Welding and allied processes - Determination of hydrogen content in arc weld metal (ISO 3690:2018)

This document specifies the sampling and analytical procedure for the determination of diffusible hydrogen in martensitic, bainitic, and ferritic steel weld metal arising from the welding of such steels using arc welding processes with filler material.
The techniques specified in this document include collection of diffusible hydrogen via displacement of mercury or collection into a headspace filled with an inert gas such as argon. The amount of hydrogen collected is determined by measuring the displaced volume in the former and by, for example, thermal conductivity in the latter.
The temperature for collection of diffusible hydrogen is controlled to avoid thermal activation of non-diffusible hydrogen.
NOTE Recommendations and restrictions in regard to older methods of measurement using glycerine are given in Annex B for any comparison work to these older methods.

Schweißen und verwandte Prozesse - Bestimmung des Wasserstoffgehaltes im Lichtbogenschweißgut (ISO 3690:2018)

Dieses Dokument legt Anforderungen für das Verfahren der Prüfstückherstellung und der Analyse zur Bestimmung des diffusiblen Wasserstoffs im Schweißgut martensitischer, bainitischer und ferritischer Stähle fest, das durch Lichtbogenschweißen mit Schweißzusatz hergestellt wurde.
Bei den in diesem Dokument beschriebenen Techniken wird diffusibler Wasserstoff zum einen mittels Quecksilberverdrängung, zum anderen in einem mit Inertgas, z. B. Argon, gefüllten Kopfraum auf¬gefangen. Im ersten Fall wird die aufgefangene Wasserstoffmenge durch Messung des verdrängten Volumens bestimmt, im zweiten Fall durch Messung der Wärmeleitfähigkeit.
Die Temperatur wird beim Auffangen des diffusiblen Wasserstoffs kontrolliert, um eine thermische Akti-vierung nicht diffusiblen Wasserstoffs zu vermeiden.

Soudage et techniques connexes - Détermination de la teneur en hydrogène dans le métal fondu pour le soudage à l'arc (ISO 3690:2018)

Le présent document spécifie le mode opératoire d'échantillonnage et d'analyse pour la détermination de l'hydrogène diffusible dans le métal fondu en acier martensitique, bainitique et ferritique résultant du soudage de ces aciers avec des procédés de soudage à l'arc avec métal d'apport.
Les techniques spécifiées dans le présent document comprennent la collecte de l'hydrogène diffusible par déplacement de mercure ou la collecte dans un espace de tête rempli d'un gaz inerte, tel que l'argon. La quantité d'hydrogène collectée est déterminée en mesurant le volume déplacé pour la première technique et, par exemple, la conductivité thermique pour la seconde.
La température de collecte de l'hydrogène diffusible est régulée afin d'éviter l'activation thermique de l'hydrogène non diffusible.
NOTE Les recommandations et les restrictions concernant les anciennes méthodes de mesure utilisant la glycérine sont données à l'Annexe B pour tout travail de comparaison avec ces anciennes méthodes.

Varjenje in sorodne tehnike - Določevanje vodika v čistih varih pri obločnem varjenju (ISO 3690:2018)

Ta dokument določa postopek vzorčenja in analitskega postopka za določanje difuzijskega vodika v martenzitnih, bainitnih in feritnih jeklenih zvarih, ki nastane pri varjenju teh jekel s postopki obločnega varjenja s polnilnim materialom.
Tehnike, navedene v tem dokumentu, vključujejo zbiranje difuzijskega vodika s premestitvijo živega srebra ali zbiranjem v plinski fazi, napolnjeni z inertnim plinom, kot je argon. Količina zbranega vodika se določi z merjenjem premeščene količine iz prejšnje faze in na primer s toplotno prevodnostjo v poznejši fazi.
Z nadziranjem temperature za zbiranje difuzijskega vodika je mogoče preprečiti toplotno aktivacijo nedifuzijskega vodika.
OPOMBA: Priporočila in omejitve v zvezi s starejšimi merilnimi metodami z uporabo glicerina so podane v dodatku B za morebitno primerjavo s temi starejšimi metodami.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Sep-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
12-Sep-2018
Completion Date
12-Sep-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
01-november-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 3690:2012
9DUMHQMHLQVRURGQHWHKQLNH'RORþHYDQMHYRGLNDYþLVWLKYDULKSULREORþQHP
YDUMHQMX ,62

Welding and allied processes - Determination of hydrogen content in arc weld metal (ISO

3690:2018)
Schweißen und verwandte Prozesse - Bestimmung des Wasserstoffgehaltes im
Lichtbogenschweißgutl (ISO 3690:2018)
Soudage et techniques connexes - Détermination de la teneur en hydrogène dans le
métal fondu pour le soudage à l'arcl (ISO 3690:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 3690:2018
ICS:
25.160.40 Varjeni spoji in vari Welded joints and welds
SIST EN ISO 3690:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
EN ISO 3690
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.160.40 Supersedes EN ISO 3690:2012
English Version
Welding and allied processes - Determination of hydrogen
content in arc weld metal (ISO 3690:2018)

Soudage et techniques connexes - Détermination de la Schweißen und verwandte Prozesse - Bestimmung des

teneur en hydrogène dans le métal fondu pour le Wasserstoffgehaltes im Lichtbogenschweißgut (ISO

soudage à l'arc (ISO 3690:2018) 3690:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 September 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 3690:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
EN ISO 3690:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
EN ISO 3690:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 3690:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC IIW

"International Institute of Welding" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding

and allied processes” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2019, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 3690:2012.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 3690:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 3690:2018 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3690
Fourth edition
2018-07
Welding and allied processes —
Determination of hydrogen content in
arc weld metal
Soudage et techniques connexes — Détermination de la teneur en
hydrogène dans le métal fondu pour le soudage à l'arc
Reference number
ISO 3690:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Test procedures ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Production of weld specimens .................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1.1 Summary ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1.2 Welding fixture .................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1.3 Test piece assemblies ................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.4 Welding and test piece storage ............................................................................................................................ 4

5.1.5 Recording of data .................. .................................................... ....................................................................................... 5

5.2 Welding procedures for the production of weld specimens ............................................................................ 5

5.2.1 Summary ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.2 Manual metal arc welding ........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.3 Submerged arc welding ............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.4 Tubular cored electrode with or without gas shield and wire electrode

with gas shield ................................................................................................................................................................10

5.3 Measurement of hydrogen in the test weld .................................................................................................................12

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.2 Displacement of mercury method .................................................................................................................12

5.3.3 Thermal conductivity detector method ....................................................................................................14

5.3.4 Calibration ..........................................................................................................................................................................16

5.3.5 Linearity ...............................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.6 Calculation and expression of results .........................................................................................................17

5.3.7 Reporting of results ....................................................................................................................................................18

5.4 Measurement of total hydrogen content in the weld metal — Rapid methods ...........................18

5.5 Rounding procedure........................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Recommendations and restrictions in regard to older methods of

measurement using mercury ...............................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Recommendations and restrictions in regard to older methods of

measurement using glycerine ..............................................................................................................................................................21

Annex C (informative) Accuracy and reproducibility ......................................................................................................................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www. iso. org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www. iso.o rg/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www. iso. org/iso/foreword. html.

This document was prepared by IIW, International Institute of Welding, Commission II.

Any feedback, question or request for official interpretation related to any aspect of this document

should be directed to IIW via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can be

found at www. iso. org/members. html.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 3690:2012), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— an additional specimen size D has been added;

— changes have been made in required diffusion times for high temperature tests, see 5.3.3.4, 5.3.4

and Table 5.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3690:2018(E)
Welding and allied processes — Determination of
hydrogen content in arc weld metal
1 Scope

This document specifies the sampling and analytical procedure for the determination of diffusible

hydrogen in martensitic, bainitic, and ferritic steel weld metal arising from the welding of such steels

using arc welding processes with filler material.

The techniques specified in this document include collection of diffusible hydrogen via displacement of

mercury or collection into a headspace filled with an inert gas such as argon. The amount of hydrogen

collected is determined by measuring the displaced volume in the former and by, for example, thermal

conductivity in the latter.

The temperature for collection of diffusible hydrogen is controlled to avoid thermal activation of non-

diffusible hydrogen.

NOTE Recommendations and restrictions in regard to older methods of measurement using glycerine are

given in Annex B for any comparison work to these older methods.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14175, Welding consumables — Gases and gas mixtures for fusion welding and allied processes

ISO/TR 17671-1, Welding — Recommendations for welding of metallic materials — Part 1: General

guidance for arc welding
ISO 80000-1:2009, Quantities and units — Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
4 Principle

Filler material is deposited on to a standard test coupon in a manner that ensures control of pertinent

variables to produce a representative specimen for analysis. Subsequent storage and handling of the

specimen is controlled to prevent premature loss of hydrogen. Finally, the specimen is transferred to

a gas collection apparatus (mercury method) or to a suitable vessel filled with an inert gas (thermal

conductivity method) and held for a period of time at a temperature sufficient to quantitatively release

the diffusible hydrogen into an evacuated gas burette or into the inert gas headspace, respectively. The

amount of hydrogen collected is determined by measuring the displaced volume (mercury method) or

by thermal conductivity. Finally, quantification of the mass of deposited metal or volume of fused weld

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)

metal enables calculations of diffusible hydrogen in deposited metal, H , or diffusible hydrogen in fused

weld metal, H , to be made.

NOTE Annex C gives information on determination of accuracy of results when a method other than

displacement of mercury or thermal conductivity detection is used for diffusible hydrogen analysis.

5 Test procedures
5.1 Production of weld specimens
5.1.1 Summary

The welding consumable to be tested is used to deposit a single weld bead, which is rapidly quenched

and subsequently stored at −78 °C or lower until analysis. Cleaning and slag removal are performed on

the chilled specimen.
5.1.2 Welding fixture

An example of a suitable welding fixture to provide uniform test pieces for the welding processes

specified in 5.2 is shown in Figure 1. It is designed to hold the uniform test pieces securely in alignment

during welding and, in particular, to ensure that unclamping upon completion of welding can be carried

out in a single operation according to the conditions specified in 5.1.4 c). The surface temperature of the

fixture shall be between ambient and 25 °C above ambient at the start of each test weld. The fixture may

be water-cooled to decrease the cycle time. The temperature of the cooling water shall be controlled to

prevent condensation of water on the surface of the fixture between test welds.

For all welding processes, the test piece assembly is clamped in the welding fixture using annealed

copper foil as shown in Figure 1. The foil may be annealed repeatedly and quenched in water after each

annealing. Oxide scale after annealing is removed by pickling with dilute nitric acid (10 % by volume)

followed by washing with distilled water and drying.
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 test piece assembly per Figure 2
2 water cooling jacket (if necessary)
3 lever clamp
4 copper foil inserts (1 mm × 15 mm minimum × 300 mm)
A copper
B carbon steel

Figure 1 — Example of a suitable welding fixture and test piece assembly for weld deposits

5.1.3 Test piece assemblies

The test piece assembly shall be prepared from plain carbon non rimming steel with a carbon content

of not more than 0,18 % by mass and a sulfur content of not more than 0,02 % by mass. The assembly

shall conform to the dimensions shown in Figure 2 and Table 1 for assembly A, assembly B, assembly

C, or assembly D with a tolerance of ±0,25 mm on all dimensions except the length of the run on and

run off pieces. The lengths shown in Figure 2 and Table 1 for the run on and the run off piece represent

minimum values.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)

All surfaces shall be finished at right angles to ensure good contact between adjacent pieces during the

welding operation. Each test piece assembly may be finished with one operation on a surface grinder so

as to ensure a uniform width, or closer dimensional control may be exercised to obtain proper clamping.

See 5.1.4 d) for evidence of proper clamping.

The centre test piece shall be numbered by engraving or stamping on the opposite side of that used for

welding. The entire test piece assembly shall be degassed at 650 °C ± 10 °C for 1 h and cooled in either

a dry inert gas atmosphere or a vacuum. Alternatively, the test piece assembly may be degassed and

cooled in air if the surface oxide layer is removed prior to testing. Degassed test piece assemblies shall

be stored in a desiccator or under other suitable conditions to prevent oxidation of the test pieces. After

numbering and removal of oxide, the mass, m , of each centre test piece shall be determined to the

nearest 0,1 g for assembly A or to the nearest 0,01 g for assembly B, assembly C, or assembly D.

Key
a run on piece of length l
b run off piece of length l
c centre test piece of length l
e test piece width
t test piece thickness
Figure 2 — Dimensions of the weld test assembly
Table 1 — Dimensions of the weld test assembly
Dimensions in millimetres
Test assembly l and l l e t
a b c
A ≥25 (50) 80 25 12
B ≥25 (50) 30 15 10
C ≥50 15 30 10
D ≥25 (50) 40 25 12
l ≥ 25 mm and l ≥ 25 mm: manual metal arc welding
a b
l ≥ 50 mm and l ≥ 50 mm: other welding processes
a b
Identical to the specimen geometry according to AWS A4.3-93.
5.1.4 Welding and test piece storage

The temperature of the welding fixture before each weld is made shall be ambient or not more than

25 °C above ambient. If difficulty is caused by condensation of water on the fixture and test piece

assembly, it is necessary to use cooling water thermostatically controlled to ambient temperature or as

much as 25 °C higher. Using the welding process as specified in 5.2, and parameters appropriate to the

type of investigation, a single weld bead shall be made on the test piece assembly that is clamped in the

welding fixture as shown in Figure 1.
4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)

The test piece assembly shall be cleaned in acetone prior to being clamped into the welding fixture.

Copper foil strips, as shown in Figure 1, shall be used to facilitate thermal transfer and prevent erosion

of the fixture.
The welding procedure is specified in steps a) to f):

a) Welding shall be initiated on the run on piece at a point sufficiently distant from the centre test piece

such that a stable arc and a stable deposit shape are achieved before reaching the centre test piece.

b) Welding shall be terminated when the trailing edge of the crater is on the run off piece but shall not

exceed a distance of 25 mm from the centre test piece.

c) After extinction of the arc, the clamp shall be released and the test piece assembly removed and

immersed at 4 s ± 1 s in an ice water bath. The test piece assembly shall be vigorously agitated

or stirred in the ice water bath. After 20 s ± 2 s, the test piece assembly shall be transferred as

quickly as possible and completely immersed in a low temperature bath containing, for example,

methanol and solid carbon dioxide, denatured alcohol and solid carbon dioxide or liquid nitrogen.

After removal of the specimen from the ice water, ice shall still be present in the bath.

d) After a minimum of 2 min, the test assembly may be removed from the low temperature bath for

cleaning and inspection. All slag and welding fume residue shall be removed by steel wire brushing.

The run on and run off pieces shall be broken off from the centre test piece. The underside of this

piece shall be examined to assess the uniformity and extent of heat tinting. Properly aligned and

clamped test assemblies shall show parallel and uniform heat tinting of the underside of the centre

test piece. Dark oxidation shall not extend to the edges of the underside of the centre test piece. If

this entire operation is not completed within 60 s, the centre test piece shall be returned to the low

temperature bath for a minimum of 2 min before completing these steps.

e) Centre test pieces may be stored at −78 °C or lower in a methanol and solid carbon dioxide or

denatured alcohol and solid carbon dioxide bath for a period of up to 72 h or at −196 °C in liquid

nitrogen for a period of up to 21 days before analysis.

f) For purposes of classifying welding consumables, during welding of the test assembly, the ambient

absolute humidity shall be at least 3 g of water vapour per 1 000 g of dry air. (This corresponds to

20 °C and 20 % relative humidity.) When the relative humidity, measured using a sling hygrometer

or other calibrated device, equals or exceeds this condition, the test shall be acceptable as

demonstrating compliance with the requirements of this document provided the actual test results

satisfy the diffusible hydrogen requirements of the applicable consumable classification standard.

(The measurement of relative humidity can be easily converted to absolute humidity and reported

as such.)
5.1.5 Recording of data

All relevant welding data, as shown on the data sheets, shall be recorded on the appropriate weld data

sheet. Reference should be made to the suggested report forms for each welding process data sheet (see

Tables 2, 3, and 4). Ambient conditions of temperature and humidity at the time of welding shall also be

recorded and absolute humidity reported with the analytical results.
5.2 Welding procedures for the production of weld specimens
5.2.1 Summary

The operating parameters of the welding process under investigation shall be defined to produce a

single weld bead on a test piece assembly as specified in 5.1. See 5.2.2 to 5.2.4 for specifications of the

procedures for different welding processes.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 3690:2018
ISO 3690:2018(E)
5.2.2 Manual metal arc welding
5.2.2.1 Electrodes
The covered electrode to be tested shall be used in one of the ways a) or b).

a) For purposes of classification, the electrode and the method of deposition of the weld shall be as

specified in the standard with which the electrode complies.

b) For purposes of investigation, the electrode and welding parameters shall be those given in the

specific welding procedure. If no procedure has been given, then a current that is 90 % of the

maximum suggested by the manufacturer shall be used.

When a pre-drying treatment is required, the time and temperature specified by the consumable

manufacturer shall be used. If a range is given by the manufacturer, e.g. 300 °C to 350 °C, then the

average shall be used and reported.

Electrodes with cracked or broken coatings shall not be used. Electrodes to be tested in the as received

condition shall be taken from a freshly opened undamaged package. During any drying treatment, the

electrodes shall not touch each other or the side of the oven. During any drying operation, a calibrated

oven shall be used and the electrodes shall spend the full specified time at the drying temperature.

Only electrodes under test shall be placed in the oven during this time. When the drying operation is

complete, the electrode shall be cooled to ambient temperature in a container, e.g. a dried borosilicate

glass tube sealed with a rubber bung. The electrode shall be used as soon as possible after it reaches

ambient temperature, but not more than 1 h after removal from the oven unless securely sealed. Any

electrodes removed from the drying oven and not then used shall not be re-dried and subsequently

used for the test.

When electrodes are to be tested in the as received condition from a hermetically sealed container,

the electrodes shall be protected from moisture pickup once the seal is broken, until each can be

welded. Some sealed containers are re-sealable. In such a case, each test electrode can be withdrawn

individually and the container resealed while the withdrawn electrode is welded. If the container is

not re-sealable, then all of the test electrodes shall be withdrawn when the seal is broken, and each

electrode shall be individually placed in a dried borosilicate glass tube sealed with a rubber bung until

the electrode is to be used for test.
5.2.2.2 Making the test welds

A copper fixture, such as that shown in Figure 1, shall be used for the alignment and clamping of the

test piece assembly. The fixture may incorporate water cooling channels in order to achieve a faster

throughput of test pieces. Either test piece assembly A, assembly B, or assembly D may be used.

If the classification standard is silent on this matter, the following shall apply. The classification of

covered electrodes is carried out using 4 mm diameter electrodes. In this case, the welding current shall

be 15 A less than the maximum or 90 % of the maximum stated by the manufacturer, being maintained

within a tolerance of ±10 A. For an electrode with a diamete
...

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