Bio-based solvents - Requirements and test methods

This European Standard sets the requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of their bio-based content, their technical properties and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents that:
-   are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
-   comply with the health, safety and environmental requirements which apply generally to solvents; and
-   are derived from biomass.
This European Standard specifies solvent classes, based on the percentage of bio-based carbon content and bio-based content.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term "bio-based" as derived from biomass and clarifies that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not necessarily imply the use of "bio-based" material.
In addition, this document sets requirements on information to be provided regarding sustainability aspects.

Biobasierte Lösemittel - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Anforderungen an biobasierte Lösungsmittel hinsichtlich ihres biobasierten Gehalts, ihrer technischen Eigenschaften und Prüfverfahren fest. Sie bestimmt die Merkmale und Einzelheiten für die Beurteilung von biobasierten Lösungsmittel:
-   die gebrauchstauglich sind bezüglich leistungsbezogener Eigenschaften;
-   die übereinstimmen mit den Anforderungen zu Gesundheit, Sicherheit und Umwelt, die allgemein für Lösungsmittel gelten; und
-   die aus Biomasse abgeleitet sind.
Diese Europäische Norm legt Lösungsmittelklassen basierend auf dem Prozentsatz des biobasierten Kohlenstoffgehalts und biobasierten Gehalts fest.
ANMERKUNG   EN 16575 definiert den Begriff „biobasiert“ als von Biomasse abgeleitet und stellt klar, dass „biobasiert“ nicht „biologisch abbaubar“ bedeutet. Außerdem bedeutet „biologisch abbaubar“ nicht notwendigerweise die Verwendung von „biobasiertem“ Material.
Zusätzlich legt dieses Dokument Anforderungen zu Informationen fest, die in Bezug auf die Nachhaltigkeitsaspekte des Produkts bereitgestellt werden müssen.

Solvants biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais

La présente Norme européenne fixe les exigences relatives aux solvants biosourcés en termes de teneur biosourcée, de propriétés techniques et de méthodes d'essai. Elle établit les caractéristiques et les détails relatifs à l'évaluation des solvants biosourcés en ce qui concerne :
-   leurs performances attendues pour leur utilisation en relation avec leurs propriétés ;
-   leur conformité aux exigences relatives à la santé, la sécurité et l'environnement qui s'appliquent aux solvants d'une manière générale ; et
-   le fait qu'ils soient issus de la biomasse.
La présente Norme européenne spécifie les classes de solvants, basées sur le pourcentage de teneur en carbone biosourcé et de teneur biosourcée.
NOTE   L'EN 16575 définit le terme « biosourcé » comme issu de la biomasse et précise que « biosourcé » n'implique pas « biodégradable ». De plus, « biodégradable » n'implique pas nécessairement l'utilisation d'un matériau « biosourcé ».
De plus, le présent document définit les exigences relatives aux informations à fournir concernant les critères de durabilité.

Topila biološkega izvora - Zahteve in preskusne metode

Ta evropski standard podaja zahteve za lastnosti, omejitve, razrede uporab in preskusne metode za topila biološkega izvora. Podaja lastnosti in podrobnosti za oceno topil biološkega izvora glede na to, ali so:
– primerna za uporabo z vidika lastnosti, povezanih z učinkovitostjo;
– v skladu z zdravstvenimi, varnostnimi in okoljskimi zahtevami, ki veljajo za običajna topila; in
– pridobljena iz določenega najmanjšega deleža biomase.
OPOMBA: Standard EN 16575 opredeljuje izraz »biološkega izvora« kot pridobljen iz biomase in pojasnjuje, da »biološkega izvora« ne pomeni »biološko razgradljivo«. Poleg tega izraz »biološko razgradljiv« ne pomeni nujno, da je uporabljeni material »biološkega izvora«.
Poleg tega ta dokument podaja podrobnosti o informacijah, ki so potrebne za obravnavo trajnosti proizvoda. To so bistvene informacije, saj ponujajo osnovo za izbiro najbolj trajnostnega topila.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Oct-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
01-Nov-2017
Completion Date
01-Nov-2017

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Topila biološkega izvora - Zahteve in preskusne metodeBiobasierte Lösungsmittel - Anforderungen und PrüfverfahrenSolvants biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essaisBio-based solvents - Requirements and test methods87.060.30TopilaSolvents13.020.55Biološki izdelkiBiobased productsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16766:2017SIST EN 16766:2018en,fr,de01-februar-2018SIST EN 16766:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST-TS CEN/TS 16766:20151DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 16766:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16766
November
t r s y English Version

Bioæbased solvents æ Requirements and test methods Solvants biosourcés æ Exigences et méthodes d 5essais

Biobasierte Lösemittel æ Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren This European Standard was approved by CEN on

x September
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s y CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x y x xã t r s y ESIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7 4 General information on the purpose of solvents ................................................................................. 7 5 Performance ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 5.2 Technical performance properties ........................................................................................................... 8 5.2.1 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................... 8 5.2.2 Solvency power ................................................................................................................................................ 8 5.2.3 Distillation characteristics .......................................................................................................................... 8 5.2.4 Evaporation rate .............................................................................................................................................. 9 5.2.5 Colour .................................................................................................................................................................. 9 5.2.6 Density ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 5.2.7 Kinematic viscosity ......................................................................................................................................... 9 6 Health, safety and environmental requirements ............................................................................. 10 7 Bio-based content ........................................................................................................................................ 10 8 Sustainability information ........................................................................................................................ 11 9 Declaration and product labelling ......................................................................................................... 12 Annex A (normative)

Determination of Hansen solubility parameters ................................................ 13 A.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................................... 13 A.2 Calculation of the Hansen solubility parameters for individual solvents ............................... 14 A.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14 A.2.2 Estimated values .......................................................................................................................................... 14 A.2.3 Experimental dispersion forces .............................................................................................................. 15 A.2.4 Experimental dipole forces ...................................................................................................................... 15 A.2.5 Experimental hydrogen bonding ............................................................................................................ 15 A.3 Calculation of Hansen solubility parameters for solvent blends ................................................ 15 A.4 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 Annex B (informative)

Template for B2B communication......................................................................... 16 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 19

SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 16766:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based products”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. This document supersedes CEN/TS 16766:2015. M/491 [1] requested the development of European Standards for solvents and surfactants in relation to bio-based product aspects. This document has been prepared by CEN/TC 411/WG 2 “Bio based solvents”, the secretariat of which is held by the European Solvents Industry Group and NEN. The following is a list of significant technical changes between this European Standard and the Technical Specification: — introduction of the (final) publications on bio-based content determination, sustainability and life-cycle assessment developed under CEN/TC 411; — change of the requirement that a bio-based solvent shall comply to similar sustainability criteria as comparable regular solvents towards an option, because this is very hard to determine for a solvents' producer and basically the task of the user; — expanding the classification in Table 1 to fulfilling either bio-based carbon or bio-based content minima; — further clarification of the sustainability requirements. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 4 Introduction Bio-based products from forestry and agriculture have a long history of application, such as paper, board and various chemicals and materials. The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based products in the market. Some of the reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’ benefits in relation to the depletion of fossil resources and climate change. Bio-based products may also provide additional product functionalities. This has triggered a wave of innovation with the development of knowledge and technologies allowing new transformation processes and product development. Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, the European Commission issued mandate M/4921), resulting in a series of standards developed by CEN/TC 411, with a focus on bio-based products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications. The standards of CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based products” provide a common basis on the following aspects: — common terminology; — bio-based content determination; — life Cycle Assessment (LCA); — sustainability aspects; — declaration tools. It is important to understand what the term bio-based product covers and how it is being used. The term ‘bio-based’ means 'derived from biomass' [2]. Bio-based products (bottles, insulation materials, wood and wood products, paper, solvents, chemical intermediates, composite materials, etc.) are products which are wholly or partly derived from biomass. It is essential to characterize the amount of biomass contained in the product by for instance its bio-based content or bio-based carbon content. The bio-based content of a product does not provide information on its environmental impact or sustainability, which may be assessed through LCA and sustainability criteria. In addition, transparent and unambiguous communication within bio-based value chains is facilitated by a harmonized framework for certification and declaration. This European Standard has been developed with the aim to fulfil part of a Mandate [1] to describe the technical requirements of bio-based solvents in relation to bio-based product aspects. Solvents are liquids which have the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials. In Europe, thousands of producers and manufacturers and more than 10 million workers use solvents every day. The solvent producing industry is composed of both small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as well as multinationals. Downstream users generally tend to be SMEs and micro-SMEs. Solvents are today mainly produced from fossil feedstock. There are efforts to replace these with solvents produced from renewable resources, i.e. bio-based solvents. The criteria of the Regulation on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) [3] have been considered in the discussions that have led to this European Standard.

1) A Mandate is a standardization task embedded in European trade laws. Mandate M/492 is addressed to the European Standardization bodies, CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, for the development of horizontal European Standards for bio-based products. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 5 This document provides an approach that can be taken to describe the technical requirements of bio-based solvents in relation to bio-based product. The purpose of this document is to define how the criteria of performance, health, safety and environment can be determined (measured and calculated) for the bio-based solvent placed on the market. This approach intends to strengthen the reputation of “bio-based solvents” and customer confidence. Future work by the solvents' industry is planned to enable a comparison between bio-based and fossil-based solvents they intend to replace in terms of the impact on the three pillars of sustainability as in EN 16751. This information is essential to check the sustainability impact of the use of all solvents over their whole life cycle. This European Standard builds upon the horizontal standards on bio-based products developed by CEN/TC 411. It provides additional, product specific, details relevant for bio-based solvents. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard sets the requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of their bio-based content, their technical properties and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents that: — are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties; — comply with the health, safety and environmental requirements which apply generally to solvents; and — are derived from biomass. This European Standard specifies solvent classes, based on the percentage of bio-based carbon content and bio-based content. NOTE EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material. In addition, this document sets requirements on information to be provided regarding sustainability aspects. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 16640, Bio-based products - Bio-based carbon content - Determination of the bio-based carbon content using the radiocarbon method EN 16575, Bio-based products - Vocabulary EN 16751, Bio-based products - Sustainability criteria EN 16760, Bio-based products - Life Cycle Assessment EN 16785-1, Bio-based products - Bio-based content - Part 1: Determination of the bio-based content using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis prEN 16785-2:2016, Bio-based products - Bio-based content - Part 2: Determination of the bio-based content using the material balance method EN 16848, Bio-based products - Requirements for Business to Business communication of characteristics using a Data Sheet EN 16935, Bio-based products - Requirements for Business-to-Consumer communication and claims EN ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube method (ISO 12185:1996) SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 7 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16575 apply. 4 General information on the purpose of solvents Solvents are liquids which have the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials. They make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate materials. Solvents have significantly changed modern living and are an invaluable solution for industries as diverse as pharmaceuticals and microelectronics to domestic cleaning and printing. In fact, without solvents, many of the products we use and rely on, from penicillin to industrial paint, would not perform to the standards we demand today. Organic solvents are any organic compound which is typically used, alone or in combination with other agents, and without undergoing a chemical change, to dissolve raw materials, products or waste materials. Examples of applications for solvents are (as presented in the Solvents Emissions Directive [4]): — cleaning agent; — dissolver; — dispersion medium; — viscosity adjuster; — surface tension adjuster; — plasticiser; or — preservative. NOTE For more examples of applications, see the website of the European Solvents Industry Group, www.esig.org. 5 Performance 5.1 General This clause gives a common set of technical properties characterizing the performance of solvents including bio-based solvents. In the absence of international solvent standardized specifications, it is necessary to provide to potential users the means to qualify bio-based solvents, especially in regard to their technical performance. There are also a number of other factors which will determine the acceptance of a solvent product, e.g. the Health, Safety and Environmental properties which are treated in Clause 6. Solvents are used in a wide variety of applications and it is not convenient to evaluate their performance with respect to each application. Therefore, a practical approach is to define a set of measurable solvent properties which enable technical specialists to select appropriate solvents and guide their evaluation. A set of seven properties (each under 5.2) has been selected which describe essential properties associated with a solvent. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 8 5.2 Technical performance properties 5.2.1 Chemical composition While chemical composition is not a property in itself, it provides essential information regarding the suitability of a solvent in process and applications. Quantitative chemical composition of the product should be provided. To identify substances or mixtures as relevant use the nomenclature as in EU CLP [5]. 5.2.2 Solvency power Very different ways have been defined to measure solvency power, generally experimental measurements such as solubility in water, solubility in oil, Aniline point, Kauri Butanol index, polarity, etc. However, such methods are not able to describe the full extent of the solubility properties of products exhibiting a wide variety of polarities. Therefore, solvency power should be determined. A well-known quantitative assessment of solvency power has been developed through the means of the Hansen Solubility parameters [6], which provide a suitable description of solvency properties. Annex A gives a detailed description on how to determine these solubility parameters. Other scales may be used to characterize solvency power as for example the Kamlet-Taft parameters, as long as they are correlated to Hansen Solubility. When determined, the source of the solubility parameter values shall be reported and whether they are estimated or determined experimentally. 5.2.3 Distillation characteristics Numerous methods are available, based upon actual distillation measurements or on correlations, especially from gas chromatography. NOTE Some formulations of solvents might not be suitable for actual distillation measurement, for example some emulsions. A selection of recommended test methods is listed below: — EN ISO 3405[7], which determines distillation characteristics at atmospheric pressure used for petroleum products of distillation points above 0 °C and end points below approximately 400 °C and is equivalent to ASTM D86 [8, 9]. — ISO 918 [10], which determines distillation characteristics of organic liquids used for non-petroleum products of boiling points in the range of approximately 30 °C to 300 °C in atmospheric conditions and which are stable under these conditions. — ASTM D1078 [11], which is a test for the distillation range of volatile organic liquids used for distillation range of organic liquids boiling between 30 °C and 350 °C and which are stable during the distillation process. — EN 15199-1 [12], describes the determination of boiling range distribution of materials with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) below 750 °C, it is equivalent to ASTM D5399 [13]. When reported, distillation characteristics of bio-based solvents shall be expressed by providing an initial boiling point and an end point (Dry Point or Final Boiling Point) expressed in °C with a reporting precision in compliance with the rules of the standard selected. The reference of the chosen test method standard shall also be reported. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 9 5.2.4 Evaporation rate The evaporation rate of a solvent is a useful indication of the speed at which a solvent will dry. Depending upon the type of solvent, different scales may be used. Three different methods are applicable to various solvent types: ASTM D1901 [14], ASTM D3539 [15] and DIN 53170 [16]. If the results of the determination of the evaporation rate are provided, this shall be done in accordance with the relevant test method standard. The reference of the chosen test method standard shall also be reported. Such methods are used on a comparative basis against a reference volatile solvent such as Di-ethyl-ether or n-butyl-acetate. Another potentially useful property, related to the evaporation rate, is the vapour pressure measured or calculated at a specific temperature. NOTE Vapour pressure is a property indicated in the EU REACH regulation Safety Data Sheet in Clause 9 [3]. The value of the vapour pressure may be provided in place of the evaporation rate. For an overview of test methodologies, see CEN/TR 16569 [17]. In that case, the value of the vapour pressure shall be indicated with a proper unit (e.g. Pa, kPa or mm Hg) and the temperature to which the value refers. A reference shall be indicated (i.e. measured or calculated). 5.2.5 Colour Depending upon the type and intensity of the colour exhibited by the solvent, different scales are used. The following colour test methods and scales should be used: a) For clear liquids, the Gardner colour scale as in EN ISO 4630 [18] or the Platinum-Cobalt scale as in EN ISO 6271 [19]. b) For petroleum type of liquids the Saybolt scale as determined via the chronometer method of ASTM D156 [20], the ASTM scale determined by using ASTM D1500 [21] or the more general techniques as in ASTM D6045 [22] (automatic tristimulus method). Results of measure for the colour shall be provided in accordance with the relevant standard. The reference to the chosen test method standard shall also be reported. 5.2.6 Density Density of solvents can vary significantly depending upon their chemical nature. Density provides useful information for the selection of suitable solvents for multiple applications. EN ISO 12185 shall be used. NOTE EN ISO 12185 is a method technically equivalent to ASTM D4052 [23]. Results of the determination of the density and the associated temperature shall be provided in accordance with EN ISO 12185. The reference to the test method standard shall be indicated also. 5.2.7 Kinematic viscosity Viscosity measures the internal resistance to the flow exhibited by a fluid. Various measurement methods, direct or indirect are suitable for the determination of kinematic viscosity at 40 °C. CAUTION — Some solvents have a boiling point below 40 °C. In that case, measurement at lower temperature shall be made, preferably at the temperature of use, and reported. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 10 The following selection of viscosity test methods are recommended: — EN ISO 3104 [24] or ASTM D445 [25] for the determination of kinematic viscosity and the calculation of dynamic viscosity, or — EN 16896 [27] or ASTM D7042 [26] for calculating kinematic viscosity from the determined dynamic viscosity and density of liquids by the Stabinger viscometer. NOTE The above listed CEN and ASTM standards are technically equivalent. Results of determination of the kinematic viscosity shall be provided in accordance with the relevant standard and associated with the temperature at which the measurement refers to. The reference to the test method standard shall also be reported. 6 Health, safety and environmental requirements Bio-based solvents, just as any chemicals, are to follow relevant regulations in terms of health, safety and environment. These include for example REACH regulation [3] for health, safety and environmental assessment, and GHS/CLP regulation [4] for classification and labelling. 7 Bio-based content There are two different ways of determining the fraction of biomass in a product: the bio-based carbon content and the bio-based content. It is important to clearly distinguish between these two approaches as, for the same product, the values can differ. For solvents, a determination of bio-based content via EN 16785-1 might not always be relevant. Reasons for this are: — the nature of (bio)chemical processes; — the different requirements of the applications of solvents; — the complex supply/value chain of the solvents; and — the existence of interlinked production systems (co-production, mixture, etc.). In such cases, prEN 16785-2 (material balance) should be used to determine the bio-based content of a bio-based solvent. Three classes for bio-based solvents are defined, A, B and C, where the highest class is “A” and the lowest is “C”. The classification of the solvent shall be based on the lowest classification following from the determination of the bio-based carbon content and of the bio-based content. When tested by the methods indicated in Table 1, a bio-based solvent shall be in accordance with the limits specified in Table 1. The determined bio-based (carbon) content shall be reported in addition to the solvent class. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 11 Table 1 — Bio-based solvents classes Bio-based solvent class Bio-based carbon content a % (m/m) Bio-based content b % (m/m) Comments A

· 95

· 95 Applicable for solvents, where all raw material part can be considered as bio-based d B

· 50

· 50 Applicable for solvents, where the major raw material part can be considered as bio-based C

· 25 c

· 25 c Applicable for solvents, where the minor raw material part is bio-based a As determined by EN 16640 and expressed in relation to the total carbon of the product. b As determined by EN 16785–1 or prEN 16785–2:2016 and expressed in relation to the total mass of the product. c To allow harmonization with other bio-based initiatives like surfactants, lubricants, polymers, etc. and to be in line with (legal) drivers such as the United States Department of Agriculture, the minimum threshold of 25 % bio-based carbon content has been set. d For test method capability reasons, 100 % bio-based is not realistic, so an acceptable and reproducibly comfortable level is set. 8 Sustainability information In order to clarify the environmental, social and economic impacts (positive and negative), information on the sustainability aspects of the biomass used for the production of a bio-based solvent shall either be given according to EN 16751 or according to a relevant internationally recognized standard or certification system. The standard or certification system(s) used shall be stated. In order to clarify the environmental, social and economic impacts (positive and negative) that the production of the bio-based solvent has, information on the sustainability aspects of the bio-based part of the bio-based solvent production should be given according to EN 16751. A chain-of-custody shall be used to transmit sustainability information through the supply chain. The economic operator shall disclose which chain-of-custody system(s) is/are adopted. Such a system shall be recognized and widely accepted, internationally, regionally or nationally. NOTE Sustainability information is essential as this provides a basis for the user of the bio-based solvent to make choices; for example when comparing between solvents or for the overall impact assessment on environment, economy or society. If a life-cycle assessment is part of the determination, it shall be done according to EN 16760. As EN 16760 is based on EN ISO 14040 [28] and EN ISO 14044 [29], an assessment on the basis of these two standards is a possible alternative. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 12 9 Declaration and product labelling A bio-based solvent shall be labelled with its class as defined in Clause 7. Both the bio-based carbon content and the bio-based content shall be declared. For business-to-business declarations, EN 16848 shall be used and for business-to-consumer declarations, EN 16935 shall be used. A recommended example of a reporting template is given in Annex B. The following performance properties as determined in 5.2 shall be reported in case of business-to-business communication: a) colour, see 5.2.5; b) density, see 5.2.6; and c) kinematic viscosity, see 5.2.7. The following performance properties are recommended to be reported as well: d) solvency power, see 5.2.2 e) evaporation rate or vapour pressure, see 5.2.4 f) chemical composition, see 5.2.1; and g) distillation characteristics, see 5.2.3. NOTE There are also additional requirements in regulations, for instance [5] and [30]. SIST EN 16766:2018

EN 16766:2017 (E) 13 Annex A (normative)

Determination of Hansen solubility parameters A.1 Generalities The solvency power, or polarity, of a solvent is cr

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