Soil quality - Guidance on leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological testing of soils and soil materials (ISO 18772:2008)

ISO 18772:2008 provides guidance on the appropriate use of leaching tests on soil and soil materials, in order to determine the leaching behaviour in the framework of impact assessment, or for compliance and comparison purposes, including information on the following:
the choice of leaching tests, depending on the nature of the problem to be solved and the specific features of the different tests;
the interpretation of the test results;
the limitations of the tests.
In this respect, it is important to keep in mind that leaching tests do not aim to simulate real field conditions, but are designed to address the contact between a solid and a liquid phase for different purposes that are described in ISO 18772:2008.
ISO 18772:2008 only concerns natural, contaminated and agricultural soils and soil materials. Questions relating to the leaching of wastes are not covered by ISO 18772:2008. It also does not cover the subject of bioavailability of contaminants to living organisms, which is covered by ISO 17402.

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für Elutionsverfahren für die nachfolgende chemische und ökotoxikologische Prüfung von Böden und Bodenmaterialien (ISO 18772:2008)

Die vorliegende Internationale Norm gibt eine Anleitung zur angemessenen Anwendung von Auslaugungs-prüfungen auf Boden und Bodenmaterialien zur Bestimmung des Auslaugungsverhaltens im Rahmen einer Wirkungsabschätzung oder zur Untersuchung auf Übereinstimmung und für Vergleichszwecke, wobei Angaben zu Folgendem eingeschlossen sind:
-   die Auswahl von Auslaugungsprüfungen in Abhängigkeit von der Art der Problemstellung und den spezifischen Merkmalen der verschiedenen Prüfungen;
-   die Auswertung der Prüfergebnisse;
-   die Beschränkungen der Prüfungen.
In dieser Hinsicht ist es wichtig zu beachten, dass Auslaugungsprüfungen nicht dazu dienen, tatsächliche Bedingungen in der Praxis (Feldbedingungen) zu simulieren, sondern dafür ausgelegt sind, den Kontakt zwischen einer festen und einer flüssigen Phase für verschiedene Zwecke zu behandeln, die in der vorliegenden Internationalen Norm beschrieben sind.
Diese Internationale Norm bezieht sich nur auf natürliche, kontaminierte und landwirtschaftlich genutzte Böden und Bodenmaterialien. Diese Internationale Norm erstreckt sich nicht auf Fragestellungen in Bezug auf die Auslaugung von Abfällen. Sie behandelt auch nicht das Thema der Bioverfügbarkeit von Kontaminanten für lebende Organismen, mit dem sich ISO 17402 befasst.
Auslaugungsprüfungen werden für die Charakterisierung des Quellterms entwickelt und angewendet. Es kann möglich sein, bei den Auslaugungsprüfungen Transportaspekte zu berücksichtigen, wenn einige grund¬legende Anforderungen (z. B. hydrodynamische) bekannt sind, und somit die Bestimmung von maßgeblichen Transportparametern (z. B. Verzögerungsfaktoren (Retardationsfaktoren), partikelgebundener Transport, Schadstoffminderungsprozesse) zu ermöglichen.
Wenn in dieser Internationalen Norm nur der Begriff „Boden“ zur Vereinfachung der Schreibweise angegeben wird, muss der erweiterte Begriff „Boden und Bodenmaterialien“ in Betracht gezogen werden.

Qualité du sol - Lignes directrices relatives aux modes opératoires de lixiviation en vue d'essais chimiques et écotoxicologiques ultérieurs des sols et matériaux du sol (ISO 18772:2008)

L'ISO 18772:2008 donne des indications sur l'utilisation appropriée des essais de lixiviation appliqués à des sols et des matériaux du sol afin de déterminer le comportement à la lixiviation dans le cadre d'une évaluation d'impact ou à des fins de conformité ou de comparaison. Il donne notamment des informations concernant ce qui suit:
le choix des essais de lixiviation en fonction de la nature du problème à résoudre et des caractéristiques propres aux différents essais;
l'interprétation des résultats d'essai;
les limites des essais.
À cet effet, il est important d'être conscient que les essais de lixiviation n'ont pas pour but de simuler des conditions réelles sur site, mais qu'ils sont conçus pour étudier le contact entre une phase solide et une phase liquide, et ce à différentes fins décrites dans l'ISO 18772:2008.
L'ISO 18772:2008 concerne uniquement les sols naturels, contaminés et agricoles, et les matériaux du sol. Les questions relatives à la lixiviation des déchets ne sont pas traitées par l'ISO 18772:2008. Elle ne concerne pas non plus la biodisponibilité des contaminants pour les organismes vivants, ce sujet étant traité par l'ISO 17402.

Kakovost tal - Navodilo za postopke izluževanja za nadaljnje kemijske in ekotoksikološke preskuse tal in talnih materialov (ISO 18772:2008)

Standard EN-ISO 18772 podaja smernice za ustrezno uporabo izluževalnih testov tal in talnih materialov za določevanje izluževanja v okviru ocene učinka ali za namene doseganja skladnosti in primerjave, vključno z informacijami o: izbiri izluževalnih testov glede na vrsto problema in posebne značilnosti različnih testov; interpretaciji rezultatov testov; omejitvah testov. V zvezi s tem je treba upoštevati, da izluževalni testi niso namenjeni simulaciji realnih terenskih pogojev, ampak obravnavi stika med trdnim in tekočim stanjem za različne namene, opisane v tem mednarodnem standardu. Ta mednarodni standard obravnava samo naravna, kontaminirana in kmetijska tla ter talne materiale. Ta mednarodni standard ne obravnava zadev, povezanih z izluževanjem odpadkov. Prav tako ne zajema biorazpoložljivosti onesnaževal živim organizmom, ki je zajeta v standardu ISO 17402. Izluževalni testi so zasnovani in se uporabljajo za opis značilnosti izvornega izraza. Transportne vidike je mogoče obravnavati z izluževalnimi testi, če so znane nekatere osnovne zahteve (npr. hidrodinamika), ki omogočajo določevanje ključnih transportnih parametrov (npr. faktorje zaostajanja, transport, pospešen z delci, procese slabenja). V tem mednarodnem standardu se izraz »tla« uporablja za poenostavitev pisanja in označuje širši izraz »tla in talni materiali«.

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Published
Publication Date
25-Mar-2014
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
26-Mar-2014
Completion Date
26-Mar-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
01-maj-2014
Kakovost tal - Navodilo za postopke izluževanja za nadaljnje kemijske in
ekotoksikološke preskuse tal in talnih materialov (ISO 18772:2008)
Soil quality - Guidance on leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and
ecotoxicological testing of soils and soil materials (ISO 18772:2008)

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zu Eluierungsverfahren für die nachfolgende chemische

und ökotoxikologische Prüfung von Böden und Bodenmaterialien (ISO 18772:2008)

Qualité du sol - Lignes directrices relatives aux modes opératoires de lixiviation en vue

d'essais chimiques et écotoxicologiques ultérieurs des sols et matériaux du sol (ISO

18772:2008)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18772:2014
ICS:
13.080.10 .HPLMVNH]QDþLOQRVWLWDO Chemical characteristics of
soils
SIST EN ISO 18772:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 18772
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2014
ICS 13.080.05
English Version
Soil quality - Guidance on leaching procedures for subsequent
chemical and ecotoxicological testing of soils and soil materials
(ISO 18772:2008)

Qualité du sol - Lignes directrices relatives aux modes Bodenbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für Elutionsverfahren für

opératoires de lixiviation en vue d'essais chimiques et die nachfolgende chemische und ökotoxikologische Prüfung

écotoxicologiques ultérieurs des sols et matériaux du sol von Böden und Bodenmaterialien (ISO 18772:2008)

(ISO 18772:2008)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 March 2014.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18772:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
EN ISO 18772:2014 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
EN ISO 18772:2014 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO 18772:2008 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 “Soil quality” of the

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 18772:2014 by

Technical Committee CEN/TC 345 “Characterization of soils” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by September 2014.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18772:2008 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18772:2014 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18772
First edition
2008-02-15
Soil quality — Guidance on leaching
procedures for subsequent chemical and
ecotoxicological testing of soils and soil
materials
Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices relatives aux modes opératoires de
lixiviation en vue d'essais chimiques et écotoxicologiques ultérieurs des
sols et matériaux du sol
Reference number
ISO 18772:2008(E)
ISO 2008
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
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ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

4 General approach ..................................................................................................................................3

4.1 Aim of leaching tests.............................................................................................................................3

4.2 How to choose leaching tests ..............................................................................................................4

4.3 Usefulness of leaching tests to understand and characterise different mechanisms

occurring in soil.....................................................................................................................................7

5 Case 1: Application of leaching tests to determine the leaching behaviour of soil in the

framework of impact assessment........................................................................................................8

5.1 Presentation and description of the assessment methodology.......................................................8

6 Case 2: Compliance and comparison purposes ..............................................................................13

7 Description of test methods ...............................................................................................................14

7.1 Laboratory methods for basic characterisation and compliance/quality control testing............14

7.2 Large-scale columns and lysimeter...................................................................................................25

8 Example: how to use leaching test results to assess the impact of soil on groundwater ..........26

8.1 General..................................................................................................................................................26

8.2 Use of leaching behaviour determination in subsequent transfer and impact assessment .......27

Annex A (informative) Schematic representation of a contaminated site with relevant targets...............28

Annex B (informative) Comparison at different scales of testing

(laboratory, lysimeter and field scale) ...............................................................................................29

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................32

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 18772 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil and site

assessment.
iv © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
Introduction

Current soil and soil-materials management (risk assessment practices or regulations) is often based only on

the total amount of contaminants in soil. However, total composition is inadequate for the assessment of

several types of impacts such as impacts on soil, groundwater and surface water due to leaching and

subsequent transport of contaminants (inorganic, organic and natural radionuclides) with water. Indeed, for

many constituents, a significant fraction of the total content is essentially non-leachable, that is to say non-

removable when it comes into contact with a liquid.

Thus, a key aspect to assess the possible management solutions for soil and soil materials in relation to the

presence of contaminant is the release-to-the-water phase. This can be addressed with leaching tests which

can be used to characterise the source term when performing impact assessment and also for the

determination of a leached amount of contaminants when checking compliance with respect to existing limits

or for comparison purposes (e.g. quality control, treatment efficiency).

These statements are relevant for natural, contaminated and agricultural soils and also for soil materials.

Leaching tests, particularly those developed for soil and soil materials, are suitable for the following

applications:

a) Application of leaching tests to determine the leaching behaviour in the framework of impact assessment

Generally, impact assessment is based on the source/pathway/receptor framework.

⎯ Source: assess the release, identify speciation of constituents and retention mechanisms.

⎯ Receptor: determine the potential targets.

⎯ Pathway: estimate the transfer of the source towards the target (e.g. underground water, surface water,

plants, soil organisms, ecosystems).

In this process, leaching tests are used to characterise the source term (so-called characterisation tests) in

accordance with a given scenario (e.g. contamination of the groundwater due to a contaminated site or a soil

amended with sludges), which can either be generic or site-specific.

Leaching tests may also be used as a tool to assess bioavailability (see ISO 17402).

b) Application of leaching tests for compliance and comparison

Based on the background information on the soil and soil materials sampled (e.g. origin, nature of constituents

and contaminants, existing documented information, leaching behaviour), relatively simple and quick leaching

tests can be performed for compliance and comparison purposes. In contrast to characterisation tests, this

type of test is not designed to provide information on leaching mechanisms and controlling factors. However, it

should be possible to link the information obtained with compliance tests to the more elaborate

characterisation tests.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18772:2008(E)
Soil quality — Guidance on leaching procedures for
subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological testing of soils and
soil materials
1 Scope

This International Standard provides guidance on the appropriate use of leaching tests on soil and soil

materials, in order to determine the leaching behaviour in the framework of impact assessment, or for

compliance and comparison purposes, including information on the following:

⎯ the choice of leaching tests, depending on the nature of the problem to be solved and the specific

features of the different tests;
⎯ the interpretation of the test results;
⎯ the limitations of the tests.

In this respect, it is important to keep in mind that leaching tests do not aim to simulate real field conditions,

but are designed to address the contact between a solid and a liquid phase for different purposes that are

described in this International Standard.

This International Standard only concerns natural, contaminated and agricultural soils and soil materials.

Questions relating to the leaching of wastes are not covered by this International Standard. It also does not

cover the subject of bioavailability of contaminants to living organisms, which is covered by ISO 17402.

Leaching tests are designed and used for characterisation of the source term. It may be possible to address

transport aspects with leaching tests if some basic requirements are known (e.g. hydrodynamic), thus allowing

the determination of key transport parameters (e.g. retardation factors, particle-facilitated transport,

attenuation processes).

In this International Standard, when the term “soil” is only quoted to simplify the writing, the broader term “soil

and soil materials” shall be considered.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this International Standard. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 21268-1, Soil quality — Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological testing of

soil and soil materials — Part 1: Bach test using a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry matter

ISO/TS 21268-2, Soil quality — Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological testing of

soil and soil materials — Part 2: Bach test using a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter

ISO/TS 21268-3:2007, Soil quality — Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological

testing of soil and soil materials — Part 3: Up-flow percolation test

ISO/TS 21268-4, Soil quality — Leaching procedures for subsequent chemical and ecotoxicological testing of

soil and soil materials — Part 4: Influence of pH on leaching with initial acid/base addition

EN 12920, Characterization of waste — Methodology for the determination of the leaching behaviour of waste

under specificied conditions
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
contaminants
substance or agent present in the soil as a result of human activity

NOTE There is no assumption in this definition that harm results from the presence of the contaminant.

[ISO 11074:2005]
3.2
eluate

solution obtained after the laboratory leaching procedure of a soil in contact with a leachant

3.3
leachant
liquid used in a leaching test
3.4
leachate
liquid that has percolated through soil under field conditions
3.5
leaching

dissolution and movement of dissolved substances caused by the movement and quality (e.g. pH, ionic

strength) of water or other liquids in the soil

NOTE 1 In pedology, leaching is defined as the movement of dissolved substances caused by the movement of water

or other liquids in the soil.
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 11074:2005.
3.6
leaching behaviour

release and time change in release from the soil upon contact with a leachant as affected by the conditions

specified in the scenario, especially within the specified time frame
3.7
liquid to solid ratio
L/S

ratio between the total amount of liquid (L in litres), which in this extraction is in contact with the soil sample,

and the dry mass of the sample (S in kilograms of dry matter)
NOTE L/S is expressed in l/kg.
3.8
lysimeter

large-scale experiment set-up to simulate scenario-specific exposure conditions under more controlled

conditions than in full-scale field conditions
3.9
multiparametric test

test aimed at measuring the influence of interrelated specific parameters on the release from a soil in the

considered scenario
2 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
3.10
parametric test

test aimed at measuring an intrinsic property of a soil or to measure the influence of a specific parameter on

the release from a soil in the considered scenario

NOTE This does not exclude the fact that other parameters may be influenced at the same time.

3.11
percolation
transport of infiltration water through a layer of soil
3.12
release

emission of constituents from a soil which pass through the external surface of a soil mass as specified in the

considered scenario
3.13
scenario

case defined by a set of normal and exceptional conditions relevant to a particular disposal or utilisation

situation for soil for the determination of the leaching behaviour within a specified time frame

3.14
simulation test

test aimed at simulating the combined effect of various parameters on the release in the scenario under

consideration
3.15
soil material

material coming from soil and displaced and/or modified by human activity, including excavated soil, dredged

materials, manufactured soils, and treated soils and fill materials
[ISO 17402:— ]
3.16
source term
set of information characterising the release of constituents from soil
3.17
transfer term

set of information characterising the transfer of the source term through the soil and/or the groundwater

4 General approach
4.1 Aim of leaching tests

The aim of performing a leaching test is to determine the expected constituent concentrations in solution when

the leachant is placed in contact with a sample specimen under specified conditions. Many factors that

influence dissolution and subsequent release of organic and inorganic constituents from a soil can be

assessed through leaching tests.

Two main categories of leaching tests can be identified: static and dynamic tests. Among these categories, a

wide variety of test procedures is available in literature, depending on a limited set of test conditions (e.g. pH

of the leachant, liquid to solid ratio, contact time). The first question to emerge then is to know how to select

the appropriate leaching test. It shall be considered that this question can be reformulated in some situations

as how to select the appropriate set of leaching tests.
1) To be published.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
4.2 How to choose leaching tests
4.2.1 For which purposes are leaching tests performed?

The first question is to determine whether leaching tests are performed to determine the leaching behaviour in

the framework of impact assessment, or for compliance and comparison purposes. In the first case, the

general approach to assess the leaching behaviour of contaminants from soils can be relevantly derived from

the methodology described in EN 12920. The second case implies that background information to which

leaching test results are to be compared is available (e.g. regulation, variability study, treatment efficiency).

This general approach is illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1 — General approach for the selection of the type of leaching tests

The aim of Table 1 is to allow easier identification of how to make the connection between the two cases of

approach (cases 1 and 2) and the situations that stakeholders face up to in terms of soil management

strategies.
4 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)

Table 1 — Examples of management strategies and knowledge needed to fulfil the purpose

Management Related
Problem Description
strategy case

Impact Do the leaching properties of soil Case 1 No quality criteria are generally available that are

assessment, make it possible to comply with related directly to the leaching of organic compounds

including water quality criteria downstream from soil. However, quality criteria are available for

beneficial use/ of the site? groundwater and drinking water. In order to comply with

utilisation these criteria, the leaching properties of the soil shall be
determined and used as input for site-specific impact
assessment.

What is the present release of Case 1 The release of contaminants from the soil under

contaminants (snapshot) and what present conditions may be determined. The measured

is the impact on groundwater? release may be used to evaluate the present impact on

groundwater. This provides a first impression of the soil
properties with respect to leaching and whether the soil
is suitable for beneficial use/utilisation.

What is the maximal leachable Case 1 The maximal amount of contaminants that are available

amount of contaminant? for leaching may be determined according to a defined
time frame. For most soils (and other kinds of materials)
there is no correlation between the total solid content of
contaminants (either inorganic or hydrophobic for
organic ones) and the leachable amount.

How will the release of contami- Case 1 In risk assessment, it may be valuable to know if

nants change with time? leaching from the source term is almost constant for a
longer period or if it decreases within a shorter time
period. The leachate or eluate quality may be estimated
as a function of time.

May the release of contaminant Case 1 It shall be identified if there is a risk that the

change significantly due to exter- environment may influence the properties of the soil

nal influence over time? (e.g. pH changes) and whether the consequences of
these changes with respect to leaching of contaminants
from the soil should be known.

Disposal, or Do the leaching properties comply Case 2 Leaching-based acceptance criteria generally only

beneficial use/ with leaching-based regulatory concerned inorganic compounds. Soils for disposal or

utilisation criteria or with an available beneficial use/utilisation containing organic compounds

variability frame of leaching are still evaluated based on the total solid content.

characteristics?

Treatment Does this treatment process Case 2 Leaching properties may be determined for a given soil

change the leaching properties of before and after a treatment in order to determine the

the soil so that leaching criteria for ability of this treatment to make the soil comply with

disposal are fulfilled? acceptance criteria in disposal or beneficial
use/utilisation.

Does this treatment process Case 1 Leaching properties may be determined for a given

change the leaching properties? material before and after treatment of the soil in order to

evaluate if the treatment process is effective with
respect to reducing the release of contaminants.

Is it possible to improve the Case 1 By knowing the processes that control the release of

environmental properties of this contaminants from the soil, it may be possible to design

soil with respect to the release of or optimise the effective treatment processes.

contaminant by leaching?

Agricultural To what extent will the added Case 1 Leaching the soil sample after the addition of fertiliser

practices fertilisers or soil improvers be or soil improver will provide information for assessing

leached out of the soil? First the amount remaining in the soil after exposure in the

assessment field (it will help in defining whether a new treatment is
needed).

To what extent will the added Case 2 After having established a relationship between

fertilisers or soil improvers be laboratory testing and field exposure (see above),

leached out of the soil? Routine routine testing can be designed and performed.
testing
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 18772:2014
ISO 18772:2008(E)
4.2.2 Hierarchy in testing

A hierarchy in test use is promoted, in which more realistic and sophisticated tests are used to determine the

leaching behaviour in the framework of impact assessment, whereas for quality control in soil processing or

quality variations within a specific source of soil or, more generally, for compliance verification, more simplified

tests are used.

The different kind of leaching tests can be gathered in three main categories, classified in ascending order of

representativity and complexity.
a) Compliance and quality control (QC) leaching tests

These tests can be used for an initial screening of the release of soil constituents to water (contact times

generally of one to a few days) or for checking compliance with respect to existing limit values or for the

intercomparison and classification of different types of soils. This kind of test does not cover, and hence

cannot allow, the assessment of the leaching behaviour of a soil in a given scenario. For typical

compliance and QC tests, see ISO/TS 21268-1 and ISO/TS 21268-2.
b) Basic characterisation

This type of test can provide the intrinsic properties of soils to be used in subsequent modelling of release

prediction.

⎯ Parametric tests. These tests are intended for measuring an intrinsic property of a material or the

effects (correlated) of specific parameters on release, on the basis of a contaminated material in an

envisaged scenario. ISO/TS 21268-4 describes a typical parametric test.

NOTE Diffusion coefficients, solubility or physical properties are examples of intrinsic properties of

materials.

Temperature, pH-value, liquid/solid ratio, redox potential, chemical properties or leaching-agent flow

rate are examples of specific parameters which influence the behaviour towards leaching.

⎯ Multiparametric tests. These tests are intended for measuring the combined effect of different

parameters on release in the relevant scenario. For a typical multiparam
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