Small craft - Hull construction and scantlings - Part 5: Design pressures for monohulls, design stresses, scantlings determination (ISO 12215-5:2008)

ISO 12215-5:2008 applies to the determination of design pressures and stresses, and to the determination of the scantlings, including internal structural members of monohull small craft constructed from fibre reinforced plastics, aluminium or steel alloys, glued wood or other suitable boat building material, with a length of hull in accordance with ISO 8666, between 2,5 m and 24 m.
It only applies to boats in the intact condition and to craft with a maximum speed equal to or less than 50 knots in fully loaded, ready for use conditions.

Kleine Wasserfahrzeuge - Rumpfbauweise und Dimensionierung - Teil 5: Entwurfsdrücke für Einrumpffahrzeuge, Entwurfsspannungen, Ermittlung der Dimensionierung (ISO 12215-5:2008)

Dieser Teil von ISO 12215 betrifft die Bestimmung von Drücken und Spannungen und Bestimmung der
Dimensionierung für den Entwurf, einschließlich interner tragender Bauteile von kleinen Einrumpf-
Wasserfahrzeugen, die aus glasfaserverstärkten Kunststoffen, Aluminium- oder Stahllegierungen, verleimtem
Holz oder anderen geeigneten Bootsbauwerkstoffen gebaut sind, mit einer Rumpflänge, LH, zwischen 2,5 m
und 24 m nach ISO 8666. Dies betrifft nur intakte Boote.
Dies bezieht sich lediglich auf Wasserfahrzeuge mit einer Höchstgeschwindigkeit ≤ 50 Knoten in voll
beladenem Zustand, mLDC.
Im Allgemeinen muss die Beurteilung alle Teile des Wasserfahrzeuges einschließen, bei denen vorausgesetzt
wird, dass sie wasserdicht oder wetterfest sind. Dies trifft bei der Beurteilung von Stabilität, Freibord und
Auftrieb nach ISO 12217 zu und bezieht sich auf alle Teile, die unentbehrlich für die Sicherheit des
Wasserfahrzeugs und Personen an Bord sind.
Für die vollständige Dimensionierung des Wasserfahrzeugs wird dieser Teil von ISO 12215 in Verbindung mit
Teil 6 für Details angewendet. Teil 7 für Mehrrumpfwasserfahrzeuge, Teil 8 für Ruder und Teil 9 für Anhänge
und Takelagezubehör müssen ebenfalls angewendet werden.
Die Bestimmung der Dimensionierung für Fenster, Bullaugen, Blenden, Luken und Türen müssen nach
ISO 12216 erfolgen. Die Konstruktion, die diese Bauteile stützt, muss nach diesem Teil von ISO 12215
erfolgen.
ANMERKUNG 1 Dimensionierungen, die sich aus diesem Teil von ISO 12215 ableiten, sind in erster Linie für
Sportboote einschließlich gecharterter Sportboote gedacht und sind vielleicht nicht für Leistungsrennboote geeignet.
ANMERKUNG 2 Dieser Teil von ISO 12215 basiert auf der Annahme, dass die Dimensionierung ausschließlich von
den lokalen Lasten abhängt.

Petits navires - Construction de la coque et échantillonnage - Partie 5: Pressions de conception pour monocoques, contraintes de conception, détermination de l'échantillonnage (ISO 12215-5:2008)

La présente partie de l'ISO 12215 s'applique pour la détermination des pressions et contraintes de conception, et pour la détermination de l'échantillonnage, y compris les raidisseurs de la structure intérieure, des bateaux monocoques construits en plastique renforcé, alliages d'aluminium et d'acier, bois collé, ou autres matériaux convenant à la construction des bateaux d'une longueur de coque de 2,5 m à 24 m, déterminée conformément à l'ISO 8666.
Elle ne s'applique qu'aux bateaux à l'état intact et qu'aux bateaux d'une vitesse maximale de 50 nœuds en conditions.

Mala plovila - Konstrukcija trupa in zahtevane lastnosti - 5. del: Načrtovani tlaki za trupe, načrtovane napetosti in določanje lastnosti (ISO 12215-5:2008)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
14-Apr-2008
Withdrawal Date
25-Sep-2018
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
26-Sep-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12215-5:2008
01-julij-2008

0DODSORYLOD.RQVWUXNFLMDWUXSDLQ]DKWHYDQHODVWQRVWLGHO1DþUWRYDQLWODNL]D

WUXSHQDþUWRYDQHQDSHWRVWLLQGRORþDQMHODVWQRVWL ,62

Small craft - Hull construction and scantlings - Part 5: Design pressures for monohulls,

design stresses, scantlings determination (ISO 12215-5:2008)
Kleine Wasserfahrzeuge - Rumpfbauweise und Dimensionierung - Teil 5:

Entwurfsdrücke, Entwurfsspannungen und Ermittlung der Dimensionierung (ISO 12215-

5:2008)

Petits navires - Construction de la coque et échantillonnage - Partie 5: Pressions de

conception pour monocoques, contraintes de conception, détermination de
l'échantillonnage (ISO 12215-5:2008)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12215-5:2008
ICS:
47.020.10 Ladijski trupi in njihovi Hulls and their structure
konstrukcijski elementi elements
47.080 ýROQL Small craft
SIST EN ISO 12215-5:2008 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 12215-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2008
ICS 47.020.10; 47.080
English Version
Small craft - Hull construction and scantlings - Part 5: Design
pressures for monohulls, design stresses, scantlings
determination (ISO 12215-5:2008)

Petits navires - Construction de la coque et échantillonnage Kleine Wasserfahrzeuge - Rumpfbauweise und

- Partie 5: Pressions de conception pour monocoques, Dimensionierung - Teil 5: Entwurfsdrücke für

contraintes de conception, détermination de Einrumpffahrzeuge, Entwurfsspannungen, Ermittlung der

l'échantillonnage (ISO 12215-5:2008) Dimensionierung (ISO 12215-5:2008)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 December 2007.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12215-5:2008: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN ISO 12215-5:2008 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this International Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 94/25/EC as amended by Directive 2003/44/EC ..............................4

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
EN ISO 12215-5:2008 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 12215-5:2008) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 188 "Small craft"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/SS T01 “Shipbuilding and maritime structures” the secretariat

of which is held by CMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2008, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by October 2008.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EC Directive(s).

For relationship with EC Directive, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 12215-5:2008 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 12215-5:2008 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN ISO 12215-5:2008 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this International Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 94/25/EC as amended by Directive
2003/44/EC

This International Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission

to provide one means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the New Approach Directive 94/25/EC as

amended by Directive 2003/44/EC.

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has

been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative

clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a

presumption of conformity with the corresponding Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated

EFTA regulations.

Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this International Standard and Directive 94/25/EC as

amended by Directive 2003/44/EC

Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) of Essential requirements (ERs) of EU Qualifying remarks/Notes

this International Standard Directive 94/25/EC as amended by
Directive 2003/44/EC

All clauses Annex I, Part A, Clause 3.1, Structure The standard provides requirements for scantling

determination for monohull craft constructed from
fibre reinforced plastics, aluminium or steel alloys,
glued wood (laminate) or similar suitable
materials.

WARNING — Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the products falling

within the scope of this standard.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12215-5
First edition
2008-04-15
Small craft — Hull construction
and scantlings —
Part 5:
Design pressures for monohulls, design
stresses, scantlings determination
Petits navires — Construction de la coque et échantillonnage —
Partie 5: Pressions de conception pour monocoques, contraintes de
conception, détermination de l'échantillonnage
Reference number
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)
ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)
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ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 General................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Dimensions, data and areas ................................................................................................................ 7

6.1 Dimensions and data............................................................................................................................ 7

6.2 Areas ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Pressure adjusting factors .................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Design category factor k .................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Dynamic load factor n ...................................................................................................................... 9

7.4 Longitudinal pressure distribution factor k .................................................................................... 10

7.5 Area pressure reduction factor k ................................................................................................... 11

7.6 Hull side pressure reduction factor k .............................................................................................. 12

7.7 Superstructure and deckhouse pressure reduction factor k ................................................... 13

SUP

7.8 Light and stable sailing craft pressure correcting factor for slamming k ............................... 13

SLS

8 Design pressures................................................................................................................................ 14

8.1 Motor craft design pressure .............................................................................................................. 14

8.2 Sailing craft design pressure ............................................................................................................ 16

8.3 Watertight bulkheads and integral tank boundaries design pressure.......................................... 16

8.4 Design pressures for structural components where k would be u 0,25 ................................... 18

9 Dimensions of panels and stiffeners................................................................................................ 19

9.1 Dimensions of plating panels............................................................................................................ 19

9.2 Dimensions of stiffeners.................................................................................................................... 23

10 Plating — Scantling equations .......................................................................................................... 25

10.1 Thickness adjustment factors for plating ........................................................................................25

10.2 FRP single-skin plating ...................................................................................................................... 28

10.3 Metal plating — Aluminium alloy and steel...................................................................................... 29

10.4 Laminated wood or plywood single-skin plating ............................................................................ 30

10.5 FRP sandwich plating......................................................................................................................... 31

10.6 Single-skin plating minimum thickness ...........................................................................................35

11 Stiffening members requirements .................................................................................................... 36

11.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 36

11.2 Properties adjustment factors for stiffeners....................................................................................37

11.3 Design stresses for stiffeners ........................................................................................................... 37

11.4 Requirements for stiffeners made with similar materials............................................................... 38

11.5 Requirements for stiffeners made with dissimilar materials ......................................................... 39

11.6 Effective plating .................................................................................................................................. 40

11.7 Overall dimensions of stiffeners ....................................................................................................... 41

11.8 Structural bulkheads .......................................................................................................................... 43

11.9 Structural support for sailing craft ballast keel...............................................................................44

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)

12 Owner's manual................................................................................................................................... 44

12.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 44

12.2 Normal mode of operation ................................................................................................................. 44

12.3 Possibility of outer skin damage....................................................................................................... 44

Annex A (normative) Simplified method for scantling determination ........................................................ 45

Annex B (normative) Drop test for boats of < 6 m......................................................................................... 49

Annex C (normative) FRP laminates properties and calculations .............................................................. 52

Annex D (normative) Sandwich mechanical core properties and sandwich calculation.......................... 63

Annex E (normative) Wood laminate properties and wood calculations ................................................... 69

Annex F (normative) Mechanical properties of metals................................................................................. 78

Annex G (normative) Geometric properties of stiffeners............................................................................. 80

Annex H (normative) Laminate stack analysis .............................................................................................. 97

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................... 108

iv © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12215-5 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 188, Small craft.

ISO 12215 consists of the following parts, under the general title Small craft — Hull construction and

scantlings:

⎯ Part 1: Materials: Thermosetting resins, glass fibre reinforcement, reference laminate

⎯ Part 2: Materials: Core materials for sandwich construction, embedded materials

⎯ Part 3: Materials: Steel, aluminium alloys, wood, other materials
⎯ Part 4: Workshop and manufacturing

⎯ Part 5: Design pressures for monuhulls, design stresses, scantlings determination

⎯ Part 6: Structural arrangements and details
⎯ Part 7: Scantling determination of multihulls
⎯ Part 8: Rudders
⎯ Part 9: Sailing boats — Appendages and rig attachment
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)
Introduction

The reason underlying the preparation of this part of ISO 12215 is that standards and recommended practices

for loads on the hull and the dimensioning of small craft differ considerably from one to another, thus limiting

the general worldwide acceptability of boat scantlings. This part of ISO 12215 has been set towards the lower

boundary of the range of current practice.

The objective of this part of ISO 12215 is to achieve an overall structural strength that ensures the watertight

and weathertight integrity of the craft. It is intended to be a tool to assess the scantlings of a craft against

lower bound practice and it is not intended to be a structural design procedure

The scantling requirements are based principally on providing adequate local strength. Serviceability issues

such as deflection under normal operating loads, global strength and its connected shell and deck stability are

not addressed. The criteria contained within may need to be supplemented by additional considerations

deemed necessary by the designer of the structure.

The mechanical property data supplied as default values make no explicit allowance for deterioration in

service nor provide any guarantee that these values can be obtained for any particular craft. The responsibility

for the decision to use this part of ISO 12215 as part of the design procedure rests solely with the designer

and/or manufacturer.

The design pressures given in this part of ISO 12215 are only used with the given equations.

Considering future development in technology and boat types and small craft currently outside the scope of

this part of ISO 12215, provided methods supported by appropriate technology exist, consideration may be

given to their use provided equivalent support for this part of ISO 12215 is achieved.

The dimensioning according to this part of ISO 12215 is regarded as reflecting current practice, provided the

craft is correctly handled in the sense of good seamanship and operated at a speed appropriate to the

prevailing sea state.
Important notice:

1) ISO/TC 188/WG 18 believes that this part of ISO 12215 is the best that can be achieved at the time of

publication. It has therefore decided to publish this document as an ISO Standard. It is anticipated that

wider usage may reveal a number of issues that require modification. It is for this reason that WG 18

has asked for a revision of the document at the same time as its publication. This revision agreement

will enable the group to amend this part of ISO 12215 quickly should this prove necessary.

2) In furtherance of this, this part of ISO 12215 needs to be applied with a critical mind, and users are

invited to report to the TC secretariat, or national standardization body, any items that are considered to

require correction, together with supporting evidence, be that theoretical or based on satisfactory, long-

term service experience with actual boats operating in the appropriate design category sea states.

vi © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12215-5:2008(E)
Small craft — Hull construction and scantlings —
Part 5:
Design pressures for monohulls, design stresses, scantlings
determination
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12215 applies to the determination of design pressures and stresses, and to the

determination of the scantlings, including internal structural members of monohull small craft constructed from

fibre-reinforced plastics, aluminium or steel alloys, glued wood or other suitable boat building material, with a

length of hull, L , in accordance with ISO 8666, between 2,5 m and 24 m. It only applies to boats in the intact

condition.
It only applies to craft with a maximum speed u 50 knots in m conditions.
LDC

The assessment shall generally include all parts of the craft that are assumed watertight or weathertight when

assessing stability, freeboard and buoyancy in accordance with ISO 12217 and are essential to the safety of

the craft and of persons on board.

For the complete scantlings of the craft, this part of ISO 12215 is used in conjunction with Part 6, for details,

Part 7 for multihulls, Part 8 for rudders and Part 9 for appendages and rig attachment.

The scantling determination of windows, portlights, deadlights, hatches and doors, is in accordance with

ISO 12216. The structure supporting these elements is in accordance with this part of ISO 12215.

NOTE 1 Scantlings derived from this part of ISO 12215 are primarily intended to apply to recreational craft including

recreational charter vessels and may not be suitable for performance racing craft.

NOTE 2 This part of ISO 12215 is based on the assumption that scantlings are governed solely by local loads.

NOTE 3 The scantling requirements of this part of ISO 12215 are considered to correspond to the minimum strength

requirements of motor and sailing craft which are operated in a safe and responsible manner, having due cognisance of

the prevailing conditions.

Pressures and stresses are normally expressed in pascals, kilopascals or megapascals. For the purposes of a

better understanding for the users of this part of ISO 12215, the pressures are expressed in kilonewtons per

square metre (1kN/m = 1kPa) and stresses or elastic moduli are expressed in newtons per square millimetre

(1 N/mm = 1 MPa).
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 178, Plastics — Determination of flexural properties

ISO 527-1, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General principles

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)

ISO 527-2, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 2: Test conditions for moulding and

extrusion plastics
ISO 844, Rigid cellular plastics — Determination of compression properties
ISO 845, Cellular plastics and rubbers — Determination of apparent density
ISO 1922, Rigid cellular plastics — Determination of shear strength
ISO 8666:2002, Small craft — Principal data

ISO 12215-3, Small craft — Hull construction and scantlings — Part 3: Materials: Steel, aluminium alloys,

wood, other materials

ISO 12215-6, Small craft — Hull construction and scantlings — Part 6: Structural arrangements and details

ISO 12215-7, Small craft — Hull construction and scantlings — Part 7: Scantling determination of multihulls

ISO 12215-9, Small craft — Hull construction and scantlings — Part 9: Sailing boats — Appendages and rig

attachment

ISO 12216, Small craft — Windows, portlights, hatches, deadlights and doors — Strength and watertightness

requirements

ISO 12217 (all parts), Small craft — Stability and buoyancy assessment and categorization

ASTM C393, Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Sandwich Constructions

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
design categories

sea and wind conditions for which a boat is assessed by this part of ISO 12215 to be suitable, provided the

craft is correctly handled in the sense of good seamanship and operated at a speed appropriate to the

prevailing sea state
3.1.1
design category A (“ocean”)

category of boats considered suitable to operate in seas with significant wave heights above 4 m and wind

speeds in excess of Beaufort Force 8, but excluding abnormal conditions, e.g. hurricanes

NOTE For the application of this part of ISO 12215, the calculation wave height is 7 m.

3.1.2
design category B (“offshore”)

category of boats considered suitable to operate in seas with significant wave heights up to 4 m and winds of

Beaufort Force 8 or less
3.1.3
design category C (“inshore”)

category of boats considered suitable to operate in seas with significant wave heights up to 2 m and a typical

steady wind force of Beaufort Force 6 or less
2 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 12215-5:2008(E)
3.1.4
design category D (“sheltered waters”)

category of boats considered suitable to operate in waters with significant wave heights up to and including

0,3 m with occasional waves of 0,5 m height, for example from passing vessels, and a typical steady wind

force of Beaufort Force 4 or less
3.2
loaded displacement mass
LDC

mass of the craft, including all appendages, when in the fully loaded ready-for-use condition as defined in

ISO 8666
3.3
sailing craft
2/3

craft for which the primary means of propulsion is wind power, having A > 0,07(m ) where A is the total

S LDC S

profile area of all sails that may be set at one time when sailing close hauled, as defined in ISO 8666 and

expressed in square metres

NOTE In the rest of this part of ISO 12215, non-sailing craft are considered as motor craft.

3.4
second moment of area

for a homogeneous material, it is the sum of the component areas multiplied by the square of the distance

from centre of area of each component area to the neutral axis, plus the second moment of area of each

component area about an axis passing through its own centroid, and is expressed in centimetres to the fourth

or millimetres to the fourth

NOTE The second moment of area is also referred to in other documentation as the moment of inertia and for brevity

as “second moment” within this part of ISO 12215.
3.5
section modulus

for a homogeneous material, it is the second moment of area divided by the distance to any point from the

neutral axis at which the stress is to be calculated and is expressed in cubic centimetres or cubic millimetres

NOTE The minimum section modulus is calculated to the furthest point from the neutral axis.

3.6
displacement craft

craft whose maximum speed in flat water and m conditions, declared by its manufacturer, is such that

LDC
< 5
3.7
displacement mode

mode of running of a craft in the sea such that its mass is mainly supported by buoyancy forces

NOTE This is the case if the actual speed in a seaway and m conditions is such that its speed:len

...

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