Petroleum and natural gas industries - Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas - Ship-to-shore interface and port operations (ISO 28460:2010)

ISO 28460:2010 specifies the requirements for ship, terminal and port service providers to ensure the safe transit of an LNG carrier through the port area and the safe and efficient transfer of its cargo. It is applicable to
pilotage and vessel traffic services (VTS);
tug and mooring boat operators;
terminal operators;
ship operators;
suppliers of bunkers, lubricants and stores and other providers of services whilst the LNG carrier is moored alongside the terminal.
ISO 28460:2010 includes provisions for
a ship's safe transit, berthing, mooring and unberthing at the jetty;
cargo transfer;
access from jetty to ship;
operational communications between ship and shore;
all instrumentation, data and electrical connections used across the interface, including OPS (cold ironing), where applicable;
the liquid nitrogen connection (where fitted);
ballast water considerations.
ISO 28460:2010 applies only to conventional onshore LNG terminals and to the handling of LNGC's in international trade. However, it can provide guidance for offshore and coastal operations.

Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrien - Anlagen und Ausrüstung für Flüssigerdgas - Schnittstelle zwischen Schiff und Land und Hafenbetrieb (ISO 28460:2010)

Diese Internationale Norm legt die Anforderungen an das Schiff, das Terminal und die Hafen-Dienstleister
fest, um ein sicheres Manövrieren des LNG-Tankers (en: liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)) im Hafengebiet
und die sichere und einwandfreie Übergabe der Ladung sicherzustellen. Sie gilt für:
a) den Lotsendienst und den Schiffsleitdienst (en: vessel trafic services (VTS));
b) Betreiber von Schleppern und Festmacherbooten;
c) Betreiber des Terminals;
d) Schiffsbetreiber;
e) Lieferanten von Treibstoffen, Schmiermitteln und Versorgungsgütern und andere Anbieter von
Dienstleistungen, während der LNG-Tanker längsseits am Terminal festgemacht ist.
Diese Internationale Norm enthält Festlegungen für:
⎯ die sichere Durchfahrt des Schiffes, das Anlegen, Festmachen und Ablegen vom Pier;
⎯ die Be- und Entladung;
⎯ den Zugang vom Pier zum Schiff;
⎯ die betriebsbedingte Kommunikation zwischen Schiff und Land;
⎯ alle Instrumente, Datenübertragungs- und elektrischen Verbindungen über die Schnittstelle, einschließlich
der OPS (Landstromversorgung), wenn zutreffend;
⎯ den Anschluss von flüssigem Stickstoff (wenn vorhanden);
⎯ Berücksichtigung der Ballastwasseraufnahme und -abgabe.
Diese Internationale Norm gilt nur für herkömmliche Flüssigerdgas-(LNG)-Terminals an Land und die
Abfertigung von LNG-Tankern im internationalen Handel. Sie kann jedoch auch als Leitfaden für den Küstenund
Hochseebetrieb herangezogen werden.

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Installations et équipements relatifs au gaz naturel liquéfié - Interface navire-terre et opérations portuaires (ISO 28460:2010)

L'ISO 28460:2010 spécifie les exigences relatives aux navires, terminaux et fournisseurs de services portuaires pour garantir le transit en toute sécurité d'un méthanier dans la zone portuaire ainsi que le transfert sûr et efficace de sa cargaison. Elle est applicable:
aux centres de pilotage et de régulation du trafic maritime (VTS);
aux exploitants de remorqueurs et de mouilleurs;
aux exploitants de terminaux;
aux exploitants de navires;
aux fournisseurs de soutes, lubrifiants et pièces de rechange et aux autres fournisseurs de services pendant que le méthanier est amarré le long du terminal;
L'ISO 28460:2010 comprend des dispositions concernant:
le transit, l'accostage, l'amarrage et l'appareillage d'un navire à l'appontement en toute sécurité;
le transfert de la cargaison;
l'accès depuis l'appontement au navire;
les communications opérationnelles entre le navire et la terre;
tous les instruments, données et connexions électriques utilisés de part et d'autre de l'interface, y compris l'OPS (alimentation électrique à quai des navires) le cas échéant;
la connexion d'azote liquide (le cas échéant);
les considérations relatives aux eaux de ballast.
L'ISO 28460:2010 s'applique uniquement aux terminaux terrestres classiques de gaz naturel liquéfié (GNL) et qui traitent des méthaniers lors d'activités commerciales internationales. Elle peut toutefois fournir des lignes directrices pour des opérations côtières et au large.

Industrija za predelavo nafte in zemeljskega plina - Napeljave in oprema za utekočinjeni zemeljski plin - Povezava med ladjo in kopnim in pristaniški postopki (ISO 28460:2010)

Ta mednarodni standard določa zahteve za izvajalce ladijskih, terminalskih in pristaniških storitev, ki zagotavljajo varen tranzit ladij za prevoz utekočinjenega zemeljskega plina (LNGC) v pristaniškem območju ter varen in učinkovit prevoz njihovega tovora. Velja za:
a) pilotažo in sistem za nadzor plovbe (VTS);
b) ladijske upravljavce vlačilcev in privezov;
c) upravljavce terminalov;
d) upravljavce ladij;
e) dobavitelje rezervoarjev, maziv in skladišč ter druge dobavitelje storitev, medtem ko je ladja za prevoz LNG privezana na terminalu.
Ta mednarodni standard vključuje določbe za:
⎯ varen tranzit ladje, vplutje, privez in izplutje s pomola;
⎯ prenos tovora;
⎯ dostop s pomola na ladjo;
⎯ delovno komunikacijo med ladjo in kopnim;
⎯ vso merilno opremo, podatkovne in električne zveze, ki se uporabljajo po celi povezavi, vključno z OPS (priklop na električno omrežje v pristanišču), kjer je to primerno;
⎯ povezavo za tekoči dušik (kjer je nameščena);
⎯ obravnavo balastnih vod.
Ta mednarodni standard velja samo za konvencionalne kopenske terminale za utekočinjeni zemeljski plin (LNG) in za obravnavo LNGC v mednarodni trgovini. Lahko pa podaja vodilo za delovanje na morju in obali.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Dec-2010
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
15-Dec-2010
Completion Date
15-Dec-2010

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
01-junij-2011
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1532:1999
,QGXVWULMD]DSUHGHODYRQDIWHLQ]HPHOMVNHJDSOLQD1DSHOMDYHLQRSUHPD]D

XWHNRþLQMHQL]HPHOMVNLSOLQ3RYH]DYDPHGODGMRLQNRSQLPLQSULVWDQLãNLSRVWRSNL

,62

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Installation and equipment for liquefied natural

gas - Ship-to-shore interface and port operations (ISO 28460:2010)

Erdöl und Erdgas Industrie - Anlagen und Ausrüstung für Flüssigerdgas - Schnittstelle

zwischen Schiff und Land und Hafenbetrieb (ISO 28460:2010)

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Installations et équipements relatifs au gaz

naturel liquéfié - Interface terre-navire et opérations portuaires (ISO 28460:2010)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 28460:2010
ICS:
75.200 2SUHPD]DVNODGLãþHQMH Petroleum products and
QDIWHQDIWQLKSURL]YRGRYLQ natural gas handling
]HPHOMVNHJDSOLQD equipment
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 28460
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2010
ICS 75.200 Supersedes EN 1532:1997
English Version
Petroleum and natural gas industries - Installation and
equipment for liquefied natural gas - Ship-to-shore interface and
port operations (ISO 28460:2010)

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Installations et Erdöl und Erdgasindustrie - Anlagen und Ausrüstung für

équipements relatifs au gaz naturel liquéfié - Interface Flüssigerdgas - Schnittstelle zwischen Schiff und Land und

terre-navire et opérations portuaires (ISO 28460:2010) Hafenbetrieb (ISO 28460:2010)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 December 2010.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 28460:2010: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
EN ISO 28460:2010 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
EN ISO 28460:2010 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 28460:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67 “Materials,

equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries” in collaboration

with Technical Committee CEN/TC 282 “Installation and equipment for LNG” the secretariat of which is held

by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2011, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by June 2011.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1532:1997.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 28460:2010 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 28460:2010 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28460
First edition
2010-12-15
Petroleum and natural gas industries —
Installation and equipment for liquefied
natural gas — Ship-to-shore interface and
port operations
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Installations et équipements
relatifs au gaz naturel liquéfié — Interface terre-navire et opérations
portuaires
Reference number
ISO 28460:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
PDF disclaimer

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© ISO 2010

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................2

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

3.2 Abbreviated terms.................................................................................................................................4

4 Description and hazards of LNG..........................................................................................................4

5 Potential hazardous situations associated with LNG transfer .........................................................5

6 Possible factors affecting ship/shore interface and port operations ..............................................5

7 Jetty ........................................................................................................................................................6

7.1 Siting of jetty..........................................................................................................................................6

7.2 Multi-product berths..............................................................................................................................7

7.3 Vapour return system ...........................................................................................................................7

8 Marine operations..................................................................................................................................7

8.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................7

8.2 Port transit .............................................................................................................................................7

8.3 Port services ..........................................................................................................................................8

8.4 Marine interface.....................................................................................................................................9

9 Hazardous areas and electrical safety ..............................................................................................12

9.1 Jetty's electrical safety .......................................................................................................................12

9.2 Insulating flanges................................................................................................................................12

10 Security ................................................................................................................................................12

11 Hazard management ...........................................................................................................................13

11.1 Protection from leakage and spillage of LNG ..................................................................................13

11.2 Fire hazard management ....................................................................................................................13

12 Access and egress..............................................................................................................................14

12.1 General .................................................................................................................................................14

12.2 Normal access and egress .................................................................................................................14

12.3 Emergency access and egress ..........................................................................................................14

13 Onshore power supply........................................................................................................................15

14 Ship/shore communications ..............................................................................................................15

14.1 General .................................................................................................................................................15

14.2 Voice communications .......................................................................................................................15

14.3 Data communications .........................................................................................................................15

14.4 Emergency shut-down signal ............................................................................................................15

15 Cargo transfer......................................................................................................................................16

15.1 Pre-cargo-transfer meeting ................................................................................................................16

15.2 Marine transfer arms...........................................................................................................................17

15.3 Emergency shut-down and emergency release systems ...............................................................18

15.4 Safety and maintenance of ESD, ERS and QC/DC systems ...........................................................19

16 Custody transfer..................................................................................................................................20

17 Provision and training of staff ...........................................................................................................20

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)

17.1 Staff for the terminal........................................................................................................................... 20

17.2 Coordination........................................................................................................................................ 20

Annex A (informative) Ship's equipment ....................................................................................................... 21

Annex B (informative) Typical cargo operation flow chart .......................................................................... 22

Annex C (informative) General safety philosophy for stopping LNG transfer........................................... 23

Annex D (informative) Recommended pin configurations for fibre-optic and electric ship/shore

links (SSLs) ......................................................................................................................................... 24

Bibliography..................................................................................................................................................... 27

iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 28460 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
Introduction

The original liquefied natural gas (LNG) business was based on long-term sale and purchase agreements with

essentially dedicated fleets and terminals and each party having a thorough understanding of the particular

ship/shore interface, which resulted in a safe and reliable operation.

The considerable growth of the LNG short-term and spot cargo markets has resulted in the requirement to

ensure that the ship/shore interface issues are standardized and well understood to ensure the continuing

safe transportation of LNG.

It is necessary that each LNG port facility and terminal have its own specific safety and operational systems

and that LNG carriers using the facility comply with these systems. For all vessels, it is necessary to take

particular care to ensure that the basic requirements laid down in this International Standard are understood

and applied at each cargo transfer in order to ensure the safe, secure and efficient transfer of cargo between

ship and shore or vice versa.

This International Standard relates to marine operations during the vessel's port transit and the transfer of

cargo at the ship/shore interface taking into account the publications of the International Maritime Organization

(IMO), the Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO), the International Group of

Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIIGNL) and the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF).

Relevant publications by these and other organizations are listed in the Bibliography.

It is not necessary that the provisions of this International Standard be applied retrospectively and it is

recognized that national and/or local laws and regulations take precedence where they are in conflict with this

International Standard.
vi © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28460:2010(E)
Petroleum and natural gas industries — Installation and
equipment for liquefied natural gas — Ship-to-shore interface
and port operations
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the requirements for ship, terminal and port service providers to ensure

the safe transit of an liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) through the port area and the safe and efficient

transfer of its cargo. It is applicable to
a) pilotage and vessel traffic services (VTS);
b) tug and mooring boat operators;
c) terminal operators;
d) ship operators;

e) suppliers of bunkers, lubricants and stores and other providers of services whilst the LNG carrier is

moored alongside the terminal.
This International Standard includes provisions for
⎯ a ship's safe transit, berthing, mooring and unberthing at the jetty;
⎯ cargo transfer;
⎯ access from jetty to ship;
⎯ operational communications between ship and shore;

⎯ all instrumentation, data and electrical connections used across the interface, including OPS (cold

ironing), where applicable;
⎯ the liquid nitrogen connection (where fitted);
⎯ ballast water considerations.

This International Standard applies only to conventional onshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals and to

the handling of LNGC's in international trade. However, it can provide guidance for offshore and coastal

operations.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
IMO , International ship and port facility security code (ISPS Code), 2003

IMO, International code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk

(IGC Code), 1993
SOLAS chapter II-2 and chapter V, regulation 12
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
communication

all methods of transmitting written or verbal information, including information covered by data links

3.1.2
control room

area situated in the terminal from which cargo operations are monitored and controlled

3.1.3
conventional onshore LNG terminal

LNG export or receiving terminal that is located on-shore and that has a marine transfer facility for the loading

or unloading of LNG carriers in a harbour or other sheltered coastal location

NOTE The transfer facility consists of a wharf or fixed structure capable of withstanding the berthing loads of a fully

laden LNG carrier of a given specification and mooring the vessel safely alongside. This includes any structure connected

to the shore by a trestle, tunnel or other means, facilitating the LNG transfer and ancillary services and providing safe

access and egress for personnel performing maintenance or operational duties.
3.1.4
emergency release system
ERS

system that provides a positive means of quick release of transfer arms and safe isolation between ship and

shore, following a predefined procedure including an emergency shut-down (ESD)

NOTE The operation of the emergency release system can be referred to as an “ESD II”.

3.1.5
emergency shut-down
ESD

method that safely and effectively stops the transfer of LNG and vapour between ship and shore or vice versa

NOTE The operation of this system can be referred to as an “ESD I”. Ship/shore ESD systems should not be

confused with other emergency shut-down systems within the terminal or on board ship.

1) IMO International Maritime Organization
2) SOLAS: International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea.
2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
3.1.6
fail-safe

property of a component or system that fails towards a safer or less hazardous condition

3.1.7
jetty

facility consisting of a trestle or similar structure, berthing facilities including fendering and topside equipment

to enable the transfer of LNG between ship and shore
3.1.8
LNGC cargo control room

area situated on board the ship from which the control of the ship's transfer operation is directed

3.1.9
LNGC heel

quantity of cargo that remains on board (ROB) after discharge to maintain the cargo tank temperature and/or

to provide fuel gas
3.1.10
marine exclusion zone

area around the jetty (3.1.7) in which no unauthorized traffic is allowed to enter

NOTE 1 This may vary according to jetty operations and security levels.

NOTE 2 There may also be a land-use planning exclusion zone, in which no public permanent human activity is

allowed.
3.1.11
moving safety zone

area around the transiting LNG carrier, into which no unauthorized traffic is allowed to enter, so as to protect

the vessel from marine hazards (collision, grounding) while in transit
3.1.12
onshore power supply
OPS

provision of electrical power to a vessel from shore to minimize local atmospheric pollution

NOTE This can be referred to as “cold ironing”.
3.1.13
ship's cargo manifold

flanged pipe assembly, mounted on board ship to which the outboard flanges of the transfer arms are

connected
[4]
NOTE See also OCIMF .
3.1.14
ship/shore compatibility study

study undertaken by the ship owner or technical manager and terminal operators to ensure the vessel can

safely berth and transfer cargo at a particular terminal
3.1.15
ship/shore interface

matching of ship to shore and all operations relating to LNG cargo transfer, ship's access and ship's supplies

3.1.16
ship/shore safety check-list

list of items that are checked by ship and shore prior to commencing cargo operations using the current

ISGOTT edition as applicable to the transfer of LNG
NOTE See Reference [2].
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
3.1.17
vessel traffic services
VTS

shore-side systems which range from the provision of simple information messages to ships, such as position

of other traffic or meteorological hazard warnings, to extensive management of traffic within a port or

waterway

NOTE SOLAS Chapter V (Safety of Navigation) states that governments may establish VTS when, in their opinion,

the volume of traffic or the degree of risk justifies such services.
3.1.18
vetting

process of marine quality assurance by assessing ship quality against a known standard to determine

acceptance for use

NOTE 1 The process of assessing the ship quality should include the assessment of operational standards of the

vessel, including crew competency and training, adherence to class and international rules and the ship's physical

condition.

NOTE 2 Recognized industry inspection reports of the ship, ship manager, port state control databases and class

reports provide some of the information that assist in determining the vetting decision.

3.2 Abbreviated terms
ERC emergency release coupling
LNG liquefied natural gas
LNGC liquefied natural gas carrier
QC/DC quick connection/disconnection coupling
ROB remaining on board
SSL ship/shore link
4 Description and hazards of LNG
[28]
The characteristics of LNG are described in EN 1160 .

The main hazards are also defined in EN 1160 and those most important in the transfer of LNG are:

⎯ the cryogenic temperatures, which can cause injury to people (frostbite), and also cause damage to non-

cryogenic materials such as carbon steel, which lose their mechanical properties, become brittle and

fracture;
⎯ fire, explosion or asphyxiation from possible leaks or spillage of LNG;

⎯ the overpressure resulting in shock waves, caused by rapid phase transition (RPT) of LNG due to the

interaction between LNG and water;
⎯ overpressure due to thermal expansion of trapped LNG.

Release to the atmosphere should be avoided as methane is considered a greenhouse gas.

NOTE It is necessary that standards for security, fire protection equipment and explosion-proof equipment be in

accordance with local rules and regulations as appropriate to the application.
4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
5 Potential hazardous situations associated with LNG transfer

The following hazardous situations should be considered for operational and contingency planning by all

relevant parties:
⎯ failure of ship's mooring;

⎯ incorrect adherence to cool-down or warm-up procedures, including purging and draining of transfer arms

and piping;
⎯ flange and valve leaks including QC/DC;
⎯ overfilling of tanks (ship and shore);

NOTE Experience shows that overfilling of ship's tanks, due to human error, also occurs during discharge

operations.

⎯ failure of ERC, including activation of coupler whilst ball valves are still open;

⎯ overpressure/underpressure of tanks (ship and shore);
⎯ excessive surge pressure in transfer lines.
6 Possible factors affecting ship/shore interface and port operations

The following factors should be considered for operational and contingency planning by all relevant parties:

a) environmental factors;
b) atmospheric conditions (wind, lightning, etc.);
c) sea conditions;
d) current effects to determine the berthing strategy;
e) seismic conditions (potential for earthquake and/or tsunami);
f) rise and fall of the tide;
g) silt (turbidity) in harbour water that can be deposited in ballast tanks;
h) ice conditions affecting navigation, port and jetty operations;
i) tropical revolving storms;
j) high latitude factors;
Other factors that should be considered are
⎯ heavy jetty contact during berthing or unberthing;
⎯ impact from another ship;

⎯ LNG ship movement along the jetty, e.g. due to engine control malfunction, tidal forces, wind and wind

gusts, failure or slackening of mooring lines, or by the interaction effect from ships passing nearby;

⎯ grounding and other navigational errors during port transit;
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 28460:2011
ISO 28460:2010(E)
⎯ loss of LNG ship power or tug line or engine failure during ship manoeuvring;
⎯ bunkering and storing;
⎯ noxious or flammable gas release at the terminal or its surroundings;
⎯ emergencies including fire on vessel or shore.
NOTE See Annex A for information on ship's equipment.
7 Jetty
7.1 Siting of jetty

The location and configuration of the LNG jetty and marine exclusion zone should be the result of a risk

assessment taking into consideration, as a minimum, the following:
⎯ physical location of the berthing facility with regard to marine topography;
⎯ local oceanographic and meteorological conditions;
⎯ frequency, displacement and types of passing ships;

⎯ closest point of approach and course of passing ships, including the requirements of a moving safety

zone;
⎯ distance to po
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