Measurement and assessment of personal exposures to incoherent optical radiation - Part 2: Visible and infrared radiation emitted by artificial sources in the workplace

This European Standard specifies procedures for the measurement and assessment of personal exposures to visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) radiation emitted by artificial sources, where adverse effects cannot be readily excluded.
NOTE 1   Adverse effects will normally not occur in exposures caused by normal lighting or room heating.
This European Standard applies to VIS- and IR- exposures in indoor and outdoor workplaces. It does not apply to VIS- and IR-exposures in leisure time.
This European Standard does not apply to VIS- and IR- exposures caused by the sun.
NOTE 2   Part 3 of this standard will deal with UV-exposures caused by the sun.
This European Standard does not specify VIS- and IR-exposure limit values. It supports the application of limit values set by national regulations or international recommendations.
This European Standard applies to VIS- and IR- exposures by artificial incoherent sources, which emit spectral lines as well as continuous spectra. This European Standard does not apply to coherent radiation sources.
NOTE 3   Coherent optical radiation sources are covered by standards for lasers, like EN 60825-1 etc.
This European Standard applies to visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) radiation exposures in the wavelength band 380 nm to 3 µm. It also applies to radiation exposures that may present a blue-light hazard in the wavelength band 300 nm to 700 nm.
This European Standard does not apply to other effects of which the action spectra lie solely within the
UV-region 180 nm to 400 nm.
NOTE 4   Part 1 of EN 14255 addresses these effects.
This European Standard does not apply to radiation emissions of products.
NOTE 5   For radiation emissions of products other standards apply, such as EN 12198 for radiation emissions of machinery, EN 60335-2-27 for household appliances for skin exposures to ultraviolet and infrared radiation and CIE S009 for the safety of lamps and lamp systems.
This European Standard does not apply to heat stress, i.e. long term heat

Messung und Beurteilung von personenbezogenen Expositionen gegenüber inkohärenter optischer Strahlung - Teil 2: Sichtbare und infrarote Strahlung künstlicher Quellen am Arbeitsplatz

Diese Europäische Norm legt Verfahren zur Messung und Beurteilung der Exposition von Menschen durch sichtbare (VIS) und Infrarot-(IR-)Strahlung künstlicher Quellen fest, bei der nachteilige Wirkungen nicht ohne weiteres ausgeschlossen werden können.
ANMERKUNG 1   Schädliche Wirkungen treten üblicherweise bei Expositionen durch normale Beleuchtung oder Raumheizung nicht auf.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für VIS- und IR-Exposition an Arbeitsplätzen in Gebäuden und im Freien. Sie gilt nicht für VIS- und IR-Expositionen während der Freizeit.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für die von der Sonne verursachten VIS- und IR-Expositionen.
ANMERKUNG 2   Teil 3 dieser Norm behandelt die von der Sonne verursachten UV-Expositionen.
Diese Europäische Norm legt keine Grenzwerte für VIS- und IR-Exposition fest. Sie unterstützt die Anwendung der in nationalen Bestimmungen oder internationalen Empfehlungen festgesetzten Grenzwerte.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für VIS- und IR-Expositionen durch künstliche inkohärente Strahlungsquellen, die einzelne Spektrallinien und/oder kontinuierliche Spektren aussenden. Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für kohärente Strahlungsquellen.
ANMERKUNG 3   Kohärente optische Strahlungsquellen werden in Normen für Laser, wie EN 60825-1 usw., behandelt.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für sichtbare (VIS) und Infrarot-(IR)-Strahlungsexpositionen im Wellenlängen-bereich 380 nm bis 3 µm. Sie gilt auch für Strahlungsexpositionen, die zu einer Blaulichtgefährdung im Wellenlängenbereich 300 nm bis 700 nm führen können.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für weitere Auswirkungen, für die die Wirkungsspektren ausschließlich im UV-Bereich 180 nm bis 400 nm liegen.
ANMERKUNG 4   Mit diesen Auswirkungen befasst sich Teil 1 von EN 14255.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für die von Produkten abgegebene Strahlung.

Mesurage et évaluation de l'exposition des personnes aux rayonnements optiques incohérents - Partie 2 : Rayonnements visibles et infrarouges émis par des sources artificielles sur les lieux de travail

La présente Norme européenne spécifie le mode opératoire du mesurage et de l’évaluation de l’exposition des personnes aux rayonnements visibles (VIS) et infrarouges (IR) émis par des sources artificielles, lorsque les effets négatifs de cette exposition ne peuvent pas être facilement exclus.
NOTE 1   Les effets négatifs ne surviendront généralement pas lors d’expositions à la lumière normale l’éclairage normal ou au chauffage d’une pièce.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique à l’exposition aux rayonnements VIS et IR sur des lieux de travail intérieurs et extérieurs. Elle ne s’applique pas à l’exposition aux rayonnements VIS et IR pendant les loisirs.
La présente Norme européenne ne s’applique pas à l’exposition aux rayonnements VIS et IR émis par le soleil.
NOTE 2   La Partie 3 de la présente norme traitera de l’exposition au rayonnement UV solaire.
La présente Norme européenne ne spécifie pas de valeurs limites d’exposition aux rayonnements VIS et IR. Elle préconise d’appliquer les valeurs limites définies par les réglementations nationales ou par les recommandations internationales.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique à l’exposition aux rayonnements VIS et IR émis par des sources artificielles incohérentes émettant soit un spectre de raie soit un spectre continu. Elle ne s’applique pas aux sources de rayonnements cohérents.
NOTE 3   Les sources de rayonnements optiques cohérents sont traités dans les normes relatives aux lasers, comme l’EN 60825-1, etc.
La présente Norme européenne s’applique à l’exposition aux rayonnements visibles (VIS) et infrarouges (IR) dans la gamme de longueur d’onde de 380 nm à 3 mm. Elle s’applique également à l’exposition aux rayonnements pouvant présenter une lumière bleue dangereuse dans la gamme de longueur d’onde de 300 nm à 700 nm.
La présente Norme européenne ne s’applique pas à d’autres effets que ceux dont les spectres d’action se situent uniquement dans le domaine ultraviolet de 180 nm à 400 nm.

Merjenje in ocenjevanje izpostavljenosti oseb inkoherentnemu optičnemu sevanju - 2. del: Vidno in infrardeče sevanje svetlobnih virov na delovnem mestu

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Dec-2005
Current Stage
9060 - Closure of 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
04-Mar-2022
Completion Date
04-Mar-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 14255-2:2006
01-maj-2006
0HUMHQMHLQRFHQMHYDQMHL]SRVWDYOMHQRVWLRVHELQNRKHUHQWQHPXRSWLþQHPXVHYDQMX
GHO9LGQRLQLQIUDUGHþHVHYDQMHVYHWOREQLKYLURYQDGHORYQHPPHVWX

Measurement and assessment of personal exposures to incoherent optical radiation -

Part 2: Visible and infrared radiation emitted by artificial sources in the workplace

Messung und Beurteilung von personenbezogenen Expositionen gegenüber

inkohärenter optischer Strahlung - Teil 2: Sichtbare und infrarote Strahlung künstlicher

Quellen am Arbeitsplatz
Mesurage et évaluation de l'exposition des personnes aux rayonnements optiques

incohérents - Partie 2 : Rayonnements visibles et infrarouges émis par des sources

artificielles sur les lieux de travail
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 14255-2:2005
ICS:
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
17.180.20 Barve in merjenje svetlobe Colours and measurement of
light
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST EN 14255-2:2006 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 14255-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2005
ICS 13.280
English Version
Measurement and assessment of personal exposures to
incoherent optical radiation - Part 2: Visible and infrared
radiation emitted by artificial sources in the workplace

Mesure et évaluation de l'exposition des personnes aux Messung und Beurteilung von personenbezogenen

rayonnements optiques incohérents - Partie 2 : Expositionen gegenüber inkohärenter optischer Strahlung -

Rayonnements visibles et infrarouges émis par des Teil 2: Sichtbare und infrarote Strahlung künstlicher

sources artificielles sur les lieux de travail Quellen am Arbeitsplatz
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 November 2005.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14255-2:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction..................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope.................................................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................ 7

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................ 8

3.1 Quantities, symbols and units .......................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Definitions and relationships between quantities ........................................................................... 9

4 General procedure............................................................................................................................11

5 Preliminary review............................................................................................................................12

6 Work task analysis............................................................................................................................12

7 Measurement of the exposure .........................................................................................................13

7.1 Planning.............................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Quantities to be determined.............................................................................................................14

7.3 Selection of method..........................................................................................................................14

7.4 Requirements for the measurement methods ................................................................................17

7.5 Implementation..................................................................................................................................19

7.6 Expression of results........................................................................................................................20

8 Assessment of the exposure ...........................................................................................................20

8.1 Comparison.......................................................................................................................................20

8.2 Statement...........................................................................................................................................20

8.3 Additional information......................................................................................................................20

9 Decision about protective measures...............................................................................................21

10 Repetition of measurement and assessment .................................................................................21

11 Report................................................................................................................................................21

11.1 Short Report......................................................................................................................................21

11.2 Full Report.........................................................................................................................................22

Annex A (informative) Flow chart of procedure ...........................................................................................23

Annex B (informative) Tables (examples) for work task analysis...............................................................24

Annex C (informative) Commonly used radiation measurement devices..................................................26

Annex D (informative) Examples of protective measures ...........................................................................28

Annex E (informative) Examples of methods for the determination of the quantities L , L , G , H ,

r b b b

E , E, H and the assessment of associated hazards ......................................................................29

Table 1 – Quantities, symbols and units....................................................................................................... 8

Table 2 – Suitable methods for the measurement of the quantities L , G H E , E and H in

r b, b, b

dependence of the measurement aim and the exposure conditions (see Annex E)....................16

Table B.1 – Basic information.......................................................................................................................24

Table B.2 – Detailed information concerning activities at a single location .............................................25

Table E.1 – Survey of suitable measurement methods...............................................................................30

Table E.2 – Advantages and disadvantages of method A ..........................................................................31

Table E.3 – Advantages and disadvantages of method B ..........................................................................32

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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)

Table E.4 – Advantages and disadvantages of method C ..........................................................................33

Table E.5 – Advantages and disadvantages of method D ..........................................................................34

Table E.6 – Advantages and disadvantages of method E ..........................................................................35

Table E.7 – Advantages and disadvantages of method F...........................................................................36

Table E.8 – Advantages and disadvantages of method G ..........................................................................37

Table E.9 – Advantages and disadvantages of method H ..........................................................................38

Table E.10 – Advantages and disadvantages of method I..........................................................................40

Table E.11 – Advantages and disadvantages of method J.........................................................................41

Table E.12 – Advantages and disadvantages of method K ........................................................................42

Table E.13 – Advantages and disadvantages of method L.........................................................................42

Table E.14 – Advantages and disadvantages of method M........................................................................43

Table E.15 – Advantages and disadvantages of method N ........................................................................44

Table E.16 – Advantages and disadvantages of method O ........................................................................45

Table E.17 – Advantages and disadvantages of method P.........................................................................46

Table E.18 – Advantages and disadvantages of method Q ........................................................................46

Table E.19 – Advantages and disadvantages of method R ........................................................................47

Table E.20 – Advantages and disadvantages of method S.........................................................................48

Table E.21 – Advantages and disadvantages of method T.........................................................................48

Table E.22 – Advantages and disadvantages of method U ........................................................................49

Table E.23 – Advantages and disadvantages of method V.........................................................................50

Table E.24 – Advantages and disadvantages of method W........................................................................51

Table E.25 – Advantages and disadvantages of method X.........................................................................51

Table E.26 – Advantages and disadvantages of method Y.........................................................................52

Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................53

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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
Foreword

This European Standard (EN 14255-2:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 169 “Light

and lighting”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by June 2006.

EN 14255 Measurement and assessment of personal exposures to incoherent optical radiation is published in

four parts:
Part 1: Ultraviolet radiation emitted by artificial sources in the workplace.

Part 2 (this part): Visible and infrared radiation emitted by artificial sources in the workplace.

Part 3: UV-Radiation emitted by the sun (in preparation).

Part 4: Terminology and quantities used in UV-, visible and IR-exposure measurements.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

and United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
Introduction

People may be exposed to adversely high levels of visible (VIS) and/or infrared (IR) radiation in the workplace.

The most important natural source for such VIS/IR-radiation is the sun. There are also artificial VIS/IR-

radiation sources, where VIS- and/or IR-radiation is either intentionally emitted to achieve the purpose of the

source’s application or is unintentionally emitted.

Visible optical radiation (VIS-radiation): Common applications for sources intentionally emitting visible

optical radiation are: general lighting, signalling devices, initiation of industrial-, medical- or agricultural-

photochemical processes and phototherapy of patients (e.g. hyperbilirubinemia- and bright light therapy,

physiotherapy and photodynamic therapy). Some examples of sources where visible radiation is

unintentionally emitted are: welding arcs, industrial furnaces and some types of UV-sources. When people are

irradiated by intense VIS-radiation, injuries may occur. VIS-radiation can cause damage to the retina through

thermal or photochemical mechanisms. Photosensitization of the skin to visible light, usually due to the action

of certain drugs, plants, or other substances, may occur shortly after administration of the drug (phototoxic

sensitivity), or may occur only after a latent period which can vary from days to months (photoallergic

sensitivity, or photoallergy). VIS-radiation may also induce or aggravate some diseases like porphyria.

Infrared optical radiation (IR-radiation): Common applications for sources intentionally emitting infrared

optical radiation are: radiative heaters, military nightsight devices, phototherapy of patients (e.g. physiotherapy

and photodynamic therapy), industrial photochemical or photothermal processes. Some examples of sources,

where infrared radiation is unintentionally emitted, are: welding arcs, some types of visible light sources (e.g.

high power tungsten lamps) and industrial furnaces. When people are irradiated by intense IR-radiation,

injuries may occur. The anterior structures of the eyes (cornea) and the skin may be damaged by short term

IR-irradiation of high irradiance. Depending on the wavelength a certain fraction of IR radiation can also cause

damage to the retina through thermal or photochemical mechanisms. But additionally, long term less intense

IR-irradiation may also result in cumulative damage to the eyes and skin, such as cataracts and skin aging.

In order to avoid short term injuries and reduce additional risks from long term overexposure to VIS- and/or IR-

radiation, national regulations and international recommendations require restriction of VIS/IR-exposure levels

in the workplace. To achieve this, it is necessary to determine the level of VIS/IR-exposure and assess its

gravity.

The determination of the level of VIS/IR-exposure can be done by measurement of the VIS/IR-exposure of the

people likely to be exposed. Determination of the severity of a VIS/IR-exposure is normally done by

comparison of the determined exposure level with the required or recommended limit value. When the

exposure level complies with the limit value no further action is necessary. When the limit value is exceeded

protective measures have to be applied in order to decrease the VIS/IR-exposure. As the exposure situation at

the workplace may change, it may be necessary to repeat the determination and assessment of VIS/IR-

exposure at a later time.

VIS/IR radiation exposure measurements are often costly and time consuming. So it is reasonable to avoid

measurements if possible, i. e. if the personal VIS/IR radiation exposure can be estimated and either exceeds

the limit values by far or is far below the limit values. In some cases, the manufacturer may have classified a

device according to European and International Standards such as EN 12198 and CIE S009. Knowledge of

the classification of all potential sources of VIS/IR may allow a sufficiently precise assessment of hazard to be

made without further measurement. Another approach could be to use known spectral data of sources in

combination with calculation software in order to estimate exposure level [5]. VIS/IR-exposure measurements

are only necessary if it cannot be estimated in advance whether the limit values will be exceeded or not. So as

a first step of the assessment procedure it is useful to carry out a preliminary review including an exposure

estimation.

This European Standard does not specify VIS/IR-exposure limit values. VIS/IR-exposure limit values are set in

national regulations or provided by international organizations, such as the International Commission for Non-

ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) [1]. This European Standard specifies the procedures for measurement

and assessment of VIS/IR-exposures in the workplace. As the results of measurement and assessment of

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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)

VIS/IR-exposure depend on the method of implementation, it is important to carry out measurements and

assessments in a standardised way.
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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies procedures for the measurement and assessment of personal exposures to

visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) radiation emitted by artificial sources, where adverse effects cannot be readily

excluded.

NOTE 1 Adverse effects will normally not occur in exposures caused by normal lighting or room heating.

This European Standard applies to VIS- and IR- exposures in indoor and outdoor workplaces. It does not

apply to VIS- and IR-exposures in leisure time.

This European Standard does not apply to VIS- and IR- exposures caused by the sun.

NOTE 2 Part 3 of this standard will deal with UV-exposures caused by the sun.

This European Standard does not specify VIS- and IR-exposure limit values. It supports the application of limit

values set by national regulations or international recommendations.

This European Standard applies to VIS- and IR- exposures by artificial incoherent sources, which emit

spectral lines as well as continuous spectra. This European Standard does not apply to coherent radiation

sources.

NOTE 3 Coherent optical radiation sources are covered by standards for lasers, like EN 60825-1 etc.

This European Standard applies to visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) radiation exposures in the wavelength band

380 nm to 3 µm. It also applies to radiation exposures that may present a blue-light hazard in the wavelength

band 300 nm to 700 nm.

This European Standard does not apply to other effects of which the action spectra lie solely within the

UV-region 180 nm to 400 nm.
NOTE 4 Part 1 of EN 14255 addresses these effects.
This European Standard does not apply to radiation emissions of products.

NOTE 5 For radiation emissions of products other standards apply, such as EN 12198 for radiation emissions of

machinery, EN 60335-2-27 for household appliances for skin exposures to ultraviolet and infrared radiation and CIE S009

for the safety of lamps and lamp systems.

This European Standard does not apply to heat stress, i.e. long term heating of the humans body with strain of

the cardiac/circular system caused by climatic environmental conditions including VIS/IR radiation.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ENV 13005, Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement

EN 14255-1, Measurement and assessment of incoherent optical radiation — Part 1: Ultraviolet radiation by

artificial UV-sources in the workplace
CIE 17.4:1987, International electrotechnical vocabulary, Chapter 845: lighting
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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Quantities, symbols and units
Table 1 – Quantities, symbols and units
Symbol Quantity Unit
λ wavelength nm
E (λ) spectral irradiance W/(m²⋅nm)
E irradiance W/m²
blue-light irradiance W/m²
H (λ) spectral radiant exposure J/(m²⋅nm)
radiant exposure J/m²
H blue-light radiant exposure J/m²
L (λ) spectral radiance
W/(m²⋅nm⋅sr)
L radiance W/(m²⋅sr)
L retinal thermal radiance
W/(m²⋅sr)
L blue-light radiance
b W/(m²⋅sr)
G radiance dose J/(m²⋅sr)
blue-light radiance dose J/(m²⋅sr)
exposure duration s
∆ t
exp
b(λ) blue-light hazard weighting function -
r(λ) retinal thermal hazard weighting function -
actual source diameter m
D viewing source diameter m
r viewing distance m
angular subtense mrad
φ viewing angle ° / mrad
γ angle of acceptance mrad

NOTE Values for the spectral weighting function like b(λ) and b(λ) can be taken from the set of limit values applied.

E.g. if b(λ) is chosen to correspond to the ICNIRP relative spectral effectiveness B(λ) [1,3], the blue-light irradiance E will

correspond to the ICNIRP blue-light hazard weighted irradiance E and the blue-light radiant exposure H will correspond

B b
to the ICNIRP blue-light hazard weighted radiant exposure H (see 7.2).
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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
3.2 Definitions and relationships between quantities

For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in CIE 17.4:1987 and the

following apply.
3.2.1
irradiance
is calculated from the spectral irradiance E (λ) by:
E = E (λ)dλ (1)
3.2.2
blue-light irradiance

integral of the product of the spectral irradiance E (λ) and the blue-light hazard weighting function b(λ):

E = E (λ)b(λ)dλ (2)
b λ
3.2.3
spectral radiant exposure
H  (λλλλ)

integral of the spectral irradiance E (λ) with respect to the exposure duration ∆ t :

λ exp
(3)
H (λ) = E (λ,t)dt
λ λ
exp
3.2.4
radiant exposure
integral of the irradiance E with respect to the exposure duration ∆ t :
exp
(4)
H = E(t)dt
exp

The radiant exposure H is calculated from the integral of the spectral radiant exposure H (λ):

H = H (λ)dλ (5)
3.2.5
blue-light radiant exposure

integral of the blue-light irradiance E with respect to the exposure duration ∆ t :

b exp
H = E dt (6)
b b
exp

The blue-light radiant exposure H can also be calculated from the spectral radiant exposure H (λ) and the

b λ
blue-light hazard weighting function b(λ):
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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
H = H (λ)b(λ)dλ (7)
b λ
3.2.6
radiance
is calculated from the spectral radiance L (λ) by:
L = L ( λ)d λ (8)
3.2.7
retinal thermal radiance

integral of the product of the spectral radiance L (λ) and the retinal thermal hazard weighting function r(λ):

L = L (λ)r( λ)d λ (9)
r λ
3.2.8
blue-light radiance

integral of the product of the spectral radiance L (λ) and the blue-light hazard weighting function b(λ):

L = L (λ)b(λ)d λ (10)
b λ
3.2.9
radiance dose
integral of the radiance L with respect to the exposure duration ∆ t :
exp
G = Ldt (11)
exp
3.2.10
blue-light radiance dose

integral of the blue-light radiance L with respect to the exposure duration ∆ t :

b exp
G = L dt (12)
b b
exp
3.2.11
actual source diameter
 the circle diameter, if the source is circular;

 the arithmetic mean of the longest and shortest dimension, if the source is oblong

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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
3.2.12
viewing source diameter
given by:
D = Dcosφ (13)
3.2.13
viewing distance
distance between the centre of the source and the eye respective the detector
3.2.14
angular subtense
given by:
α = D / r (14)
3.2.15
viewing angle
angle between the normal of the source and the line of sight
3.2.16
angle of acceptance
γγγγ
largest angle between all directions in which a radiation detector is sensitive
4 General procedure

In order to measure and assess the VIS- and IR- exposure in the workplace the following steps shall be

carried out:
a) Preliminary review
b) Work task analysis
c) Measurement of the exposure
d) Assessment of the exposure
e) Decision about protective measures
f) Decision about a repetition of the exposure measurement and assessment
g) Preparation of a report
Details of these procedures are specified in Clauses 5 to 11.

NOTE 1 A flow chart showing the procedural steps is given in Annex A (informative).

NOTE 2 In some cases it is not necessary to carry out all of these steps, see Clause 5.

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SIST EN 14255-2:2006
EN 14255-2:2005 (E)
5 Preliminary review

The preliminary review is required to determine whether or not a detailed hazard assessment based on

measurements is necessary. All available information about the radiation source and the possible personal

VIS/IR-exposure shall be gathered. It shall then be decided if an exposure measurement is necessary or if a

statement can be made without a measurement that the exposure limit values are met or are exceeded.

NOTE If VIS/IR irradiances are known to be either insignificant or extreme, a precise assessment may be

unnecessary. Where all sources have emission characteristics which can be described as trivial, or where occupancy is

minimal, it may be impossible for a person to exceed the chosen exposure limits. Conversely, where emissions are

significant and/or occupancy is high, it may be obvious that the limits will be exceeded and that some form of protective

measures (see Clause 9) will be required. Useful information towards the preliminary review might be found from several

origins:

• A device may have been classified according to standards such as EN 12198 [10], [11], [12] and CIE S009 [3].

Knowledge of the classification of all potential sources of VIS/IR-radiation may allow a sufficiently precise assessment

of hazard to be made without further measurement.

• If sufficient VIS/IR-radiation emission data are available for a device it may be possible to estimate the personal

VIS/IR-exposure.

• If data like spectrum (e.g. derived from the source temperature), geometry and exposure time are available calculation

of the personal exposure may be performed (e.g. by computer software [5]).

If a clear statement can be made that the personal VIS/IR-exposure is insignificant and that the exposure limit

values will be met, no further action is necessary and Clauses 6 to 9 need not be applied.

If a clear statement can be made that the VIS/IR-exposure limit value(s) will be exceeded, Clause 9 shall be

applied. After the application of protective measures the assessment procedure shall be repeated starting with

the preliminary review in Clause 5.

If it cannot clearly be estimated in advance whether the limit value(s) will be met or exceeded the procedures

specified in Clauses 6 to 11 shall be carried out.

If the gathered data show a potential exposure in the UV- range, the corresponding hazard shall be assessed

according to EN 14255-1.

A short report according to 11.1 shall be prepared. If measurements are carried out the short report may be

presented as part of the full report according to 11.2.
6 Work task analysis

For the determination of visible and infrared radiation exposures in the workplace a detailed work task analysis

shall be carried out. All activities during which persons may be exposed to VIS- and IR- radiation shall be

considered. For each of these activities the exposure situation shall be carefully analysed. This analysis

includes determining:

• the number, position(s) and types (e.g. wavelength, geometry) of radiation sources to be considered;

• radiation which is reflected or scattered on walls, equipment, materials etc.;
• the spectru
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