Solid recovered fuels - Guidelines on occupational health aspects

This Technical Report considers aspects of occupational safety and health within the scope of CEN/TC 343: production and trade of solid recovered fuels.

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Leitlinien über berufsbezogene Gesundheitsaspekte

Combustibles solides de récupération - Lignes directrices relatives à la santé au travail

Le présent Rapport technique étudie des aspects de la sécurité et de la santé au travail entrant dans le domaine d’application du CEN/TC 343 : production et commerce des combustibles solides de récupération.

Trdno alternativno gorivo - Smernice za varovanje zdravja na delovnem mestu

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Oct-2006
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
18-Oct-2006
Completion Date
18-Oct-2006

Buy Standard

Technical report
-TP CEN/TR 15441:2007
English language
32 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15441:2007
01-marec-2007
Trdno alternativno gorivo - Smernice za varovanje zdravja na delovnem mestu
Solid recovered fuels - Guidelines on occupational health aspects
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Leitlinien über berufsbezogene Gesundheitsaspekte

Combustibles solides de récupération - Lignes directrices relatives a la santé au travail

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15441:2006
ICS:
13.100 Varnost pri delu. Industrijska Occupational safety.
higiena Industrial hygiene
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15441:2007 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 15441
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
October 2006
ICS 13.100; 75.160.10
English Version
Solid recovered fuels - Guidelines on occupational health
aspects

Combustibles solides de récupération - Lignes directrices Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Leitlinien über

relatives à la santé au travail berufsbezogene Gesundheitsaspekte

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 13 May 2006. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 343.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15441:2006: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 References..............................................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5

4 Health risk factors..................................................................................................................................7

5 Workplace related health risks in the life-cycle of solid recovered fuels......................................12

6 European and national regulations concerning protection of occupational safety and

health related to SRF...........................................................................................................................13

7 Measures to reduce risks of occupational safety and health .........................................................14

8 Conclusion and recommendations....................................................................................................22

Annex A (informative) Further health effects caused by biological agents ..............................................23

Annex B (informative) Informative data sheet for transport, storage and handling of SRF (model)......25

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................30

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15441:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 343 “Solid

recovered fuels”, the secretariat of which is held by SFS.

This informative Technical Report was prepared by CEN/TC 343 Solid recovered fuel, working group 3 –

Sampling, sample reduction and supplementary methods. It was produced under the Mandate M/325 to CEN

on solid recovered fuels to provide the European Commission with a report on aspects of occupational safety

and health regarding the different stages of SRF production and use in order to decide whether there is a

need to develop a referring standard.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
Introduction

Production, handling, storage, trade, sampling or analysis of SRF can be accompanied with certain health

risks, not only by hazardous chemical products, but by biological agents, too. In addition, the risk of

concomitance of hazardous waste in the input material cannot be excluded. These risks will be described in

this Technical Report.

The safety data sheet (SDS) for chemical products due to ISO 11014-1 is a means of transferring essential

hazard information (including information on transport, handling, storage and emergency actions) from the

supplier of a chemical product to the recipient of this product. For non-hazardous substances or products

there is a gap in information duties. Solid recovered fuels are derived from non-hazardous types of waste, so

prima facie there seems to be no need for preparing a SDS for SRF. In addition, the SDS due to ISO 11014-1

would not cover environmental or health risks in the stage of SRF production.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Report considers aspects of occupational safety and health within the scope of CEN/TC 343:

production and trade of solid recovered fuels.
2 Normative references
Not applicable
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
actinomycete

0,5 µm to 1,5 µm long, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that form long threads; their cells are also called

“spores”
3.2
bacteria (sing. bacterium)

simple prokaryotic micro-organism, mainly formed as balls or straight, curved or curled rods, with a width less

than 1 µm and a length of 1 µm to 5 µm, some of them forming endospores to resist adverse environmental

conditions like UV radiation, heat, dryness and chemical disinfectants
3.3
biological agent

micro-organisms, including those which have been genetically modified, cell cultures and human

endoparasites, which may be able to provoke any infection, allergy or toxicity
3.4
colony forming unit (CFU)

descendants of a single or of several agglutinated micro-organisms growing on a solid culture medium

showing a typical appearance in colony form and often in colony colour, too
3.5
dust
solid particles dispersed into the air
3.6
endotoxin
degradation product of gram-negative bacteria
3.7
endotoxin unit (EU)

endotoxin activity; 1 ng endotoxin corresponds to 2 EU - 50 EU, in dependence on the reference standard

3.8
exogenic-allergic alveolitis (EAA)

allergic reaction to exposure especially to thermoactinomycetes, can become chronic or fatal; also known as

farmer’s lung
3.9
exposure risk

risk of exposure to biological agents, chemical substances or other risk factors like heavy metals, dust or fire

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
3.10
fungi (sing. fungus)

eukaryotic, unicellular to filamentous organism that produce extracellular enzymes and absorb their nutrition;

fungal cells form threads (molds) or chains of bubbles (yeasts) up to 10 µm in diameter

3.11
germ
endemic or opportunistic pathogen
3.12
inspirable dust
particles in the region of 7 µm to 20 µm that can penetrate the bronchioles
3.13
micro-organism

microbiological entity, cellular or non-cellular, capable of replication or of transferring genetic material

3.14
mold (mould)

fungal threads ("hyphae") forming a weave ("mycelium”), which builds up spore carriers (“conidiophores”), that

release the 2 µm to 8 µm small asexual fungal spores (“conidia”), which are spread by the air

3.15
MVOC

microbial volatile organic compounds, mainly produced by molds and bacteria, like dimetyldisulfid, isobutanol,

1-octen-3-ol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylfuran and 3-octanone
3.16
mycotoxin
toxins formed by fungi, like aflatoxin, ochratoxin and others
3.17
ODTS (organic dust toxic syndrome)

pulmonary mycotoxicosis, non-allergic, also known as grain fever, primarily caused by inhalation of microbially

contaminated dust and under others endotoxins
3.18
PM , PM
10 2,5

particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm respectively 2,5 µm, summarized as fine dust

3.19
primary measures
serve for direct prevention and elimination of emission at the source
3.20
protease
enzyme which decomposes proteins by breaking the linkage between amino acids
3.21
pulmonary alveoli

terminal parts of the lung, where the gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes

place
3.22
respirable dust (RD)

particles in the region of 0,5 µm to 7 µm (50 % cut-point of 4 µm) that can penetrate to the pulmonary alveoli

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
3.23
secondary measures

technical, organisational and personal-related measures to reduce employees' exposure to biological agents

or hazardous substances
3.24
yeast
fungal cells forming chains of bubbles
4 Health risk factors
4.1 Exposure to health risk factors

Employees have contact to SRF and its components at different workplaces. Therefore, there may be an

exposure to biological agents, chemical substances or other health risk factors like heavy metals, dust or fire

risk, see Table 1.

Table 1 — Exposure to health risk factors at different workplaces in the life-cycle of SRF

Biological Dust / fine Allergenic Risk of fire
Potential exposure to MVOC/ VOC
agents dust chemicals or explosion
Production yes yes yes yes yes
Storage yes yes yes yes yes
Handling yes yes yes yes possible
Trade possible possible possible possible possible
Sampling yes possible yes yes possible
Analysis yes possible yes yes possible
4.2 Biological agents
4.2.1 Definition and description
4.2.1.1 General

Biological agents, in the meaning of Directive 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to

exposure to biological agents at work, include mainly micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi (yeasts, molds) and

viruses, and also, genetically modified micro-organisms (GMO), cell cultures and human endoparasites which

may be able to provoke any infection, allergy or toxicity. As several microbial metabolic and degradation

products are able to cause such reactions in man, they are covered by the defintion of “biological agent”, too.

With regard to a potential exposure at working places in the SRF life-cycle, the following biological agents are

of special interest:
 bacteria;
 fungi;
 microbial metabolic and destruction products:
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
 endotoxins;
 glucans;
 mycotoxins;
 microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC).
4.2.1.2 Bacteria

Bacteria do not have a real nucleus with a nucleus membrane and chromosomes, therefore they are called

“procaryotes”. Their cells are mainly formed as balls or straight, curved or curled rods, with a width less than

1 µm and a length of 1 µm to 5 µm. Due to their behaviour in a special staining procedure, they are

distinguished into Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Under optimum living conditions, bacteria can

multiply very rapidly by cell division. Some bacteria form endospores to resist adverse environmental

conditions like UV radiation, heat, dryness and chemical disinfectants. The very small cells of actinomycetes

(0,5 µm to 1,5 µm long, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that form long threads) are also called “spores”.

4.2.1.3 Fungi

In contrast to bacteria, fungi have real nuclei and chromosomes and therefore belong to the “Eucaryotes”

group. Fungal cells form threads (molds) or chains of bubbles (yeasts) up to 10 µm in diameter. Fungal

threads (“hyphae”) form a weave (“mycelium”), which builds up spore carriers (“conidiophores”). These

carriers release the 2 µm to 8 µm small asexual fungal spores (“conidia”), which are spread by the air.

4.2.1.4 Microbial metabolic and destruction products

Several microbial metabolic and destruction products are capable of causing an allergic or toxic effect in

exposed people, see Table 2.
Table 2 — Health related microbial metabolic and destruction products
Substances Description

Endotoxins Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria.

Endotoxins are invariably associated with Gram-negative bacteria whether the

organisms are pathogens or not. Although the term "endotoxin" is occasionally used to

refer to any cell-associated bacterial toxin, it is properly reserved to refer to the

lipopolysaccharide complex associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative

bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Neisseria, Haemophilus,

and other leading pathogens. Endotoxins remain associated with the cell wall until

disintegration of the bacteria.

Glucans (1Æ3)-β-D-glucan is a polyglucose compound in the cell wall of fungi and some plants

and bacteria, which is released during disintegration of the cells.

Mycotoxins Some fungi produce mycotoxins which have a high toxicity to humans, like Aflatoxin

produced by Aspergillus flavus or Ochratoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium

species.

Microbial Some micro-organisms produce microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC). Up to

volatile now, about 30 MVOC produced by molds have been identified. The most important are

organic dimetyldisulfid, isobutanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylfuran and 3-

compounds octanone. Bacteria and actinomycetes, too, produce MVOC, especially dimethyldisulfid

(MVOC) and isoprene.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
4.2.2 Health effects

Biological agents can cause different harmful effects on human health, especially infections. Other effects are

toxic reactions, allergy and sensitization. Details are given in Annex A.

Depending on the level of risk of infection, biological agents are classified in four risk groups (Directive

2000/54/EC), see Table 3. Immunologic deficiencies, pregnancy or lactation are not considered.

NOTE SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste, which normally do not contain micro-organisms of risk group 3

or 4
Table 3 — Classification of biological agents to risk groups (RG) and examples
RG infection/ human exposure availability of examples
disease risk effective
prophylaxis
(B = bacteria, F = fungi, V = virus)
or treatment
1 unlikely insignificant not necessary F: Penicillium-species, Aspergillus-
species except A. fumigatus (see
RG2);
(though sensitizing!)
2 can cause human unlikely usually B: Staphylococcus aureus
disease and available (infection of wounds etc.),
presents a hazard to Clostridium tetani (tetanus)
employees
F: Aspergillus fumigatus (pulmonal
aspergillosis)
V: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) (acute
hepatitis)
3/ can cause severe may present usually V: HIV (AIDS), HBV (hepatitis B.,
3** human disease and a risk available chronic liver disease)
presents a serious
hazard to workers

3** Certain biological agents classified in group 3 which are indicated in the appended list to Directive

2000/54/EC by two asterisks (**), may present a limited risk of infection for workers because they are not

normally infectious by the airborne route.
E.g. used syringes containing residues of infected persons' blood.

Gram-negative bacteria like Enterobacter, Salmonella or Klebsiella species can cause different kinds of

infections. Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae sometimes cause meningitis, inflammation of

the urinary passage or the airways. Salmonella typhi (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar typhi) can

cause typhus, Salmonella enteritidis (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar enteritidis) can cause

salmonellosis of the intestinal tract (enteritis). Only one of the four Klebsiella-species, Klebsiella pneumoniae,

is of hygienic relevance. K. pneumoniae belongs to man's regular intestine flora and is usually innocuous, but

can harm persons with immunologic deficiencies by inflammation of the urinary passage or the airways

(Friedlaender’s pneumonia).

Infections caused by molds – soonest by inhalation – are very rare and mainly affect people with local or

systemic immunologic deficiencies (e.g. HIV-positive tested persons, persons after transplantation, people

affected by mucoviscidosis or diabetes mellitus). The infection – so called mycosis – depends in addition on

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)

the pathogenic potential and virulence of the mold. Therefore, some molds are classified in Risk Group 2

(opportunistic pathogens), others in Risk Group 3 (endemic pathogens). Table 4 shows infection diseases

caused by Aspergillus fumigatus – which is most common in waste management plants – and the referring

risk person groups. Further molds causing infections and the referring risk groups are reported in some

reports given in the bibliography.

Table 4 — Infection diseases caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and referring risk groups

Infection disease Risk person groups

Mucor infection in lung, paranasal sinus, central nervous people with immunologic deficiencies

system, eye, skin
Invasive pulmonal aspergillosis people with immunologic deficiencies
Invasive aspergillosis of paranasal sinus people with immunologic deficiencies

Invasive aspergillosis (infection of vessels, liver, heart, people with immunologic deficiencies

eye, nervus opticus, central nervous system, medulla,
skin)
Aspergillom (lung and paranasal sinus) patients with bronchial enlargement,
caverns, cysts following a precedent lung
disease
Sinusitis (paranasal sinus inflammation) -
Allergic bronchopulmonal aspergillosis atopics (= people with predisposition for
type I-allergies)
Otitis externa (inflammation of the external ear) -
4.2.3 Sources of biological agents

Waste, especially household waste, is contaminated with different kind of micro-organisms and other

biological agents. Except viruses, micro-organisms can proliferate during holding time in the waste collection

bin (or bag), and especially molds and actinomycetes multiply rapidly while degrading fairly biodegradable

organic residues. In addition, large amounts of odour substances are produced and emitted. The degradation

processes continue during transport and storage of the untreated waste.

Biological agents are not only a problem of mixed household waste, even separately collected glass waste

and paper waste (an important SRF input waste stream) contain high amounts of micro-organisms. Another

input waste stream for SRF-production is separately collected package waste. This material is often – even

visibly – contaminated with molds and bacteria, but with mycotoxins like aflatoxin B1 (carcinogen) or

ochratoxin A (suspected carcinogen), too. These mycotoxins are heat-resistant, and bacterial (and fungal?)

spores can even survive thermal treatment of polymers.
4.3 Chemical substances
4.3.1 general
Chemical substances that can pose a risk to employees in the SRF life-cycle are:
 dust;
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
 allergic chemicals;
 MVOC/VOC.
4.3.2 Dust / fine dust

Dust, especially fine dust, is u.a. other generated during mechanical handling of waste and during shredding

of materials, but is an abrasion product of all working aggregates. Dust serves as adsorbing matter for

chemicals like heavy metals, organic compounds and for micro-organisms. Fine dust (PM , PM ) can be

10 2.5

inhaled, as the filtering effects of nose and pharynx is not sufficient for particles smaller than 10 µm. The

smaller the size of particles, the deeper they can invade into the lungs. Inspirable dust (particle size:

7 µm to 20 µm) can penetrate to the bronchioles, respirable dust (particle size: 0,5 µm to 1 µm, 50 %

cut-point of 4 µm) can reach the pulmonary alveoli, where the particles stay for a long time, because they can

hardly be removed. Particles remaining in the alveoli can increase the liability for infections and promote

inflammations of the airways. Chronic diseases like airways and cardiovascular diseases are closely related to

exposure to fine dust.
4.3.3 Allergenic chemicals

Allergenic chemicals and chemical mixtures pose the risk of allergies and sensitization to exposed employees.

In German TRGS 907, mold-containing dust is classified as allergenic chemical. In addition, in German

TRBA 460 Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus fumigatus are classified as especially allergenic biological

agents. In general, all spore forming fungi can be regarded as potent allergens.
4.3.4 MVOC/VOC

MVOC and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) like D-limonen, α- and β-pinene, are toxic by inhalation

(depending on concentration) or can in addition cause skin irritation and allergies after prolonged exposure.

Terpenes and other volatile organic compounds are naturally occurring degradation products of organic

substance, which can be found in the raw gas of biologically working waste treatment plants.

4.4 Physical factors
4.4.1 General

Physical factors affecting employees’ safety and health in the SRF life-cycle are fires, explosions and injuries

due to sharp-edged or peaked materials.
4.4.2 Fire and explosion

Self heating occurs when a solid organic material (baled or dispersed) reacts with atmospheric oxygen (e.g.

by microbial, chemical or enzymatic degradation processes), and the generated heat energy cannot be

released to the environment. Depending on the storage conditions, SRF – especially those with a high content

of (easily degradable) non-fossil carbon – can be biologically degraded further on, leading to gas production,

self heating and possibly self ignition.
4.4.3 Sharp-edged or peaked materials

Though SRF are solely produced from non-hazardous wastes, the input marterial can contain sharp-edged or

peaked materials. E.g. non-infectious hospital wastes (EWC 18 01 04) or municipal wastes containing wastes

from medical practices may contain syringes. Municipal waste contains waste glass, which can be broken into

sharp-edged pieces.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
5 Workplace related health risks in the life-cycle of solid recovered fuels
5.1 Biological agents

Hitherto, measurements about the exposure on SRF workers to biological agents have not been published.

Experiences from comparable work places and plants in waste treatment show, that wherever waste or

organic matrix containing secondary materials (package waste, waste paper) is moved or treated, especially

chopping, classification, sieving, conditioning, dust and bioaerosols are released. These treatment steps occur

during:
 production;
 storage;
 handling;
 trade;
 sampling;
 analysis.

Further potential exposure is given in cleaning of operation buildings or maintenance and repair of technical

devices, e.g. sieves in SRF production. These treatment procedures may lead to a mixed exposure of the

employees to hazardous chemicals (fine dust, mold-containing dust, MVOC) and bioaerosols (bacteria, mold,

endotoxins, mycotoxins, proteases) in differing concentration, extension and frequency.

A frequent exposure to bioaerosols and hazardous chemicals leads to an increase in health risks for the

employees, especially by infections, toxic effects, allergies and sensitization for other agents. Several studies

show increased antibody-concentrations in different types of waste management workers. A permanent

overload of the immune response can cause further health problems.

Further health risks due to biological agents occur during SRF controlling systems (sampling, sample

preparation, analysis), especially in cases where sorting analyses are prescribed. Here, the employees can be

affected by smear infections, infection after injury by stings or incisions or bioaerosol exposure.

5.2 Chemical substances
5.2.1 Dust / fine dust

Dust, especially fine dust (PM , PM ), is always generated during chopping, grinding and milling processes,

10 2,5

and is released by all working aggregates due to abrasion. Therefore, an exposure to dust can be expected at

the following working places:
 production;
 storage;
 handling;
 during sampling and analysis.
5.2.2 Allergenic chemicals

As mold-containing dust can be regarded as allergenic chemical and as this dust can be expected generally

where dust is generated (in plants concerning this matter), an exposure can be expected at the following

working places:
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)
 production;
 storage;
 handling;
 during sampling and analysis.
5.2.3 MVOC/VOC

MVOC are always produced where mold fungi can proliferate. Therefore, any working place with contact to

biological agents poses in addition the risk of MVOC-exposure. Other volatile organic compounds (VOC), like

terpenes and other naturally occurring degradation products of organic substance, like D-limonen, α- and

β-pinene, will occur in the waste air of uncontrolled biological degradation of organic matrices like municipal

waste, as could be shown for several mechanical-biological treatment plants. Therefore, all steps of the SRF

life-cycle until the SRF entering the combustion chamber can be accompanied by VOC-emissions.

5.3 Physical factors
5.3.1 Fire and explosion

Degradation of biodegradable contents of SRF can lead to self heating and self ignition with an explosion-like

reaction, as happened twice in 2003 in the Mie power plant, district of Chikarao in Tado/Japan. Some people

were killed there by the explosions.
5.3.2 Sharp-edged or peaked materials

Some wastes like municipal solid waste or non-infectious hospital wastes (EWC 18 01 04) may contain

syringes, which can block the sieves in mechanical treatment of input material. Cleaning of these blocked

sieves poses a high risk of injury and infection, despite protective measures like special gloves.

Further health risks due to biological agents occur during SRF controlling systems (sampling, sample

preparation, analysis), especially in cases, where sorting analyses are prescribed. Here, the employees can

be affected by injuries by stings or incisions – with the risk of a succeeding infection (e.g. hepatitis).

6 European and national regulations concerning protection of occupational safety

and health related to SRF
6.1 Bioaerosols and allergens

The Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the

protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (seventh individual directive

within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC), in force sind november 6, 2000, aims at the

protection of workers against risks to their health and safety, including the prevention of such risks, arising or

likely to arise from exposure to biological agents at work. It lays down particular minimum provisions in this

area. (Article 1)
Article 3 demands:

2. In the case of any activity likely to involve a risk of exposure to biological agents, the nature, degree and

duration of workers' exposure must be determined in order to make it possible to assess any risk to the

workers' health or safety and to lay down the measures to be taken.

In the case of activities involving exposure to several groups of biological agents, the risk shall be assessed

on the basis of the danger presented by all hazardous biological agents present.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
CEN/TR 15441:2006 (E)

The assessment must be renewed regularly and in any event when any change occurs in the conditions which

may affect workers' exposure to biological agents.
Article 6 says:
Reduction of risks

1. Where the results of the assessment referred to in Article 3 reveal a risk to workers' health or safety,

workers' exposure must be prevented.

2. Where this is not technically practicable, having regard to the activity and the risk assessment referred to in

Article 3, the risk of exposure must be reduced to as low a level as necessary in order to protect adequately

the health and safety of the workers concerned, in particular by the following measures which are to be

applied in the light of the results of the assessment referred to in Article 3:

(a) keeping as low as possible the number of workers exposed or likely to be exposed;

(b) design of work processes and engineering control measures so as to avoid or minimise the release of

biological agents into the place of work;

(c) collective protection measures and/or, where exposure cannot be avoided by other means, individual

protection measures;

(d) hygiene measures compatible with the aim of the prevention or reduction of the accidental transfer or

release of a biological agent from the workplace;

(e) use of the biohazard sign depicted in Annex II and other relevant warning signs;

(f) drawing up plans to deal with accidents involving biological agents;

(g) testing, where it is necessary and technically possible, for the presence, outside the prima

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.