Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces - Part 3: Media selection and combination (ISO 14915-3:2002)

ISO 14915-3:2002 gives recommendations for, and guidance on, the design, selection and combination of interactive user interfaces that integrate and synchronize different media. It addresses user interfaces for applications that incorporate, integrate and synchronize different media. This includes static media such as text, graphics, images; and dynamic media such as audio, animation, video or media related to other sensory modalities. Detailed design issues within a single medium (e.g. the graphical design of an animation sequence) are only addressed as far as they imply ergonomic consequences for the user.

Software-Ergonomie für Multimedia-Benutzerschnittstellen - Teil 3: Auswahl und Kombination von Medien (ISO 14915-3:2002)

Dieser Teil der ISO 14915 gibt Empfehlungen und Hinweise für die Gestaltung, Auswahl und Kombination von interaktiven Benutzungsschnittstellen, die verschiedene Medien einbeziehen und synchronisieren. Er behandelt Benutzungsschnittstellen für Anwendungen, die verschiedene Medien enthalten, integrieren und synchronisieren. Dies umfasst statische Medien, wie Text, Grafiken, Bilder, und dynamische Medien, wie Audio, Animation, Video oder Medien, die mit anderen sensorischen Modalitäten zu tun haben. Detaillierte Gestaltungsfragen innerhalb eines Mediums (z. B. die grafische Gestaltung einer Animationsfolge) werden nur angesprochen, soweit sich daraus ergonomische Folgen für den Benutzer ergeben können.
Dieser Teil der ISO 14915 gilt für
   Darstellungstechniken für rechnergestützte Multimedia-Anwendungen im Allgemeinen, einschließlich eigenständiger und netzwerkunterstützter Anwendungen, wenn das Hauptziel darin besteht, die Arbeitsaufgabe des Benutzers zu unterstützen oder Informationen bereitzustellen,
   die Gestaltung der Software Benutzungsschnittstelle und
   Multimedia-Anwendungen für Ausbildung und Unterricht, soweit die Empfehlungen zur effektiven Bereitstellung von Informationen beitragen.
Dieser Teil der ISO 14915 behandelt keine pädagogischen Gestaltungsfragen für Lernanwendungen und befasst sich nicht mit hardwarebezogenen Fragen wie Eingabe- und Ausgabegeräten. Die Empfehlungen in diesem Teil gelten nicht speziell für Anwendungen, deren Hauptzweck in der Unterhaltung, wie z. B. bei Spielen, besteht. Der Schwerpunkt dieses Teils konzentriert sich auf Multimedia-Darstellungsfragen; multimodale Eingabearten, die mehrere Medien verwenden, wie Sprache in Kombination mit einem Zeigegerät zur Informationseingabe, werden in den angegebenen Empfehlungen nicht behandelt.

Ergonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateur multimédias - Partie 3: Sélection et combinaison des médias (ISO 14915-3:2002

L'ISO 14915-3:2002 fournit des recommandations et sert de guide pour la conception, la sélection et la combinaison d'interfaces utilisateur qui intègrent et synchronisent différents médias. Elle traite des interfaces utilisateur pour des applications qui incorporent, intègrent et synchronisent différents médias. Ceci inclut les médias statiques tels que texte, graphique, image, et les médias dynamiques tels que son, animation, vidéo ou des médias liés à d'autres modalités sensorielles. Les sujets de conception détaillés pour un médium unique (par exemple la conception graphique d'une séquence d'animation) ne sont traités que dans la mesure où ils impliquent des conséquences ergonomiques pour l'utilisateur.

Ergonomija programske opreme multimedijskih uporabniških vmesnikov - 3. del: Izbira medijev in kombiniranje (ISO 14915-3:2002)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
14-Oct-2002
Withdrawal Date
26-Mar-2019
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
27-Mar-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
01-marec-2003
Ergonomija programske opreme multimedijskih uporabniških vmesnikov - 3. del:
Izbira medijev in kombiniranje (ISO 14915-3:2002)
Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces - Part 3: Media selection and
combination (ISO 14915-3:2002)
Software-Ergonomie für Multimedia-Benutzerschnittstellen - Teil 3: Auswahl und
Kombination von Medien (ISO 14915-3:2002)

Ergonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateur multimédias - Partie 3: Sélection et

combinaison des médias (ISO 14915-3:2002
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14915-3:2002
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
35.200 Vmesniška in povezovalna Interface and interconnection
oprema equipment
SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 14915-3
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2002
ICS 13.180; 35.200
English version
Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces - Part 3:
Media selection and combination (ISO 14915-3:2002)

Ergonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateur Software-Ergonomie für Multimedia-Benutzerschnittstellen -

multimédias - Partie 3: Sélection et combinaison des Teil 3: Auswahl und Kombination von Medien (ISO 14915-

médias (ISO 14915-3:2002) 3:2002)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 October 2002.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2002 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14915-3:2002 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
EN ISO 14915-3:2002 (E)
CORRECTED 2003-02-05
Foreword

This document (ISO 14915-3:2002) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

"Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 "Ergonomics", the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2003, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by April 2003.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,

Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14915-3:2002 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14915-3:2002 without any

modifications.

NOTE Normative references to International Standards are listed in Annex ZA (normative).

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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
EN ISO 14915-3:2002 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their relevant European publications

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of

any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).

NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated

by (mod.), the relevant EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN Year
ISO 14915-1 2002 Software ergonomics for EN ISO 14915-1 2002
multimedia user interfaces - Part 1:
Design principles and framework
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14915-3
First edition
2002-10-15
Software ergonomics for multimedia user
interfaces —
Part 3:
Media selection and combination
Ergonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateur multimédias —
Partie 3: Sélection et combinaison des médias
Reference number
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
ISO 2002
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
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ii © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..................................................................................................................................................................... v

Introduction................................................................................................................................................................ vi

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references.................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Application of this part of ISO 14915 .......................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Intended user groups.................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Applying the recommendations .................................................................................................................. 6

4.3 Reporting conformance to this part of ISO 14915 ..................................................................................... 6

5 General guidelines for media selection and combination ........................................................................ 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Supporting user tasks .................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Supporting communication goals ............................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Ensuring compatibility with the users’ understanding............................................................................. 7

5.5 Selecting media appropriate for the users’ characteristics......................................................................7

5.6 Supporting users’ preferences .................................................................................................................... 7

5.7 Considering the context of use ................................................................................................................... 7

5.8 Using redundancy for critical information.................................................................................................. 8

5.9 Avoiding conflicting perceptual channels.................................................................................................. 8

5.10 Avoiding semantic conflicts......................................................................................................................... 8

5.11 Designing for simplicity................................................................................................................................ 8

5.12 Combining media for different viewpoints ................................................................................................. 8

5.13 Choosing media combinations to elaborate information ......................................................................... 8

5.14 Guarding against degradation ..................................................................................................................... 9

5.15 Previewing media selections ....................................................................................................................... 9

5.16 Using static media for important messages............................................................................................... 9

6 Media selection for information types ........................................................................................................ 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Consider information types ....................................................................................................................... 11

6.3 Consider multiple-information types ........................................................................................................ 11

6.4 Selecting and combining media ................................................................................................................ 11

6.4.1 Physical information................................................................................................................................... 11

6.4.2 Conceptual information.............................................................................................................................. 11

6.4.3 Descriptive information .............................................................................................................................. 11

6.4.4 Spatial information...................................................................................................................................... 11

6.4.5 Value information ........................................................................................................................................ 12

6.4.6 Relationship information............................................................................................................................ 12

6.4.7 Discrete action information........................................................................................................................ 12

6.4.8 Continuous action information.................................................................................................................. 12

6.4.9 Event information........................................................................................................................................ 12

6.4.10 State information......................................................................................................................................... 12

6.4.11 Causal information...................................................................................................................................... 13

6.4.12 Procedural information............................................................................................................................... 13

7 Media integration......................................................................................................................................... 13

7.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 13

7.2 Design issues .............................................................................................................................................. 13

7.3 Media integration guidelines...................................................................................................................... 13

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 13

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)

7.3.2 Advance organizers .................................................................................................................................... 14

7.3.3 Synchronized, related media...................................................................................................................... 14

7.3.4 Separating audio content sources ............................................................................................................ 14

7.3.5 Avoiding interference in audio media ....................................................................................................... 14

7.3.6 Limiting speech interruptions in audio and language-based media ..................................................... 14

7.3.7 Integrating non-realistic images with realistic images ........................................................................... 14

7.3.8 Use of captions with images ...................................................................................................................... 14

8 Directing users’ attention ........................................................................................................................... 15

8.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.2 Direct-contact points for key thematic links ............................................................................................ 15

8.3 Direct-contact points for linked components........................................................................................... 15

8.4 Indirect-contact points................................................................................................................................ 16

8.5 Sequence of contact points to connect a thread of topics..................................................................... 16

8.6 Guidelines for contact points between media pairs................................................................................ 16

8.6.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.6.2 Source medium: realistic audio................................................................................................................. 18

8.6.3 Source medium: non-realistic audio ......................................................................................................... 18

8.6.4 Source medium: speech............................................................................................................................. 19

8.6.5 Source medium: still image........................................................................................................................ 20

8.6.6 Source medium: text................................................................................................................................... 21

8.6.7 Source medium: moving image................................................................................................................. 22

Annex A (informative) Decision trees for classification of types......................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Guidelines for media-combination pairs.......................................................................... 27

Annex C (informative) Examples of media-combination patterns ....................................................................... 37

Annex D (informative) Design issues and cognitive background ....................................................................... 39

Bibliography.............................................................................................................................................................. 42

iv © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted

by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International

Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part of ISO 14915 may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 14915-3 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4, Ergonomics of

human-system interaction.

ISO 14915 consists of the following parts, under the general title Software ergonomics for multimedia user

interfaces:
 Part 1: Design principles and framework
 Part 2: Multimedia navigation and control
 Part 3: Media selection and combination
Annexes A to D of this part of ISO 14915 are for information only.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
Introduction

The design of user interfaces for multimedia applications typically involves a much wider range of design and

evaluation issues than that of conventional user interfaces based only in textual and graphical format. Many

different techniques and design options are available. Multimedia user interfaces incorporate, integrate and

synchronize different media (static media such as text, graphics, images, and dynamic media such as audio,

animation, video or other sensory modalities). Within each medium, further distinctions can be made. Graphics, for

instance, can be presented either in two- or three-dimensional format and audio can be further categorized

according to the level of sound quality or with respect to mono, stereo or surround sound.

Ergonomic design enhances the ability of users to operate multimedia applications effectively, efficiently and with

satisfaction (see ISO 9241-11). This can be achieved by careful design of multimedia applications with respect to

the tasks they are intended to fulfil (e.g. for work, education or performance support), user characteristics and the

environment in which the system will be used. Multimedia applications are often used for communicative purposes.

An ergonomic design of multimedia user interfaces can also improve the safety of operating a system (e.g.

delivering an alarm in both visual and auditory media).

The range of media available and the interaction of these media have a variety of perceptual, cognitive and other

ergonomic implications for the users of multimedia applications. Multimedia can potentially impose on users a high

perceptual load, structural and semantic complexity, or a large volume of information to be conveyed through the

system. Manipulation of data or information presented in multimedia applications is also often part of the user's

activity.

This part of ISO 14915 provides guidance on the selection, combination and integration of media. The focus is

primarily on presentational aspects of multimedia (i.e. from system to user) as opposed to control and navigation

issues, which are addressed in ISO 14915-2. This part of ISO 14915 starts from information requirements, which

are stated in logical terms, and addresses the design issues concerning which media combinations to choose for

the information requirements. This is followed by guidance on how the user’s reading/viewing sequence can be

directed by design effects to ensure that the user acquires the desired information. Supplementary design guidance

for different media combinations and integration are presented in informative annexes A to D.

vi © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces —
Part 3:
Media selection and combination
1 Scope

This part of ISO 14915 gives recommendations for, and guidance on, the design, selection and combination of

interactive user interfaces that integrate and synchronize different media. It addresses user interfaces for

applications that incorporate, integrate and synchronize different media. This includes static media such as text,

graphics, images; and dynamic media such as audio, animation, video or media related to other sensory

modalities. Detailed design issues within a single medium (e.g. the graphical design of an animation sequence) are

only addressed as far as they imply ergonomic consequences for the user.
This part of ISO 14915 applies to

 presentational techniques for computer-based multimedia applications in general, including stand-alone and

networked applications when the prime goal is to support the user’s work task or provision of information,

 the design of the software user interface, and

 training and tutorial multimedia insofar as its recommendations bear on effective delivery of information.

This part of ISO 14915 does not deal with pedagogical design issues for tutorial applications and does not address

hardware issues, such as input or output devices. The recommendations in this part do not specifically address

applications whose primary purpose is entertainment, such as games. The focus of this part of ISO 14915 is on

multimedia presentation issues; multimodal input which uses different media, such as speech, in combination with

pointing for entering information is not considered in the recommendations provided.

2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO 14915. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications

do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 14915 are encouraged to investigate the

possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated

references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain

registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 14915-1:2002, Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces — Part 1: Design principles and framework

ISO 14915-2:— Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces — Part 2: Multimedia navigation and control

1) To be published.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO 14915, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
medium, sing.
media, plur.
different specific forms of presenting information to the human user
EXAMPLES These include text, video, graphics, animation, audio.
[ISO 14915-1:2002]
3.2
multimedia

combinations of static and/or dynamic media which can be interactively controlled and simultaneously presented in

an application
EXAMPLES These include combinations of text and video, or audio and animation.
[ISO 14915-1:2002]
3.3
static medium
medium in which the presentation to the user does not change over time
EXAMPLES These include text and pictures.
NOTE Adapted from ISO 14915-1:2002.
3.4
dynamic medium
medium in which the presentation to the user changes according to time
EXAMPLES These include video, music, animation, simulations.
NOTE Adapted from ISO 14915-1:2002.
3.5
content

information to be communicated by means of a multimedia application from the originator to the user according to

certain communication goals
[ISO 14915-1:2002]
3.6
information type

media-neutral description of information categories that constitute the content and components

NOTE Information types can be used to specify a message to be delivered in a multimedia application. As with media

types, information types embed dimensions and categories. An approach to classifying information components with information

types is given in informative annex A, which provides a decision tree (Figure A.1) that focuses first on whether a component is

physical or conceptual, then whether it is static (not changing) or dynamic and finally the category for the information content.

3.6.1
causal information

information describing the cause and effect of an event, including a sequence of events that describe causation

EXAMPLES Heat causing a liquid to boil. Behaviour of an algorithm that results in the desired goal.

2 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14915-3:2003
ISO 14915-3:2002(E)
3.6.2
conceptual information

facts, opinions or information about objects which do not have a physical existence

EXAMPLES Taxonomic classes of animals and plants. Opinions about politics.
3.6.3
continuous action information

information describing movement and other activity that is perceived to occur over a period of time

EXAMPLES Making a meal. Driving a car.

NOTE Continuous actions are normally described in the present continuous tense in English.

3.6.4
descriptive information
information which describes an object, entity, or agent
EXAMPLES Red apples, texture of stone.
NOTE This can include states and histories of objects.
3.6.5
discrete action information

information describing movement and other activity that is perceived to occur at a point in time

EXAMPLES Switching a computer on. Closing a door.
NOTE Discrete actions are a set of steps.
3.6.6
event information

information about a state change, message indicating the occurrence of an action or conveying a significant

change in the world
EXAMPLES Telephone rings. E-mail message arrives, is sent.
NOTE Events may emanate from the environment as well as from objects.
3.6.7
physical information

information about phenomena which have a concrete existence; objects, agents or scenes that have a physical

existence
EXAMPLES Chair, table, landscape.
3.6.8
procedural information
information about a sequence of actions organized to achieve a goal or task
EXAMPLE Instructions to assemble a bookshelf from ready-made components.
3.6.9
relationship informa
...

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