo ter prijavijo pri Upravnem centru

CEN, veljajo kot uradne izdaje.

Člani CEN so nacionalni organi za standarde Avstrije, Belgije, Bolgarije, Cipra, Češke republike,

Danske, Estonije, Finske, Francije, Grčije, Hrvaške, Irske, Islandije, Italije, Latvije, Litve, Luksemburga,

Madžarske, Malte, Nemčije, Nizozemske, Norveške, Poljske, Portugalske, Romunije, Slovaške,

Slovenije, Španije, Švedske, Švice in Združenega kraljestva.
CEN
Evropski komite za standardizacijo
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung
Centalni sekretariat: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Bruselj

© 2011 CEN Lastnice avtorskih pravic so vse države članice CEN Ref. oznaka EN 197-1:2011: E

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SIST EN 197-1 : 2011
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor .................................................................................................................................................4

Uvod .........................................................................................................................................................6

1 Obseg in področje uporabe ...................................................................................................................7

2 Zveze s standardi ..................................................................................................................................7

3 Izrazi in definicije ...................................................................................................................................8

4 Cement ..................................................................................................................................................9

5 Sestavine.............................................................................................................................................10

5.1 Splošno.............................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Glavne sestavine..............................................................................................................................10

5.2.1 Portlandskocementni klinker (K)....................................................................................................10

5.2.2 Granulirana plavžna žlindra (S).....................................................................................................11

5.2.3 Pucolanski materiali (P, Q)............................................................................................................11

5.2.4 Elektrofiltrski pepeli (V, W) ............................................................................................................11

5.2.5 Žgani skrilavec (T).........................................................................................................................12

5.2.6 Apnenec (L, LL).............................................................................................................................13

5.2.7 Mikrosilika (D)................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Manj pomembne sestavine ..............................................................................................................13

5.4 Kalcijev sulfat....................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Dodatki cementu...............................................................................................................................14

6 Sestava in označevanje.......................................................................................................................14

6.1 Sestava in označevanje običajnih cementov ...................................................................................14

6.2 Sestava in označevanje sulfatnoodpornih običajnih cementov (SR-cementi) .................................16

6.3 Sestava in označevanje običajnih cementov z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo...........................................16

7 Mehanske, fizikalne in kemijske zahteve ter zahteve za trajnost........................................................17

7.1 Mehanske zahteve ...........................................................................................................................17

7.1.1 Standardna trdnost........................................................................................................................17

7.1.2 Zgodnja trdnost..............................................................................................................................17

7.2 Fizikalne zahteve..............................................................................................................................17

7.2.1 Čas začetka vezanja .....................................................................................................................17

7.2.2 Prostorninska obstojnost ...............................................................................................................17

7.2.3 Toplota hidratacije .........................................................................................................................17

7.3 Kemijske zahteve ............................................................................................................................18

7.4 Zahteve za trajnost...........................................................................................................................18

7.4.1 Splošno..........................................................................................................................................18

7.4.2 Sulfatna odpornost ........................................................................................................................19

8 Standardno označevanje.....................................................................................................................19

9 Merila skladnosti..................................................................................................................................21

9.1 Splošne zahteve...............................................................................................................................21

9.2 Merila skladnosti za mehanske, fizikalne in kemijske lastnosti ter postopki vrednotenja ................23

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SIST EN 197-1 : 2011

9.2.1 Splošno..........................................................................................................................................23

9.2.2 Statistična merila skladnosti ..........................................................................................................23

9.2.3 Merila skladnosti za posamezen rezultat ......................................................................................25

9.3 Merila skladnosti za sestavo cementa..............................................................................................26

9.4 Merila skladnosti za lastnosti sestavin cementa ..............................................................................27

Dodatek A (informativni): Seznam običajnih cementov, ki po nacionalnih standardih različnih držav

članic CEN veljajo za sulfatno odporne, a niso vključeni v preglednico 2 ali ne izpolnjujejo zahtev

iz preglednice 5....................................................................................................................................28

Dodatek ZA (informativni): Točke tega evropskega standarda, ki se nanašajo na določila

Direktive EU o gradbenih proizvodih ...................................................................................................29

ZA.1 Obseg in pomembne lastnosti .......................................................................................................29

ZA.2 Postopki potrjevanja skladnosti proizvodov...................................................................................31

ZA.2.1 Sistem potrjevanja skladnosti .....................................................................................................31

ZA.2.2 EC-certifikat (ES-certifikat) o skladnosti .....................................................................................32

ZA.3 CE-označevanje in etiketiranje ......................................................................................................33

Literatura.................................................................................................................................................36

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SIST EN 197-1 : 2011
Predgovor

Ta dokument (EN 197-1:2011) je pripravil tehnični odbor CEN/TC 51 Cement in gradbena apna,

katerega sekretariat vodi NBN.

Ta evropski standard mora dobiti status nacionalnega standarda bodisi z objavo istovetnega besedila

ali z razglasitvijo najpozneje do marca 2012, nasprotujoče nacionalne standarde pa je treba

razveljaviti najpozneje do junija 2013.

Opozoriti je treba na možnost, da so nekateri elementi tega dokumenta lahko predmet patentnih

pravic. CEN (in/ali CENELEC) ne prevzema odgovornosti za ugotavljanje katere koli ali vseh takšnih

pravic.
Ta evropski standard nadomešča EN 197-1:2000 in EN 197-4:2004.

Ta dokument je bil pripravljen na podlagi mandata, ki sta ga Evropska komisija ter Evropsko združenje

za prosto trgovino dala CEN, in upošteva bistvene zahteve direktiv(-e) ES ali EU.

Za zvezo z direktivo(-ami) EU glej informativni dodatek ZA, ki je sestavni del EN 197-1.

Dodatka A in ZA sta informativna.

Poleg združitve EN 197-1:2000/A1:2004, EN 197-1:2000/prA2, EN 197-1:2000/A3:2007, EN 197-

4:2004 in EN 197-4:2004/prA1 v en standard so glavne spremembe glede na EN 197-1:2000 v uvedbi

dodatnih zahtev za običajne cemente z nizko toploto hidratacije in uvedbi običajnih cementov s

sulfatnoodpornimi lastnostmi.

Pobudo za pripravo standarda za cement je dala leta 1969 Evropska gospodarska skupnost (EGS).

Na zahtevo ene od držav članic je bilo delo leta 1973 oddano Evropskemu komiteju za standardizacijo

(CEN). Izdelava standarda za cement za zahodnoevropske države, države EGS in EFTA je bila

zaupana tehničnemu odboru CEN/TC 51.

Zato je CEN/TC 51 v zgodnjih osemdesetih letih sklenil, da v standard vključi samo tiste cemente, ki

se uporabljajo za vsak nearmirani in armirani beton in jih pozna večina držav zahodne Evrope, ker jih

proizvajajo in uporabljajo že veliko let. Direktiva EU o gradbenih proizvodih (89/106/EGS) zahteva, da

se vključijo vsi tradicionalni in dobro preskušeni cementi, da se tako odstranijo tehnične ovire pri

trgovanju na področju gradbeništva. Ker še vedno ni bilo meril za opredelitev "tradicionalen" in "dobro

preskušen", se je pokazala potreba po ločitvi "običajnih cementov" od “posebnih cementov”, ki imajo

posebne ali dodatne lastnosti.

Zahteve v tem standardu temeljijo na rezultatih preskusov cementa, opravljenih v skladu z EN 196-1,

EN 196-2, EN 196-3, EN 196-5, EN 196-6, EN 196-7, EN 196-8 in EN 196-9. Shema za ovrednotenje

skladnosti običajnih cementov, vključno z običajnimi cementi z nizko toploto hidratacije in običajnimi

cementi, splošno sprejetimi kot sulfatno odporni, je predpisana v EN 197-2.

Z namenom ugotoviti, kateri običajni cementi so sprejeti kot sulfatno odporni in bi morali biti vključeni v

EN 197-1, je bila izvedena raziskava znotraj CEN/TC 51, ki je vključevala vse nacionalne specifikacije

in priporočila v Evropski uniji. Pregled teh raziskav je privedel do naslednjih rezultatov:

– raznolikost cementov v državah članicah EU, ki so klasificirani kot sulfatno odporni, je velika.

Vzrok so različne geografske in podnebne razmere, pri katerih pride do sulfatnega napada

(sulfatne agresije) na malto ali beton, ter tradicionalno različni predpisi pri vodenju proizvodnje in

uporabi sulfatnoodpornih malt in betonov;

– sulfatna odpornost je dodatna lastnost in zato mora sulfatnoodporni cement najprej ustrezati

zahtevam standardov, ki definirajo produkt, npr. EN 197-1 za običajne cemente;

– izpolnjene morajo biti dodatne zahteve, ki jih predpisujejo nacionalne zahteve za sulfatnoodporne

cemente in se nanašajo na izbrane lastnosti, za katere so zahteve za mejne vrednosti strožje

glede na običajne cemente;
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 197-1 : 2011

– da se zadostijo lokalne zahteve za različne vrste cementov, so mnoge države dodale omejitve pri

proizvodnji betona, ki se uporablja v sulfatnem okolju, kot npr. najmanjša vsebnost cementa in/ali

največje dovoljeno razmerje voda-cement, ki je odvisno od vrste cementa ter od vrste in stopnje

sulfatnih pogojev.

Na podlagi zgoraj omenjenih rezultatov so bile izbrane vrste običajnih cementov, ki bodo

harmonizirane na evropski ravni. Prevladujoči del običajnih cementov, ki na trgu veljajo za sulfatno

odporne, je bil zajet s tem izborom. Upoštevati pa ni bilo mogoče nacionalnih posebnosti za uporabo,

ki se nanašajo na nacionalne standarde, pravila uporabe in regulativo/predpise.

Za večino namenov uporabe je pomembno merilo pri klasifikaciji cementa dosežena 28-dnevna

trdnost. Z namenom doseči določen trdnostni razred po 28 dneh lahko zgodnje trdnosti po 2 dneh ali

po 7 dneh variirajo in za nekatere vrste cementov je dovoljeno, da ne dosežejo najnižjih zgodnjih

trdnosti, določenih v EN 197-1 za običajne cementa.

Toplota hidratacije je povezana z začetno reaktivnostjo. Nizke zgodnje trdnosti razvijejo nizko toploto

hidratacije in prav tako nizke temperature v betonu. Za tovrstne cemente so potrebni dodatni ukrepi pri

uporabi, da se zagotovita ustrezna nega in varnost konstrukcije.

Namen tega standarda je predpisati zahteve za sestavo in skladnost za običajne cemente, vključno z

običajnimi cementi z nizko toploto hidratacije in običajnimi cementi s primerno sulfatno odpornostjo,

prav tako pa tudi za žlindrine cemente z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo ter žlindrine cemente z nizko zgodnjo

trdnostjo in nizko toploto hidratacije.

Vrste cementov in trdnostni razredi, opredeljeni v tem evropskem standardu, omogočajo

predpisovalcu in/ali uporabniku izpolniti zahteve trajnosti cementnih konstrukcij. Vrste cementov s

sestavinami, navedenimi in opredeljenimi v točki 5, omogočajo proizvajalcem, da zmanjšajo uporabo

naravnih virov v skladu z lokalnimi pogoji proizvodnje.

Po določilih notranjih predpisov CEN/CENELEC so ta evropski standard dolžne privzeti nacionalne

organizacije za standarde naslednjih držav: Avstrije, Belgije, Bolgarije, Cipra, Češke republike,

Danske, Estonije, Finske, Francije, Grčije, Hrvaške, Irske, Islandije, Italije, Latvije, Litve, Luksemburga,

Madžarske, Malte, Nemčije, Nizozemske, Norveške, Poljske, Portugalske, Romunije, Slovaške,

Slovenije, Španije, Švedske, Švice in Združenega kraljestva.
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SIST EN 197-1 : 2011
Uvod

Upoštevati je treba, da imajo različni cementi različne lastnosti in da se različno obnašajo v uporabi. V

ta standard so vključeni tisti preskusi obnašanja v uporabi, ki so že na voljo (npr. čas vezanja, trdnost,

prostorninska obstojnost in toplota hidratacije). CEN/TC 51 pripravlja še dodatne preskuse, ki so

potrebni za predpisovanje obnašanja cementa v uporabi. Dokler le-ti niso na voljo, mora biti izbira

cementa, posebej njegove vrste in/ali trdnostnega razreda v zvezi z zahtevami za trajnost, ki so

odvisne od stopnje izpostavljenosti in vrste konstrukcije, v katero se cement vgrajuje, v skladu z

ustreznimi standardi in/ali predpisi za beton ali malto, ki veljajo v kraju uporabe.

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SIST EN 197-1 : 2011
1 Obseg in področje uporabe

Ta evropski standard določa in postavlja zahteve za 27 različnih običajnih cementov, 7 sulfatnoodpornih

običajnih cementov, prav tako pa tudi za 3 različne žlindrine cemente z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo in

2 žlindrina sulfatnoodporna cementa z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo ter njihove sestavine. Definicija

vsakega cementa vključuje deleže, v katerih je treba sestavine mešati, da bi se proizvedli ti različni

proizvodi, ki obsegajo devet trdnostnih razredov. Definicija vključuje tudi zahteve, katerim morajo

ustrezati sestavine. Vključuje tudi mehanske, fizikalne in kemijske zahteve. Nadalje ta standard določa

tudi merila skladnosti in s tem povezana pravila. Podane so tudi potrebne zahteve za trajnost.

Poleg sulfatnoodpornih cementov, opredeljenih v tem dokumentu, so kot odporni proti sulfatni agresiji

potrjeni na nacionalni ravni še drugi cementi, ki so skladni bodisi s tem standardom ali z drugimi

standardi, evropskimi ali nacionalnimi. Cementi, navedeni v dodatku A, so po mnenju predstavnikov

CEN iz različnih držav sulfatno odporni z omejitvami glede na mesto uporabe.

OPOMBA 1: Poleg predpisanih zahtev je pomembna tudi izmenjava dodatnih informacij med proizvajalcem cementa in

uporabnikom. Postopki za takšno izmenjavo v tem standardu niso obravnavani, temveč naj bi bili obravnavani

skladno z nacionalnimi standardi ali predpisi, lahko pa se zanje dogovorita zainteresirani stranki.

OPOMBA 2: Beseda “cement” se v EN 197-1 uporablja samo v zvezi z običajnimi cementi, če ni določeno drugače.

Ta standard ne vključuje:

– specialnih cementov z zelo nizko toploto hidratacije, ki so vključeni v EN 14216,

– supersulfatnih cementov, vključenih v EN 15743,
– kalcijevega aluminatnega cementa, vključenega v EN 14647,
– zidarskega cementa, vključenega v EN 413-1.
2 Zveze s standardi

Za uporabo tega standarda so nujno potrebni spodaj navedeni dokumenti. Pri datiranih dokumentih

velja samo navedena izdaja. Pri nedatiranih dokumentih velja najnovejša izdaja dokumenta (vključno z

morebitnimi spremembami).
EN 196-1 Metode preskušanja cementa – 1. del: Določanje trdnosti
EN 196-2 Metode preskušanja cementa – 2. del: Kemijska analiza cementa
EN 196-3 Metode preskušanja cementa – 3. del: Določanje časa vezanja in
prostorninske obstojnosti
EN 196-5 Metode preskušanja cementa – 5. del: Določanje pucolanske aktivnosti za
pucolanske cemente
EN 196-6 Metode preskušanja cementa – 6. del: Določanje finosti
EN 196-7 Metode preskušanja cementa – 7. del: Metode odvzemanja in priprave
vzorcev cementa

EN 196-8 Metode preskušanja cementa – 8. del: Toplota hidratacije – Metoda raztapljanja

EN 196-9 Metode preskušanja cementa – 9. del: Toplota hidratacije – Semiadiabatska

metoda
EN 197-2 Cement – 2. del: Ovrednotenje skladnosti

EN 451-1 Metoda preskušanja elektrofiltrskega pepela – 1. del: Ugotavljanje deleža

prostega kalcijevega oksida

EN 933-9 Preskusi geometričnih lastnosti agregatov – 9. del: Ugotavljanje finih delcev –

Preskus z metilen modrim
EN 13639 Določevanje celotnega organskega ogljika v apnencu
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SIST EN 197-1 : 2011

ISO 9277 Določitev specifične površine trdnih snovi (v zrncih) z adsorpcijo plina s

pomočjo metode BET
ISO 9286 Abrazivna zrna in grude – Kemijske analize silicijevega karbida
3 Izrazi in definicije
V tem dokumentu se uporabljajo naslednji izrazi in definicije:
3.1
reaktivni kalcijev oksid (CaO)

delež kalcijevega oksida, ki pri normalnih pogojih strjevanja lahko tvori kalcijeve silikat hidrate ali

kalcijeve aluminat hidrate

OPOMBA: Za izračun tega deleža se od celotnega deleža kalcijevega oksida (glej EN 196-2) odštejeta delež, vezan v

kalcijevem karbonatu (CaCO ), izračunan na podlagi izmerjene količine ogljikovega dioksida (CO ) (glej EN

3 2

196-2), ter delež, vezan v kalcijevem sulfatu (CaSO ), izračunan na podlagi izmerjene količine sulfata (SO )

4 3
(glej EN 196-2), brez upoštevanja SO , vezanega z alkalijami.
3.2
reaktivni silicijev dioksid (SiO )

delež silicijevega dioksida, ki je po obdelavi s solno kislino (HCl) in vrelo raztopino kalijevega

hidroksida (KOH) topen

OPOMBA: Količina reaktivnega silicijevega dioksida se določi tako, da se od celotne vsebnosti silicijevega dioksida (glej

EN 196-2) odšteje tisti delež, ki ga vsebuje ostanek, netopen v solni kislini in kalijevem hidroksidu (glej EN 196-2),

oba pa sta preračunana na suho snov.
3.3
glavna sestavina

posebej izbrani neorganski material, katerega masni delež znaša več kot 5 % vsote vseh glavnih in

manj pomembnih sestavin
3.4
manj pomembna sestavina

posebej izbrani neorganski material, katerega masni delež ni večji od 5 % vsote vseh glavnih in manj

pomembnih sestavin
3.5
vrsta običajnega cementa
eden od 27 proizvodov (glej preglednico 1) v družini običajnih cementov
3.6
trdnostni razred cementa
razred tlačne trdnosti
3.7
notranje kontrolno preskušanje

stalno preskušanje vzorcev cementa, odvzetih na mestu(-ih) odpreme iz obrata ali odpremne postaje,

ki ga izvaja proizvajalec
3.8
obdobje kontrole

časovno obdobje proizvodnje in odpreme, določeno za ovrednotenje rezultatov notranjega kontrolnega

preskušanja
3.9
karakteristična vrednost

vrednost za predpisano lastnost, izven katere leži določen odstotek P vseh vrednosti populacije

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SIST EN 197-1 : 2011
3.10
predpisana karakteristična vrednost

karakteristična vrednost neke mehanske, fizikalne ali kemijske lastnosti, ki ne sme biti višja od zgornje

mejne vrednosti oziroma ne nižja od spodnje mejne vrednosti
3.11
mejna vrednost posameznega rezultata

vrednost neke mehanske, fizikalne ali kemijske lastnosti, ki – pri nobenem posameznem preskusnem

rezultatu – ne sme biti višja od zgornje mejne vrednosti oziroma ne nižja od spodnje mejne vrednosti

3.12
dovoljena verjetnost sprejemljivosti CR

dovoljena verjetnost sprejemljivosti za prevzem cementa, ki ima karakteristično vrednost izven

predpisane mejne karakteristične vrednosti, pri danem planu vzorčenja
3.13
plan vzorčenja

poseben načrt, ki določa (statistično) velikost(-i) vzorca, ki mora biti uporabljen, odstotek P in

dovoljeno verjetnost sprejemljivosti CR
3.14
naključni vzorec

vzorec, vzet ob istem času na istem mestu za nameravano preskušanje. Dobi se lahko iz enega ali

več posameznih vzorcev, odvzetih neposredno drug za drugim
OPOMBA: Glej EN 196-7.
3.15
toplota hidratacije
količina toplote, sproščene pri hidrataciji cementa v določenem času
3.16
običajni cement z nizko toploto hidratacije
običajni cement z omejeno toploto hidratacije
3.17
sulfatnoodporni običajni cement
običajni cement, ki izpolnjuje zahteve za sulfatno odpornost
3.18
žlindrin cement z nizko toploto hidratacije in nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo
žlindrin cement z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo in omejeno toploto hidratacije
3.19
sulfatnoodporni žlindrin cement z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo

žlindrin cement z nizko zgodnjo trdnostjo, ki izpolnjuje zahteve za sulfatno odpornost

4 Cement

Cement je hidravlično vezivo, tj. fino zmlet neorganski material, ki zmešan z vodo tvori pasto, ta pa na

podlagi reakcij in procesov hidratacije veže in strjuje ter po strditvi ohrani trdnost in stabilnost tudi v vodi.

Cement, skladen s tem standardom
...

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